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Cornell University Library 
PL 3801. L4Z5 

3 1924 023 194 198 »s,....i 

Cornell University 

The original of this bool< is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 







by the late G-eneral G. B. Mainwaring, 

revised and completed 

Albert Grunwedel, Berlin. 

Printed and published by order of Her Majesty's Secretary of State 
for India in Council. 


Printed by Unger Brothers, Berlin, Bernburger Str. 30. 



In presenting to the public the Lepcha-English dictionary of the late General 
G. B. Mainwaring, it is incumbent on me to explain the state of the manuscripts 
he left behind and the part which the editor has performed in making them ready 
for the press. Owing to a many years' acquaintance with the language of a race, 
that was dying out, the General was imbued with predilection for his study, which 
plainly appears in his grammar '), the only work he could publish. In the preface 
to this grammar (pg. XXI) he promised that a Dictionary should follow "should his 
health and circumstances permit". The lamented General was prevented from ex- 
hausting his material by his decease. 

The materials of the Lepcha-English dictionary are laid down in two very 
voluminous manuscripts, which represent the first draught or archetype of the work. 
They are written in large octavo in 703 pages of bluish and yellowish, paper. They 
contain a huge collection of Lepcha-glosses which were augmented by revising the 
first entry again and again. The single words were written in the so-called Lepcha 
character but according to the European alphabet. But I must say to my great 
regret that no notice was at hand concerning the method and the sources from 
which the collections were derived, it was at first impossible to ascertain where 
the lost clue was to be taken up again. But in sifting the materials it could be 
stated, that the author had commenced his work by collecting oral and manuscript- 
information from the natives. 

This plainly appears in the following passages. Sub v. hro (supply the question 
„what is in English ■pum-brdm-ldf Answer: md-zu a-cum a-t'yak a-tim pum-brom-ld 

1) A Grammar of the R6ng (Lepcha) language, as it exists in the Dorjiling and Sikim hills. 
By Colonel Q. B. M. Bengal Staff-Corps, Calc. Baptist Mission Press 1876. 

n Pref 


dyum-ha ("body short, head large is defined hy p."). For further examples see 
under pok-yak; tsdm; rip, zo; lya, (under certain words the editor found great com- 
pilations of synonyms, the English definition he added himself). Certain lines of the 
above mentioned manuscript -elucidations must have been so indistinctly written that 
wrong entries could not be avoided byMainwaring himself; e.g. o-tson which hedefinedby 
"a union" should be "onion T. htson. The y^or^jum-tydt jum-fyet (a spec, of rice) seems 
to be very dubious, should it be written num-tydt num fyet? When M. Mainwaring 
jotted down his first notes in the above mentioned great book he was often misled 
himself by a peculiarity of the so-called L.-writing, by which the final consonants 
are not written in the same line with the initials but above them, in reduced or 
abbreviated forms. I found s. v. (a-)hrdt: a-hrdt gam nol instead of a-hrdt gal non 
or tuk-nom where tuk-nol should be written etc. 

Even the native writers themselves are not masters of their pens in this point. 
The scientific names of birds were defined by the author according to Jerdon's 
well-known work^), as could be plainly proved from a quotation s. v. sd-hret cuk 
fo where "Je. 2, 277" was added. At length I could ascertain, that the author 
had augmented his collected materials by analyzing Biblical books and the Lepcha 
abbreviated legends concerning the famous founder of Lamaism, known in history 
under the name of Padmasambhava (Tib. U-rgyan-pa, Pad-ma 'byun-gnas, Lepcha 
Ta-se t'iik-bo t'in). Prom these popular legends called Ta-se sun in Lepcha he 
had derived many quotations, the greatest part of which were transcribed without 
any translation or at least without sufficient philological definition. 

The first half of the huge manuscript he had compiled in the above-mentioned 
manner was tolerably written, but the latter part from letter m —z was an almost 
illegible scrawl, the worst being the letters s, s, t, ts, ts, z. It would be in vain 
to seek even the smallest blank space in these pages, every line of which was so 
underscored with additional matter, or corrections as to render the first entry 
scarcely visible. 

The most illegible part was the English definition which was added in pale 
ink or in pencil. It must be observed that in this latter portion the author was 
more and more influenced by his peculiar method of comparative philology, so 
that the definitions of the roots in many cases have had to be abandoned by the 
editor. *) 

The next state of the future dictionary must be called a huge volume in Imp. 
fol., consisting of .001 leaves, which seems to have been intended for immediate 
printing. The Lepcha-words were given here in Lepcha-characters, transcribed 
into Roman and rendered into English, they were arranged in the order of the 
Lepcha-alphabet as set down in Mainwaring's Grammar pg. (2). A considerable 
number of words were noted as borrowed from Tibetan by means of Csoma 
Korosi's Essay towards a dictionary of the T. language. 

1) The birds of India I-III, Calcutta 1862 ff. 

2) See Grammar, XI Note, XXII Note. 

Freface, HI 

But many words of the first books, many quotations especially from Ta-se-sun 
were left out; the editor has incorporated them again into the work, whenever he 
had anything like certainty, that these quotations had been correctly delineated or 
could be correctly defined. 

But in this copy also I sought in Tain for any attempt at arranging the matter 
according to etymological principles. Nearly all the various spellings represented 
by the native manuscripts, nearly all the differently written prefixes and their 
combinations had been incorporated in extenso, so that the dictionary even if at 
any time finished in this way would have increased to an enormous extent. So the 
author got tired of his work. The portion he finished under such circumstances 
included all from k to hr with the exception of the consonants combined with I 
{kl, gl, pi, fl). For the remaining part of the work corresponding to fol. 270 — 437 of 
the present printed dictionary the editor had to have recourse to the sources 
of the above-mentioned first draught, which was in this portion in a hopeless 

The following sources were at hand: 

1. Reconstruction of the illegible words from quotations in the former plainly 
written portion of the work; 

2. The etymological method, by which the various derivations (disjecta membra) 
could be collected under one root; 

3. The books which Mainwaring must have excerpted. 

This proceeding necessitated digressions and offered many difficulties, but it 
was the only way to make the work clear. After repeated attempts to make im- 
mediate use of Mainwaring's so-called fair copy, I set to work to copy the whole 
matter of both the transscripts word for word on to a separate slip of paper as 
far as I could make out the author's owing to his indistinct writing and still 
vaguer definition. These slips were arranged according to etymology and in the 
order of the Lepcha-alphabet after a corresponding English-Lepcha-dictionary had 
been worked out. Then I analyzed the Lepcha-books which were courteously lent 
to me by British Government. 

The result was: 

1. I could settle the orthography of the language following the principles of 
the printed Biblical versions. 

2. I could give a more correct definition of the Buddhistical terms quoted by 
M. from Ta-se-sun. I have analyzed two separate renderings of the book 
together with a great portion of the block-printing edition of Pad-ma- t'an-yig 
in Tibetan (fol. 1—146). This original book helped me to the Tibetan 
spelling of the nomina propria and other terms and the. T. forms could 
then be translated into the corresponding Sanskrit^). 

1) e. g. rum-lyah in Ta-§e-sun: T. hla'i gnas or bde-ba can Skt. devaloka or sukhavati. 


rv- Preface. 

3. I could settle more correct definitions of the L. words (roots), than Main- 
waring's peculiar method had assigned them. Til most parts I found the 
oldest notes in his first entry to be correct. 

The dictionary is sufficient for reading the above-named books which were 
Mainwaring's own sources; all the nomina propria of beasts and plants, all Tung- 
boT expressions are entirely M.'s work. 

It must be remembered, that in certain cases a difference arose between the 
assumed authority of orthography (the Biblical translations) and the etymology. 
The"Q I abandoned the former inserting quotations from the respective various 
spellings. This was done especially in the case of the i-vowel combined with 
consonant. That vowel seems to have a peculiar inclination to sound like yi 
after consonant. The question where to write ya, ye, e so well-known to all 
students of modern Indian manuscripts was decided according to etymology; 
I wrote nydn causative of nan, nyan from T. nyan{-ba)\ but nyen milk: all three 
roots are written nydn (or even nyan) and nyen in Ta-se-sun-Mscpts. promis- 
cuously, etc. etc. 

Words marked M (without number) are not certified by written authority, but 
I would not eliminate them after finding that many words in M.'s first notes left 
out by himself in the second copy proved correct. So I think that future research 
and fresh material may afford the needed confirmation; e. g. s v. svk-grup s. chest 
M. Question: must "chest" be understood in s. of "box" or of "thorax"? sun-M s. 
a hoe M. Qu : can it he a separate spec, of "hoe" or should it be corrected into 
sun-kdn? In the first pages I was misled by some definitions given by M. e. g. 
jom (to be overclouded) seems to be incorrect. All the fantastic etymological matter 
added by the author is now removed e. g. s. v. klyen (cylindrical) decreasing, to 
diminish M. cfr. Germ, "klein" etc. or kup (little, a child) cfr. English „cub" and 
similar "result of power of letters". 

With respect to the Tibetan words, which are introduced into written Lepcha 
I first thought of making a separate index of the various spellings with their L. 
synonyms if even such exist. But when I endeavoured to read the printed and 
written books, I found it impossible to do so. The part which these borrowed words 
play in literature is just as indispensable to it as Pali or even Sanskrit to Burmese. 
It cannot be denied, that the dictionary seems overloaded with number of simi- 
larly written or sounding roots (see under ke, se, si, b6n, in the latter case the 
genuine L. word signifies exactly the opposite meaning of the Tibetan one), but 
the scholar who wishes to be able to understand a manuscript or even to find 
without difficulty the real meaning of certain terms or phrases in Exodus or the 
Gospel of John, will acknowledge the usefulness of my method by his own ex- 
perience. Whatever seemed to be superfluous I have removed, e. g. a long list 
of the various Tibetan names written in L. characters of Buddhistic gods and 
Bodhisatva's (Amitabha, MaiijuQri, Avalokite<;vara) etc. Further the method I 
followed was necessary under the following considerations: 

Many Tibetan words are used by Lepcha's in a different, derived sense e. g. 

Preface. V 

s. V. *pdk-co T. bag-cags; the T. roots are subject to Lepcha- formative rules; e. g. 
kyor from kor\ num-dyin from ayin etc.; the L. and Tibetan languages though not 
immediately cognate are so closely connected in many roots that it seems impossible 
to define exactly, what is borrowed and what is cognate in origin e. g. s. v. yd 
and si 1, nok 2 etc., fin (blue) etc. Curtain incorrect words were removed from 
this portion of the work e. g. hum s. offering derived from huni pat; many words 
identified with T. were corrected e. g. *hra-mik ace. M. fr. T. Kra-ma and mik, 
should be T. dra-mig etc., den-zun the scales of justice fr. T. bde and vdsun "truth 
and falsehood". But I am sure that this difficult question has not been settled 
by me in all cases. For the Buddhistical terms I added fresh matter as above 
mentioned e. g. s. v. rum, mun, lyan, tsur, td-se, sun-hlyo, myel, gydn etc. 

The editor is responsible for the arrangement of the longer articles in the work e. g 
kd, lut, mik, lorn, bu, non, mat etc., and has added numerous quotations authenticating 
the derivation of the definition. Compare the original article mat as it is printed in 
M.'s Outline Grammar 128 — 130 and the articles mat 1 and 2 in the dictionary. 
It is clear, that two different roots are confounded apud M. — if no more. In the 
same manner non 1 — 4 formed one article, li 1 10 one article. Id (1 — 5 and -la) 
si one single article apud M. For-ia 1 the editor alone is responsible. 

He has inserted all the postpositions mentioned in the grammar and all the prefixes 
e. g. -nun; -un; -a; -sd; -Id; -ka; a-; td- with the idea of rendering texts easier and 
enabling the reader to find in the dictionary grammatical matter if needed. I hope 
also that in certain cases the rules of L. -derivation may be better defined than is 
the case in the grammar. The etymological method remained also the standard 
for shortness. All derived and compound words were as already mentioned in- 
corporated under their respective roots, when at the same time the prefixes were 
inserted with quotations referring to the roots for the sake of convenience. 

The following considerations may not be out of place. 

I. Reduplication may be called a principal part of Lepcha-grammar. Roots 
are reduplicated: 

A. by repeating the initial consonant of the root with inherent a; but M, g, n, 
h are represented in reduplication by k; f. (i by t, p f b by p, ny by w, c", c, j ts, 
fe' z s hj s, V \)j f. See under kd-, td-, pd- etc. 

B. by repeating the whole root with u vowel, the consonants of reduplication 
are treated as noted under A. 

These forms are to be sought in the dictionary as follows: fd-vi-ld see under 
root vi; fa- refers to the root; kuii-kon-ld see under kon; kun- refers to the root 
koii; pd-plyu-ld see under plyu etc. 

C. if other vowels are used to form the reduplicated or geminated root or 
different initial consonant is introduced into the second part, the word inust be 
sought under the form which seemed to be the root e. g. yep-pd yap-pd see under 
yap; yep referring to the root yap; s6l-ld mol-ld see under sol; mol-ld referring to s6l 

II. There are in Lepcha certain prefixes of undefined etymology which however 
seem to correspond to the so-called mute consonants in Tibetan. By prefixing them 

VI Preface. 

to the roots nouns are formed e. g. td-tit from ti. They are treated as the redu- 
plications in I, A. td-tit should be sought s v. ti; td-not s. t. no; td- refers to the 
root t% no etc.; sd-tsiJk see under tsUk; fd-tyam see under tyam. 

III. A certain number of combined nouns are formed with prefixes the root of 
which is still intelligible. These roots are incorporated straight into the dictionary 
with reference to their derivations, though certain phonetic variations must be 
stated and the etymology is certainly not clear in all cases e. g. one prefix sd- seems 
to be derived from so (atmosphere) see under sd- and so; one Id- must be under- 
stood as a negative prefix, see under Id-zii, as opposed to md-zu; fur- is to be 
identified with fur (to excavate) in the compound 'pHr-ayam, (talpa), but it is derived 
from for (mouldy) in pur-mo (mould); lun- is Idn (stone) in certain compounds, 
kur- could be identified with (««) hor (star), iur- (in words designating nomina 
propria of mushrooms' perhaps derived from dor; tuk- in some cases i. q. tHk (to 
cover over); luk- (in compounds which are nomina propria of plants i. q. {td-) luk 
(frog); muk- as Mainwaring suggests i. q. mak (to die) in muk-nyam (Hades); san 
(wood) seems to be corrupted into siin- in certain compounds, but in many cases 
it is of different origin. The prefixes tHk- and tun- seem to be interchangeable 
in many cases. It is impossible to settle the question in a satisfactory manner 
without fresh materials obtained from the cognate dialects or from the natives. 
I hope that the inserted quotations may enable the reader to find his way. 

Nomina propria of plants and beasts are incorporated as complete words with 
but few exceptions, the etymological meaning of the single parts was not in all 
cases intelligible as in the case of tur-hlet dor fr. Met (slippery) or fd-fon-hu from 
fon (green.). ^) 

By false analogy taken from I, A, B the above described prefixes (I — III) 
are confounded in the modern orthography of the manuscripts; the confusion is 
stated by M. (see Gr. 1 23) but he gives no real explanation of the difficulties. Even 
the Biblical books printed at Darjeeling afford no means of settling the question; 
I hope that my method may be satisfactory, even if it does not contain "whole the 
truth". To enable the reader to discern what he wants in cases when pur-dyam 
and 'pd-dyam; piit-nydm, pdt-nyom (sic!), pd-nyom; tii.k-klak, td-klak etc. are found 
even in the same page of a manuscript, I have inserted the various spellings of 
the confounded prefixes with quotations referring to the roots. See under tHk-^ 
tur-, kul-, put- etc. Dnder such circumstances the reader has a guide even if the 

1) The so-called Tiiii-bor compounds are treated as complete words but they are also added to 
the respective general word. To the scientific names of animals and minerals I have added re- 
ferences to Waddells list of birds (H. H. Eisley, Gazetteer of Sikhim, Cain. 1894) and to Watt's 
great work (George W. a dictionary of the economic products of India Calc. 1889- 1896). This 
undertaking was very difficult, many names given by Wtt. being Tibetan and nearly all in such 
terrible spelling that they could often only be identified — by chance, e. g. siriokhtem (Wtt.) i. q. 
sd-ry6k kd-iyah (M.), skep-kyew (Wtt.) i. q. Sap k'yu (M.) Etymological analysis of these names would 
be very interesting, but it is impossible without the natives; only in a few cases could be found 
the "tertium comparationis" e. g. sd-mon (Yak-tail) and Caryota urens, the appellation being taken 
from the black fibres of the tree. 

Preface. VII 

needed derivation is omitted in the dictionary, to enable him at once to define 
the meaning of a compound word from the root. 

The variations of meaning which the prefixes effect in single roots are very 
interesting; see under grydn, sit etc. 

Thus as far as shortness was concerned Mainwaring's huge volumes were reduced 
to half their extent, let alone that his method would have led the editor into 
enumerating every kind of spelling in order to construct certain forms, which he 
never could have detected in the printed or written texts. 

Another interesting question which occurs in Lepcha grammar is the phonetic 
change of certain final consonants. It should be borne in mind 

1. that three suffixed letters form derivations of verbal roots, see under -t, 
-m, -n. The respective forms are to be sought under the roots e. g. td-not see s. v. 
no; a-ryum see ryu, a-hrun see hru. Quotations not, hrun referring to no, Aj'm are inserted. 

2. that final consonants are modified. This modification not affecting the 
alphabetical order, may be briefly stated as regards the single cases. 

A. Pinal n is modified into n, see Grammar; non refers to ndn etc. 

B. Roots ending in k seem to be accompanied by parallel forms with final n, 
the former being transitive or causative, the latter intransitive or medial e. g. 
hlyak to break off as opposed to hlyan torn off; vdk to avoid opp. to van (van) to 
be free; vydk to undulate ("to make gyrations") opp. vyon coil; tyuk to turn upside 
down opp. tyun etc. It seems to be a similar case with roots ending in -m which 
occur sometimes with final -p, but the supposed variation of meaning cannot be 
verified e. g. nup and num, hap and ham. 

I have also noted certain instances in which final consonants assume a new 
and peculiar transformation, which cannot defined grammatically at present e. g. 
nyok and nydl to be tardy; nup and nul to be soft — for further examples see 
the English-Lepcha part of the dictionary. To settle the question it is necessary 
to study the cognate languages and to balance the various spellings in the manu- 
scripts, which have generally a tendency rather to suppress the diverging forms 
and to unify them preferring the final guttural nasal ii to final k ov n mentioned 
under A and B or otherwise. It must be remembered that the abbreviated letters 
of final consonants are seldom correctly executed and are mistaken by the copyist 
of a manuscript himself. 

Modified initial consonants can be traced only in forming the causative or 
transitive basis of the verbal roots. The most frequent mode of forming these 
consists in adding y to the initial consonant, e. g. kyor cans, of kor; nydn caus. of 
non etc. I have inserted the causative forms but under the references to the 
respective roots. 

Before we can proceed to the so-called Lepcha alphabet, it must be remem- 
bered that in adapting the rude idiom of the Lepcha's to writing some discrepancies 
arose, which are to be found occasionally under similar circumstances. 

In studying the Lepcha spoken language the following considerations deserve 
fresh investigation. As certain words derived from the same root are adapted to 
different spellings, it was impossible to abandon the orthography now intro- 

vm Preface. 

duced. I shall give here a number of examples for the convenience of the reader 
of books and manuscripts. 

1. The Vowels. 

. 1. In Lepcha-orthography a (a) and u are often interchangeable in the same 
root e. g. sun-mut (wind): mat (to blow); pd-no (king): pun-di (queen); mu-zu and 
md-zii (body); team, a-tsdm (place where people congregate) and tsiim (isu) to meet 
together); jd, pd-jd: jiim, pd-jum (sitting); a-hryd (mistake): hryu, (to be beside 
one's self); hap, hup (hup) (a sip); gydr (to be afraid): gyur (shrinking fr. shame); 
hldn, ftun, klun (to slip down); dr: ur (c. obliq. of dr) (this); a and u are inter- 
changeable : tul : pun-tal (short). 

2. In modern spoken language o and u are confounded e. g. myup: mop, mok 
(to store up) sak-ryot or sak-ryut fr. ryu (to be good); tvk-fyuk (a scoop) and fok 
(to scoop out). These examples are written with o instead of u. It is very em- 
barassing in manuscripts, when wn is written instead of on (horse), tsu (to cook) 
instead of feo, nut ddk (thirst) instead of not ddk. To settle the correct spelling 
is very difficult. In words borrowed from Tibetan I have reconstructed the T. 
vocalisation, I wrote therefore: co-bo not co-pu (scholar); nor-bu (jewel) not nur-pu; 
om mani pe-me hum not um etc. 

3. The vowels a and 6 are often interchangeable e. g. lyot or fydt (to hack). 
This seems to be derived from roots ending in -k or -w, which when the syllable 
has the d (a) or a vowel are spoken like -ok, -on; so are found: rok (to sift; to 
be shaken) and hrdk (to shake); hyok, fyok (to cross) and aydk (to cross hands). 
In the so-called Lepcha-alphabet the syllable an if accentuated an is not distinct 
from on, the spelling ran and ron (a Lepcha), sd-fdn and sd-fon (tiger), -sdn and 
-son (plur. postposition) sdn and son (to be clear) are identical. 

4. in certain roots d or o interchange with e, but it does not seem in all cases 
a difference in writing because variation of mea"ning accrues e. g. glyot (to let down, 
glyet (to let fall) see under gh; flok (to be splintered): fkk (splinter); hok (to shell, 
to husk) and hyek or fyek (id.) Can it be registered under that species of modified 
vowels which comparative grammarians design as Umlaut ? ') dyom and dem (time) 
seem to be alphabetic discrepancies. 

5. In manuscripts the vowel i {yi) is written yu if the syllable ends in m, I or p. 

6. In certain roots a is written e occasionally, see M. Gr. e. g. jen i. q. jdn etc. 
n. Consonants, exspecially initial consonants. 

The spelling of a number of roots contains a certain variety of modified con- 
sonants, which seem to have originated in a stage of the language now too remote 
to be accurately defined. In this case the so-called Lepcha-alphabet seem to be 
insufficient to represent the real form which can be understood only by careful 
investigation of the spoken idiom. 

1. simple consonants e. g. nop-pd and kop (kyop) (slowly); — zop and jop (to 
oppress); — yak and jak (to tickle); — cor and (so) tsor (sour); — gol (to roll 
down) and rdl (to roll round), one simple c. instead of a compound one, e. g. zdn 

1) (Jompare a-kup and a-kep and Tibetan rta and rteu etc. 

Preface. IX 

and dydn (striped); — (tuk-) jer and dyer (side); — rok (shaken off) and hrak (to shake); 
— jol and lyol (wide); — j6p and lyop (flat). 

2. compound consonants e. g. (pur-) fyet (pincers) and p(y)it (to squeeze); — 
fyok and dyok (transverse); — pyul and fyul (to stir up); — bran and (so) mrdn 
(thin); — ayot and klyot (to strike); — hydn and fyon (parallel); — fyek and hyek 
(to husk); — krap and %a^ (sticky); — pyom and plyom (to be skinned); — Araw 
and gryon (straddling); — flok, blok and flek (splintered); — flun. kliin, hldn, plut 
(to slip down). 

r and y affixed to the initial consonant are interchangeable in certain roots 
e g. frot and fyot; brol and byol etc. ^) 

Tibetan words have no settled mode of orthography e. g. sa-dsin is written 
sdn-zun, san-ziin, co-zun; pyag: cok, cak, pyok; sans-rgyas: son-gyo or san-gye\ yi- 
dwags: yi-do^ wu-do, wu-dii etc. Tibetan r affixed to aspirated initial consonants is 
invariably written with y e. g. pyen-bo T.' p'ren-ba\ py6 T. pra-ba; hydm T. Mram-pa 
etc. Can there any hint enable one to define the above-mentioned affixed causal y, 
which corresponds in cognate languages to aspirated consonants? 

When the manuscripts of the late Greneral Mainwaring were entrusted to the 
editor it was desired by the British Government, that the type used should be 
Roman. "The so-called Lepcha alphabet used by General Mainwaring in his 
Grammar is a pure fiction. The language has properly speaking no written character, 
though it is possible that on a few occasions a debased variety of the Tibetan 
character may have been resorted to. There is however no necessity whatever 
and no real justification for incurring the expense of starting Lepcha type nor as 
a matter of fact can a complete fount of such type be constructed". In the 
"history of Sikhim and his rulers' (H. H. Risley, Gazetteer of Sikhim 15) it is 
stated, that the king Cha-dor (P'yag-rdor rnani-gyal, born 1686) has designed an 
alphabet for his Lepcha subjects.'') Qri-kali-kumar-das (J. Buddh. T. Soc. IV, 1, 
1898 App. II, 1) identifies the alphabet as it is used by the Baptist mission ab- 
solutely with that of king Cha-dor and gives a few very interesting notes from 

It clearly appears from the accompanying table of the alphabet that the 
derivation from a certain form of Tibetan U-met character is beyond doubt and 
that the type used in printing religions books by the Baptist mission differs in 
many points (compare letters cd, dd etc.) from the type used by the Lepchas 
themselves in their manuscripts. 

In the matter of transliteration the editor's aim has been to conform to the 
dictionary of Dr. Jaschke but with certain reservations which were founded on 
Mainwaring's method. The single words were arranged according the follow- 
ing order: 

ka k'a ga na; 

ca c'a ja nya; 

1) Compare the wellknown peculaiity of Burmese, which confounds primitive r with y opp. to 

2) Appendix II, q. see also Journ. of the Buddh. T. Soc. IV, 1, 1898. 





Power 1 

Lepcha Tibetan 


printed written 
type type 









written U- 
type med 




■^ £ 








^ Y 










( i 















4 3 




6) (jO 






t - 












> I 






•^ -^ 




^^ ^^) 









-0 '-^ 






) A 




X ^ 






CO ru 




^ /ITN 










?: ?e^ 






^ <h 




^ <.-^ 






-H ^ 




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Preface. XI 

ta fa da na; 

pa p'a fa ba ma; 

tsa ts'n za; 

ya ra la; 

ha va sa sa wa a. 
I must add that Lepcha za represents also Tibetan ^ (dsa), sd stands also for T. (^ {za) 
wd or a also for T. 0, (d) The letter fea occurs in two forms in the manuscripts, 
there exists a larger form of letter da which is always compounded with suffixed y, 
the detached form (a slanting curved line) being the common form with single 
vowels. The letter nd without the vowels m and u is written slanting, but is occurs 
in the erect position used in all cases for the printed type, if combined with the 
mentioned vowels. 

In transliterating the vowel-signs I have endeavoured to alter the spelling adopted 
by Mainwaring in his grammar. Considering the fact, that Mainwaring's vowel a 
is also written d in a number of cases mentioned above, it is certain, that 6 belongs 
to the same series of accentuated vowels as a belongs, which is proved by the 
form of the letter the upper part of which is identical with the accent-sign 
as used in manuscripts. So I abandoned the sign ' (Kan) and substituted for it 
the accutus ' in all cases, further I indicated the short vowels by \ which commended 
itself to me from their sounds being nearly identical with the short English a or u. 
I cannot give any additions to M.'s notes concerning the pronunciation of the 
the vowels, the only source from which any comments could be drawn being rather 
unintelligible. ^) a (initial) may be called the basis of the vowels, it may be a sort 
of guttural spirans often combined with y; it is used as a consonant. In some 
cases dyd corresponds to T. ^^^0, (yya). 

The editor wishes to add that sympathizing with the efPorts made by the late 
General Mainwaring in preserving the idiom of a dying race, he would be content, 
if he should have any success in his undertaking. He is indeed fully aware, that 
he must appeal to the indulgence of the Public, himself knowing what is needed 
to make the exhaustive study of a language satisfactory. 

The difficulties were very great, the editor having to rewrite and to rearrange 
the whole of the manuscripts, to excerpt texts (together with a mass of Tibetan 
matter), to correct the proofsheets, to add new definitions in cases, where he had 
no Pandit, no assistant to consult, not to mention the fact that the book was to be 
printed by men, who did not understand the language. He ventures to hope that 
in this instance the reader will excuse a number of errors and deficiencies, which 
are indispensable from a work like the present, as well as certain peculiarities in 
Mainwaring's English orthography which the editor has failed to remove. 

Last of all, for the elucidation of my method I take occasion to give two pages 
of the Berlin Manuscript of Ta-se-sun, in the original form with transliteration 
in Koman characters and literal translation. 

1) A. Campbell, Note on the Lepcha's of Sikkim J. A. S. B. IX, 379-388, 1840. It cannot 
not be determined to what letter the notes belong. 

xn Preface. 

Fol. 68. 

Fol. 69. 


Fol. 68. han fun so-bo-son ') fo7 non-lun pd-no-ka dun bi-sen % pa no li-ba kd-sii yii funka 
a-lo mat-bo-wun-'^h'e yo-ban sak-lyak-yam-o g lyan ur-sd md-ro pdn fyen kuk-yam-o 
(8) td-se-Un-sd fyak-ka fyen hlyam-yam-o % pd-no do-sd kup-nim Ion-ban lorn tsok 
kon-yam-o J} kum-dun-sdn^)-nun td-se- fin-mum ryak-yam-o ^ han td se-fin do un 
tdn-ka md-ro-sd lyan lyem^) tet yam-o 5; td-se-fin-mum s6t-sim^^-bo rdn^)-nan-bo-sd 
lyan-ka ti-non-yam-o ^ td-se-fin-mum su s6t-td-^Hel-te-yam-o |f td-se-fiH-nim lyot- 
td^^-Mn md-ro rel-ld-sd a-mik-ka tson rel-ld op-l&n sot-yet*) -td^^ -yam-o j td-se fin- 
do nd un-tdn lyem^) tet Fol. 69. ta^)-'^^ndn-yam-o % han 16m tsok bo-son md-ro gun-nd 
ro non-ne-yam-o ^ md-ro gUn-niin td-se-fih miim riin-jul^) mun on ydn a-bryan fik- 
yami-o % ur-ryen') td-se do lyan kat-ka non-yam-o ^ han pd-no-ryiim,^) o-tet-ka 
sic^)-lel-fat-yam-o § td-se-fin do tsuk-lat-sd cdn^'')-lem di-sen § loTn-ka co-bo kat-sd 
tstim-yam-o ^ td-se-tin-ntin yd gdn Id md ydn^^ nd zon mat-liin li-ba tdn-dyen^^) go- 
lun^^) ho su yd-hun go le yo vyet^^)- yam-o § co-bo-re li-ba go td-lyan sd-hor ryu- 
nii,n sd jen^*')-nun-sd nam turn, it-dye^^) giin-nd yd-pa ^ td-se- fin -ni/n li ba gdn kd- 
sUm kam Map bo yo li-ban hUm a-jim^^ ryu Id bi-yam-o {} co-bu^^)-ryen'') Id nam 
turn it dye^^)-sd la-vo^'') sd-hor ryu md-ryun^^ -nun^'^ giin-nd hlap-bi-yamo ^-. 

Preface. xttt 


1. read sdn. — 2. read lem. — 3. read ran. — 4. read dydt. — 5. read td. — 
6. read run-jil. — 7. read ren. — 8. read rem. — 9. read tyu. — 10. read can Tib. 
hyan. — 11. read tdn-den. — 12. read ge-lon Tib. dge-shn. — 13. read vydt. — 14. 
read yaw. — 15. read dyit-de. — 16. read co-bo. — 17. read Id-vo. 


A. see under -un. — B. see under Ui. — C. see under -a 3. — D. see under 
n. in. — E. see jim. 


Then the men who had brought the corpse, went away again and reported (it) 
to the king. The king summoned: The man who treats my wife's corpse thus! 
and was enraged. All the inhabitants of the kingdom called (him): "enemy". 
They made war against Ta-se (Padmasambhava). The son of the king himself 
guiding (them) ordered (them) to stop the way. Other men pursued Ta-se. Then 
Ta-se fled into another country down the streams. The men who wished to kill 
Ta-se arrived at the spot, where he was lying in ambush. How could one succeed 
in killing Ta-se? Ta-se turning round and shooting arrows in each man's eye 
killed (them). Ta-se went away into the plains. Then all the men who were to 
intercept (his flight) were frightened. They called him by name "son of madness" 
(T. bdud-5or-ba gzon-nu). After that Ta-se arrived in another land. There he 
converted (the inhabitants) even the king. When Tn-se was travelling in North- 
eastern direction, he met with a learned man on the way. Ta-se pretending to 
know nothing, though he was clever, said (to him) "What you know, o tan-den 
monk, I wish (to learn)." In this manner he consi'lted (him). The learned man 
replied: "I understand how to determine years according to lucky or unlucky 
constellations in the heavens." Ta-se said: "then let me know a little" and gave 
him a good fee. Then the learned man gave (him) lessons about lucky and 
unlucky moon and stars which determine years. 





active, actively, 
abbreviated, abbreviation. 


according to. 

ace, accus. 

accusative case. 








cum, witli. 

c. c. 

construitur cum, construed with. 


confer, compare. 


Christian writings: Ex., J., LGS., Gen. 


cognate, related in origin. 


compound, compounds. 






correct, correctly. 


dative case. 


derivative, derivatives. 

e c. 

exemplum capias, exempli gratia, for instance. 


emphatical, emphatically. 




The book of Genesis and part of Exodus in Lepsha, Calcutta 1874. 


feminine gender. 


future tense. 


general, generally. 

gen. c. 

genitive case. 


Genesis, see under Ex. 


Hodgson, Essays on the languages, literature and religion ot 

Nepal and Tibet, Lend. 1874. 


honorific language. 


Dr. Hooker, Himalayan journals, Lond. 1854. 


ibidem, in the same place. 


idem, the same. 

i. e. 

id est, that is. 

i. q. 

idem quod. 

i. 0. 

instead of. 





















p. or part. 


p. or pers. 





q. T. 




» rp 

t. or trs. 



imperative mood. 

incorrect, incorrectly. 


instrumentative case. 


interrogative, -ly. 


The Gospel of John in Lepcha, Calcutta 1872. 

Jerdon, The birds of India, 3 vols. Calcutta 1862 — 1869. 

R6n-sa vam, Lapcagitasamgraha, Darjeeling 1893. 


G. B. Mainwaring, M. with number refers to the pages of the 
grammar (Grammar of the Rong [Lepcha] language), Calc. 1876. 

name, n. p. nomen proprium. 

vb. n., verbum neutrum. 


objective case. 

as opposed to. 

Legends of Padmasambhava translated into Lepcha under the 
title Ta-se-sun, see T'oung-Pao 1897, 528—561; Publications 
of the Royal Ethnological Museum of Berlin, vol. 5, 1897, 
105 — 126; Journal of the German Oriental Society (Zeitschrift 
der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft) 1898. Ein 
Kapitel des Ta-se-sun, Berlin 1896. 


person, personal, 
plural number, 

quod vide, vrhich see. 
H. H. Risley, Gazetteer of Sikhim Calc. 1894. W. (R.): L A. 

Waddell ibd. p. 204—220. 

Tiin-bor, see Mainwaring, Grammar p. 130 — 132. 
vide, see. 

XVI Abbreyiations. 

vb. a. actiye vb. 

vb. n. neuter vb. 

W. L. A. Waddell, Place- and river-names in the Darjiling-district 

and Sikhim, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal vol LX 

pt. ], No. 2. 1891, 53 ff. 
Wtt. Greorge Watt, a Dictionary of the economic Products of India. 

Calcutta 1888—1896. 


pag. 164 A, line 3 fr. bottom read size instead of seize. 
„ 193 B, line 13 insert: nu- reduplic. of nydt q. v. nu nydt-ld about, close on; 

nu-nydt-ld mak-sd lyan-ka fi-md-o (she) is like to die P. 
„ 249 B, line 14 read "other" instead of "another". 
„ 256 A, line 11 read bi jiik instead of bijuk. 
„ 361 A, line 11 fr. bottom read "other" instead of „ an other". 


ka the first letter of the so-called 
Lepcha alphabet T. ^ ka = its English 
equivalent k. 

ka- 1. reduplication of roots beginning 
with k, Ic, g, n and h see under kdr^ ka, 
kar, kal, kol, kydr, kyer, kyok, kyor, krdk, 
kran, kri, kril, krek, klal, kldp, kl6l, klydk, 
klyal, klydp; Kok, Kok, gdk, gar, gal, guk, 
gul, gok, gdk, gov, gryd, gryuk, gryo, gldk, 
glyo, nur, har, hal, hor, hoi, hrun, hrydk; 
see kuf'i-, kum-, pd-, fd-, etc. — 2. prefix, 
form, nouns; esp. names of beasts 
(birds etc.) and plants, e. g. kd-tydk 
s. palpitation fr. tyak; kd-lut bare fr. lut; 
kd-lel bent fr. lei; kd-dyuk i. q. dyuk s. a 
spec, monkey; kd-dr-fo; kd-so-kun etc. 
see below; kd-kyo and kyo etc.; — kd- 
T. g-? see kd-din T. gtin. — 3. prefix, 
forming numerals see under kd-ku, kd- 
kydk, kd-ti. — 4. prefix, i. q. kd-ti "ten" 
see kd-sdm thirty, kd-fd li fourty, kd-kd- 
kyot ninety M. Gr. 110.; kd-kat id. from 
ten upwards kd-kat-sd kat eleven, kd- 
kat-sd kd-kyot nineteen. 

-ka, -ka-o postp. see under -«, -d-o. 

-ka postp. see kd to be 1. form, the 
imperative (2d p.) with td- prefixed: hum 
td ndn-kd let him go, see also -sd M. 48. 
— 2. affixed to one verb (or root) with 
negative after previous verb (or root) 
e. c. ti md ti kd little and great, nyi md 
nyi kd every. 

ka I. vb. see ga, go, go, gum, to be, to 
become M. 53. almost invariably com- 
bined with a particle and refer, rel. to 
a neuter subject, kd gdn if it be; kd 
gdn-ld tho' it be, nevertheless, notwith- 
standing; — kd go-run altho' it be; who, 
what, whenever it be ; to kd go-run who- 
soever it be; — kd ce-nd it certainly 
is; — kd-te it may be; a-re su kd-te 

what is it, what may it be? — kd-pu it 
may perhaps be, possibly; — kd-yan 
though it be; kd-yan-ld adv. although it 
be or tho' I was or intended go sd-ron 
non-sdn kd-yan-ld fo-fat tho' I intended 
going to-day, I have remained. — kd-su 
or kd-fam-su what is it, what do you 
call it; said on forgetting the name of 
any one or thing. 

ka hortat., kd-yu non-ka let we go. 
ka II. pron. I. pers. inflect, see go T. I'la. 
kd-su gen.; adj. my, mine, kd-su-sd id. 
kd-sii, ayok-ka kat md-mat-tun-o do not 
interrupt me in my work; kd-sii a-lut 
re a-re gum this is my will; kd-sii lo-ka 
md-nyin-ne it is not according to my 
mind; kd-sii tyak-ka zdk it is meant for 
me; kd-sit sok-ka fi-so it will go hard 
with me; kd-sii riit mat-lUn li or kd-sii. 
bon fiit mat speak for me i. q. bon tsdp 
mat. — kd-sH-sd a-vo my husband P. — 
kd-sum object, kd-sum puji-jUm mat-liin 
li to speak against me; kd-sum lok mat-td 
stand my friend. — kd-sH-ka dat., kd-sH- 
ka nd td-gri nd md-nyin-ne indeed I have 
no male child P. — kd-sH-niin instr. 
M. 35. — kd-do myself, my own, kd-do 
bot-tUn of my own accord, kd-do zdn 
one's own family, companions or people, 
kd-do kd-su my own, kd-do kd-sii ton-ka 
bam to be at one' own disposal, kd-dom 
c. inflect.; kd-dom bo-o give me my 
own. — kd-nyi we two M. 83, kd-nyi-do 
we two, ourselves, kd-nyi-nun instr., kd- 
nyim, kd-nyiim inflect, kd-nyim bo give 
us two; kd-nyi-sd gen. adjly. our two; 
kd-nyi niim-vdm bydk md-bam-ne we two 
shall not continue united. — kd-yu pi. we ; 
inflect, kd-yum; kd-yu-sd gen. adjly. our. 
M. 34; 38; kd-yu md-nun-ne or kd-yu 
md-nun-niin-ndn-ne (said of trouble) it 


ka, kd 

ka, kA 

has fallen upon us; kd-yu ndn-ka amongst 
ourselves; kd-yu-pd/i, kd-yu-sdn we all. 

— kd-yu-do, kd-yu-do zuk kd-yu-do zo 
by our own labour we obtain our bread. 

— ka-yu i. q. kd-yu see M. 40 abbrev. 
ka\ ka object, kam (old Lepcha) now 
ka-mum; iustr. ka-nun; gen. ka-sd (?) is 
more definite and usually denotes the 
number to be limited or special (opp. 
kd-yu). ka non-so we'll go. — ka-do i. q. 
kd-yu-do we ourselves, our own; object. 
ka-dom i. q. ka-do-mum.; ka-do zon a 
friend of us, one of our own people; 
ka~do-nun ka-do md-luk-nun-o i. q. ka- 
do-zon kat kat md-luk-nd ka-o. 

Compounds: kd-ho abbrev. of kd-su 
a-ho my father, father! kd-ho-sd U my 
father's house. — kd-mo (abb. of kd-su 
a-md) my mother, mother! kd-mo kd-sum 
bo-le give it to me mother. — kd-z6n for 
a-z6?i or kd-sii zon s. younger sister-in- 
law, my sister-in-law. 

ka, III. ka, a-ka s. the hand, hon. *c6k, 
'■pyok T. pyag, see also *lak; *l6k; — 
a-kd-sd to s. a mark instead of signature 
T. pyag-rgya; — a-kd ka vb. to lay hands 
on, to rest on. — a-kd hum hyar fyap vb. 
to clasp hand behind the neck; a-kd 
kiim-tul-ka bi vb. to give backwards. 
kd krok bent fingers, hand halfclosed. — 
a-kd kd-gryd-ld thin, skinny h. — a-kd 
c6n vb. to wash hands. — a-kd jum- 
bam-bo a withered h. — a-kdjem adj. neat, 
neatfingered. — a-kd nyu vb. to beckon 
with hands to go; a-kd nyu bi vb. to 
point with h.'s. - a-kd nyok vb. to rub 
the h.s. — a-kd tiil vb. to cut ofp the h. 

— a-kd te bam vb. to fidget with the 
h.s. — a-kd tydt i. q. a-kd tin. — a-kd 
top nan vb. to sit leaning on the h. 
a-kd tap vb. to put the h.s into any- 
thing. — a-kd tap ndk vb. to grope with 
hands (as a blind man). — a-kd tik vb. 

to take hold of hands, to join hands. 

a-kd Up vb. to pat with hands, to en- 
courage or comfort. — a-kd t'yen vb. to 
join hands in, to agree in anything.— 
a-kd dam bi vb. to tie the hands; a kd 

dam fat the hands are tied provbly said 
of a useless person who can do nothing. 
a-kd a-dum clean h. — a-kd dyup vb. 
to show with hands how large a thing 
is. — {a-^kd pa vb. to beckon with h. to 
come; Jm-nixn kd-yum kd pa-bam, he is 
beckoning to us to come. — kd pdk adj. 
without h., handless. — {a-^kd pyup vb. 
to clinch the hands; to grasp. — a-kd 
prydk-ld tsu vb. to have hand pierced 
through. — a-kd fdk vb. to have skin 
of hands rubbed off from hard work. — 
a-kd fyok vb. to clasp hands, to fold 
arms. — a-kd tsam vb. to take hold of 
the hand; to clasp h. kd-tsam kd-ji adj. 
prudent, economical ; — a-kd yam-md yam- 
md mat vb. to have soft hands become 
tender from not working. — a-kd rdk 
vb. to take with h. — a-kd ran din vb. 
to stand with uplifted hands. — a-kd 
Idn bam vb. to have hard skin on hand, 
a-kd Idn kH vb. to repay a debt by work 
or rather to obtain the amount of debt 
from a person by working for him. — a-kd 
fdt-ka vdr vb. to lay hold of earth to 
save one'self from falling. — {a)-kd sit 
h-6n vb. to have the fingers below the 
nails ragged. — a-kd sel vb. to have 
wet hands. — a-kd ol vb. to sprain the 
hand. — a-kd 6t vb. 1. to untie hands. 
2. to give presents. — a-kd-nun for vb. 
to slip or escape out of hand; — a-kd- 
nun zuk vb. to make with the hands; — 
a-kd-niin lyot vb. to put out of hands, 
to become inexpert. — a-kd-sd fyam vb. 
to arrange with the hands; a-kd-sd pyok 
vb. to brush with the hand; a-kd-sd bUk 
vb. to beat with hands; a-kd-sd zuk vb. 
to make with the hands; a-kd-sd lyan 
mat vb. to dislocate the wrist; a-kd-sd 
vyek go-run md-fak-ne not to be able to 
reach a thing; a-kd-sd vok vb. to stir up 
with the hands. — arm, elbow of man 
and thing, a-kd nyivi-bo adj. 1. elbowed 
as a chair having arms. 2. a clever and 
handy man; a-kd md-nyin-num-bo adj. 
without arms, strength of hands, arms. 
kd tap vb. 1. to pilfer, to purloin, 

ka, k^ 

ka, k& 

2. to beat, 3. to distrain (goods); a-kd 
dot vb. to strip the arms as in preparing 
to fight. — a-kd dyu Tb. to compose 
hands; s. strength of hands; — a-kd 
tsum vb. to engage h. to h.; to fight. 
(a-)kd ydk vb. to have an aversion to 
kill or beat, to shrink from as from evil 
deed; — a-kd lu vb. to lift h. against. — 
a-kd &6t s. means: not to eat from the 
hands of a person vrho has committed 
any great crime (as murder). — a-kd 
hlok vb. to be the first to strike. — kd 
dyek, kd ek impressively, gesticulatingly. 
kd ek-ld li to speak g.; kd ek ton ek 
with gesticulations of hands and feet. — 
the handle as of ban q. v. charge, 
labour, work, a-kd kd-ta adj. equal in 
work. — a-kd kydt gdn a-hdn gun kydt 
so if you won't work you will have 
nothing to eat; — a-kd kyop vb. 1. to 
set to work, 2. to cause, to seize. — kd 
gyd-bo adj. resting from labour. — kd jum 
vb. to decrease in quantity or seize by 
handling. — kd nyol adj. sluggish, lazy, 
slothful, inactive. — a-kd tan-nun md- 
fap-ne vb. to be difficult, kd plon h. to 
have lost its cunning, unpractised; kd-su 
kd plon-non my h. (or I am) out of 
practise; — a-kd zam vb. to put fingers, 
to be clever; — a-ka yd vb. to be well 
acquainted with any one, to know how 
to do anything well; a-kd md-yd-ne vb. 
to be the contrary of the above: a-kd 
ryu-ld Tna-yd-ne; a-kd ydm-ho skilful. — 
a-kd sow, vb. to be tired with work; 

— a-kd a-hrdt md-nyin-ne to be lazy, 
skilfulness, prudence, a-kd kop-bam 
vb. to be inexpert or slow with hands; 

— kd-grdm-bo adj. 1. quick -fingered, 
2. a monkey Tbr.; — a-kd glen vb. to 
be skilful; — a-kd nydk bam adj. inexpert 
with the hands. — a-kd md-ryu-num-bo 
adj. light-fingered, thievishly disposed. 

— the means, the power of, sway, 
authority, influence, domination, 
possession, a-kd-ka fi-non Yh. to come 
to hand, to obtain; — a-kd a-tdn md- 
tet-ne no-o to have a good journey; — 

a-kd a-tdn tsam-lun li to speak earnestly 
or with effect; — a-kd-ka tmt vb. to 
come into the power of. — (a-)kd-ka lat 
vb. 1. to come to hand; 2. to be pro- 
ductive, to give good return (as harvest, 
merchandize); — (a-)kd-ka nyi vb. to 
have in h. ; to have possession of; to 
have in abundance; kd-ka nyim-bo adj., 
s. wealthy, a w. person. — charge, trust, 
deposit. (a-)kd-ka byi vb. to entrust, 
to confide. — presents, gifts of 
friendship, tokens of regard (given in 
exchange), fd-lyen-sd num-lyen kd pyin 
(see pyin) (lovers) to exchange presents; 
ayen zon kat-niin kat-sd kd ayuk vb. 
(friends) to exchange tokens of regard 
one with the other. — a-kd a-gum adj. 
empty-handed; — kd-tom adj. close-fisted, 
miserly, a-kd li-ld bi vb. to give liberally. 

kd-ka 1. in the hands; 2. in the power 
of, under authority; 3. in chai'ge of; 
4. i. q. kd-niin; kd-nun through, by means 
of M. 84. 

Compounds: kd-kam s. the arm formed 
as a pillow, kd-kam-ld da vb. to lie witli 
head resting on arm; — (a-^kd-kyii s. 
measure or span of thumb and closed 
joint of forefinger; — (a-)kd-kytip s. a 
ring for finger; kd-kyup hyii a plain ring 
without its stone M. 120; — a-kd gop a. 
the hollow of hand, when hand is half- 
closed; — a-kd gom s. the space of 
middle finger and thumb; — a-kd cak s. 
the (inner) joints of wrist or arm; — 
a-kd cit s. one handful, when closed, 
one graspful. — kd-ciik s. the joints of 
fingers. — kd-cop s. hand with fingers 
straightly drawn together, kd-cop hrip 
vb. to pick up with fingers. — kd-cdp s. 
an assistant, a helper (litly. an additional 
hand). — kd-co i. q. kd-cor 2. kd-c6r s. 
1. hand with fingers spread out in a 
version; 2. a net Tbr. sitn-li- kd-c6r 
dydp vb. to put out hand (in anger or 
contempt), to cast out net Tbr. kd-cor 
kyop vb. to throw out hand (as in a- 
version). — (a-^kd-jdk s. the fore-finger. 
M. 133. {a-)kd-jdk-sd fyon vb. to point 

ka, kd 

ka, kd 

with f. f. — (a-)kd jam s. touching lightly 
with fiBgers. (lit. ends of fingers and 
thumb), kd-jdm-nun tsun vb. to lift up 
daintily with precaution as any thing 
nasty, to lift with ends of fingers and 
thumb. — kd-ji explet. to kd-tsam q. v. 

— (a-)kd j6m s. fingers M. 134, (a-)kd 
jom-cak s. the joints of fingers, (a-)kd 
j6m-bi/er s. the space between fingers, 
(a-')kd jom-hyO'B. the flesh between joints 
of fingers, {a-)kd jom hrdt s. the bone 
between joints of fingers, the phalanges; 
— - kd-nya expletive to kd-fyok. — kd- 
nyom s. 1. equality, uniformity, 2. im- 
partiality, kd-nyom mat vb. to render 
equal, uniform, to be impartial. — kd-tan 
s. a handful, kd-tan-ka jak md-com-ne 
vb. to secure a full grasp, to refuse by 
any means, to let go; see kd-cit. — 
(a-)kd-tdp or tup s. the fist M. 122; 
(a-)kd-tun s. the joining at wrist kd-tun 
sun-gryon a spec, of spider (with legs). 

— (a-)kd-tut s. a finger of h. crooked; 
knuckles; — (a-')kd-tum see tu; — (a)- 
kd-tyam s. the wrist; — (a-^kd-fap s. 
1. fighting, 2. the distraining of goods; 

— (a-)kd-fi s. the little finger i. q. kd 
vyet. — kd-fu the elbow; in Tbr. to have 
nothing at all as kd-fu sap (-pun) non 
said of a person who has or can get 
nothing, he is altogether destitute. — 
kd-don the fore-leg or arm of bear sd- 
nar kd-don. — (a-^kd dom s. the thumb 
M. 122, kd dom kydp vb. to seal with th., 
to bind to engagement. — (a-)kd pd- 
gron s. length fr. finger-ends, when both 
arms are stretched out. — {a-)kd puk-sol 
s. the arm-length from tip of fingers to 
armpit. — a-kd piin-ci s. nail of finger. 
a-kd piin-ci kin s. the corner of nail. 
a-kd piin-ci dam s. skin over the nail. 
a-kd piin-ci byer between nail and flesh. 

— {a-)kd pUp s. length from elbow to 
middle joint of little finger when the 
hand is closed, vb. to lift up arm from 
elbow. — {a-)kd pek s. the lower part 
of arm, the part of fore-arm from wrist 
to pHr-jim q. v. — kd pruk both hands 

put together open and hollow as when 
receiving water in hands (bason-shaped); 
kd pruk kat two handful; kd-pruk-sd ok 
vb. to take up with both hands (as 
water); kd pruk tsok or yan to hold out 
hands as above. — kd pldk work, fixed 
work, duty, business, a-re kd-sH kd pldk 
giim this is my work, my business. — 
kd-fy6k see under fyok. — a-kd bUk 
fak tet as far as an arm can reach. — 
(a-^kd-bUm s. folded hands (as prayer) 
P. kd-bum mdt vb. to fold hands; kd-bUm 
mat-lUn with folded hands; kd-bUm zuk 
vb. to fold h.s; a-kd a-do kd-bUm sd-tet 
zuk go-run go a-dom lyiip-so however 
much you beg, I will beat you. — kd- 
bok s. the upper-arm between elbow and 
shoulder, see pdk-cdm. kd-bok-sd a-hrdt 
the OS humerus. — (a-)kd bydr or byer 
s. the space between the fingers. — kd- 
mor s. handicraft, manufacture, workman- 
ship, kd-mdr-ydm-bo s. one experienced 
in handicraft, kd-mdr-zuk-bo s. a manu- 
facturer, artisan, mechanic, kd-mdr-jem-bo 
id. — {a-)kd-tsdk s. length fr. elbow to 
middle-finger's end, a cubit; (a-)kd-tsdk 
cik vb. to measure do. — kd-tsam s. pru- 
dence, adj. thrifly, prudent, economical 
M. 137. kd-tsam kd-ji adj. i. q. kd-tsam. 
kd-tsdm ydm-bo adj. prudent, economical. 

— {a-)kd-tsum s. the lines of h.; — 
{a-^kd-tso s. the pulse, a-kd-ts6 cet v. to 
feel the p. — (a-)kd-ydk s. the tips of 
fingers; — (a-)kd-ydn s. the middle, the 
large finger; kd-yon-bo s. a liberal gene- 
rous person; — kd-ru s. workmanship 
when old, old handwork. — (a-^kd lit 
s. the fourth finger. — a-kd 16 s. daily 
wages; a-ka 16 mat-bo s. a daily labourer. 

— ia-)kd-l6n s. a h. -instrument, a tool, 
a weapon; — {a-)kd-ly6k s. the palm of 
hand, Tbr. a plate; {a-)kd-ly6k kat from 
the 5 fingers it signifies five rupies and 
(a-)kd-ly6k nydt-ka 10 rupies and so on. 
{a-')kd-ly6k brydk or bryek vb. to clap the 
hand. — kd-hrdk elevating in hands, pre- 
senting in hands, kd-hrdk pldn-ka pH 
vb. to present in uphold hands. — kd- 

k& — kcL-grdii-fo 

kd-gryeh — ka-ju 

hryep s. the fore-arm k. h.-sd a-hrdt the 
ulna and radius. — kd-vi s. one open 
hand (bason -shaped), kd-vi-ka in the 
power of, in possession of, kd-vi-ka zdk 
vb. to fall into the p. of. — a-kd vi-ka 
tsut id. (a-)kd vyet s. i. q. kd-fi. — kd- 
vyo s. the radius of arm. — (^a-)kd-so the 
veins of h., the pulse: kd-tso kd-so tsam 
ndk or kd-so tso team ndk or cdt vb. to 
feel the p. — kd-m s. 1. handiwork, manu- 
facture, 2. a souvenir, a gift, a token of 
regard. — kd-mk s. gloves M. 144; k. s. 
CO a pair of do.; k. s. a-kd/l an odd glove; 
k. s. suk vb. to put- on gloves, k. s. fyul 
vb. to take off do. 

kd IV. vb. to decoct, to boil, to stir (as 
porridge), to stew (meat) M. 14.3, ci kd 
to boil chi, nyen kd to boil milk, mdn kd 
to stew meat in small pieces, stirring 
the while; tuk-tdk kd vb. to boil, tuk-tdk 
nyen kd to b. milk. 

ka, V. ka, kd-t. kd-ho s. 1. superinten- 
dance of work, authorization, power; s. 
an overseer of work, kd-bo kyop vb. 1. to 
superintend work, 2. to urge on, to goad; 
to act imperiously, to domineer, kd-ho-sd 
Tin li vb. to invite, to goad on with words, 
to speak authoritatively, imperatively, 
despotically, li-sd kd-bo kyop vb. id. 

kdt vb. to be appointed to any business, 
to be deputed, to be ordained, prescribed, 
constituted, to appoint. kdt-Mn kloA to 
be appointed and sent; ku-ts'op kdt-ban 
klon being appointed ambassador and 
sent. — kdt-bo s. an overseer of work, 
superintendent, num-kdt s. superinten- 
dence of work etc. 

ka-ka-ar-fo i. q. kd-dr-fo. 

ka-ku num. (cfr. kd-3) eight. 

ka-kyak num. seven, kd-kydk-bo the 

ka-kydt nma.nhie, kd-kydt-fyin nine times. 

ka-gro for ko-gro rip 1. s. the rose 
(flower) see also ko-gro-kun. 2. s. for 
teon-gro-zo small spec, of grain Paspalum 

ka-grdh-fo s. a spec, of hornbill (Buceros 

ka-gryeii s. a spec, of small monkey 
(red colour). 

ka-ca s. a bulbous root, a spec, of 
catechu, cfr. sd-brak-kd-cd. 

ka-cik-kun for cik-kun q. cfr. 

ka-ciii i. q. kHr-cin q. cfr. 

ka-cit kiin-tson s. a spec, of maize. 

ka-cit-mdn s. a spec, of millet. 

ka-cfr s. a game; kd-cir-pok to game 
when chasing and giving a kick to the 
person overtaken. 

ka-cuk kf-kun s. a spec, of the cotton- 
tree, kd-ciik sd-li grim a bow-string made 
of the cotton of this tree. 

ka-cu mun see mi gat mun M. 

ka-cur spec, of kUn-ddp q. cfr. 

ka-ce s. a spec, of the lemon, kd-ce-kwl 
s. the l.-tree, kd-ce pot s. the fruit; 
Hooker 2, 233 "■kucheala" lemon-bush. 

ka-ceh s. -kun a tree, -rik for kUn-ciil- 
rikl M. 

ka-cer s. wheat, genus Triticum; there 
are the foil, specc. kd-cer td-not or go- 
rok-mo; kd-cer tyak-kar; kd-cer don i. q. 
liik-ddn; kd-cer kon-ku-na i. q. kon no; 
kd-cer siim-bli i. q. bli. kd-cer pat to sow 

Comp. kd-cer cd s. 1. a beard of wheat, 
the awn, 2. (-00) a spec, of rice. — kd-cer 
td-jit s. wheat-meal. — kd-cer td-brum s. 
bran. — kd-cer td-i s. flour. — kd-cei' foil 
s. straw. — kd-cer fdl s. the kernel of 
wheat. — kd-cer pok s. parched wheat 
made into dough (eaten with tea or 
water); — kd-cer pyun s. an ear of corn; 
— kd-cer fup the husk the chaff; — kd- 
cer mdn wheaten grain ; kd-cer mon fdt-ka 
glo-liin md-mak-nd gdn kd-ta zon bam ex- 
cept a corn of wheat fall into the ground 
and die it abideth alone: J. 12. 24. — 
kd-cer ydp fine bran; — kd-cer li s. the 
seed; — kd-cer Am halffilled ear; kd-cer 
sdn an empty ear. 

ka-cd, ka-cdr Tbr. see kd, a-kd; kd-cor 
tiin-krok s. a spec, of fern. 

ka-jaii s. a virulent spec, of nettle. 

ka-ju s. a dog M. 19. kd-ju pd-li id.; 
Tbr.: niim-hul-mo; (tiik-^ Um-hul-bo; sd- 

ka-je— ka-nyaii 

ka-nyat— ka-tf 

cdr-nor T. Kyi. see pun-sdl; sd-tum. the 
name of the 11th cycle of year: kd-ju 
nam M. 141. hd-ju fan s. a corpulent 
male d. M. 27; kd-ju bu s. a male d.; 
kd-ju mot s. a bitch. — kd-ju-len jdn 
worse than a dog. — kd-ju gdt-ho a fience 
dog, kd-ju gor-ho s. a watch dog; — kd- 
ju jin-bam-bo a mad dog; — kd-ju td-bun 
a large d. — kd-ju tyer-yam-bo a dog 
which flies at people; — kd-ju kd-kar-ld 
mat to curl tail; — kd-ju nyir vb. to 
growl; — kd-ju cdk vh. to set on a d.; — 
kd-ju tuk-sim pur-byek-ka fap vb. to slink 
tail between legs; — kd-ju tuk-sim vydl 
vb. to wag tail; — kd-ju fyuk to spring 
up to bite; — kd-ju pu to bark; — kd-ju 
md vb. to call dog see yo yo; — kd-ju 
yon to howl, to bay; — kd-ju sal to spring 
up as dog when petted; — kd-ju sun-zan- 
Id mat vb. to prick ears forward; — kd- 
ju sin-bam to whine. 

Compounds: kd-ju-kup s. a puppy; kd- 
ju-kiip-ka di vb. to call do.; kd-ju-kup 
a-bron a litter of puppies; kd-ju-kup-rik 
Mucuna jtruriens; — kd-ju ndk-bo s. a 
dog-keeper; — kd-ju tuk-sim s. a dog's 
tail applied to the Alopecurus pratensis 
(meadow- fox-tail grass); — kd-ju md s. 
the dung of do.; kd-ju md mat vb. to 
evacuate ; — kd-ju man (^lywrn) s. a sport- 
ing dog, a hound; — kd-ju mlem zdn 
dogfaced i. e. shameless, barefaced im- 
pudent; — kd-ju dyit s. dogs dung; — pa- 
no a-jdn-nun-ka mi sd a-jdn-nun zum~ 
bam-miin-sd pe lyo gdn nd kd-ju dyit-ka 
sum-hryon sd-dydt mup-bam re zdn gum 
when the king and his subjects are bad 
(metaphorically speaking) they are like 
unto flies and gnats swarming on dogs 
dung; kd-ju dyit kd-sum pot s. or kd-ju 
ayit pot s. a species of blackberry. — un 
kd-ju s. Oeryle guttata see s. un. 

ka-je for U-je s. a kind of cloth q. cfr. 

ka-jeri s. the plaited edging of cloth, 
kd-jen fydr vb. to plait do. 

ka-nyaii s. a turnip, Brassica rapa, kd- 
nydn-pum s. the bulb, kd-nydn-nyom s. 
the leaves. 

ka-nyat see kd-^, num. twenty. 

ka-nyf see kd II. 

ka-nyum see kd II. 

*ka-nye T. dge-bsnyen s. a novice priest, 
a catechumen. 

ka-nyem s. 1. a spec, of cock's comb; the 
grain is used for making chi (sometimes); 
kd-nyem pyiXn s. an ear of do., 2. a priest 
Tbr. in allusion to the red colour of the 
flower and the red dress of the priest; kd- 
nyem kun nd vydn s. a very young foetus 
when first forming in womb Tbr. M. 

ka-nyo-fo s. name of bird, great barbet 
Bucco grandis Gould, kd-nyo-fo dan-sd 
s. green barbet Bucco caniceps. 

kd-nyo fo td-kli tun-krok s. species of fern 
Acrostichum (Heteroneuron costatum var. 

ka-nyon fo (?) ace. Je. 308 kaniong-pho 
Megaloema virens; '■'■dang kaniong-pho" 
M. lineata; ace. W. '■^kiinniong" M. mar- 
shallorum; "dang k." M. hodgsoni R. 207. 

ka-ta (see ta and Ao<) pron. adj. 1. one, 
single, alone, only; used indefinitely for 
"a" as sd-dyak kd-ta-ka fit-lem-so will 
be able to see you some day hereafter; 
2. the same kd-ta kd-ce-ne it certainly is 
the same, kd-ta-bo, kd-ta-bo-re the one, 
the onely one, the same; a-re sd o-re 
kd-ta-bo this is the same as that. — kd- 
ta-do one only; kd-ta-do dyom-ka advly. 
at once, suddenly; kd-ta-do dyom-ka mak- 
non-ne he died suddenly; kd-ta-ka to- 
gether, in company of; kd-ta-ka bam vb. 
to live together (in one house); kd-ta- 
kiip adj. alone, solitary: kd-tap (abb. of 
kd-ta-kup q. cfr.) a. one, alone, single, 
solitary; kd-tap zdn only one, but one; 
kd-ta-mu a, an, a certain one; kd-ta-mH 
■nun vb. to become one (as in mind), to 
be one (in opinion etc.); kd-ta-tyin advly. 
once, at one time, once on a time; kd- 
ta-tyin f ok- cot U nydt-fyin samr-tyin md- 
li-ne to have but one word to be decided 
to be true to one' word; kd-ta zdn only 
one, alone, by oneself. 

ka-tf num., ten. Comp.: kd-ti kdt-fdp 
eleven; kd-ti-nydt-t'dp twelve; kd-ti si/m- 

ka-tuk— ka-t'ydr-kun 

ka-dam — ka-bdk 

tdf thirteen; kd-tt fd-li tap fourteen; 
kd-ti fd-no fdp fifteen; kd-ti td-rdk tap 
sixteen; kd-ti kd-kydk tap seventeen; kd- 
ti kd-ku Mp eighteen; kd-ti kd-kyot fdp 

ka-tuk s. difficulty, trouble, perplexity, 
distraction; kd-tuk-niin with d.; kd-tuk 
nyi or si there is great d.; kd-tuk zdk 
vb. to fall into great trouble, distress; 
kd-tuk tnat-lm zuk vb. to perform vrith 
great difficulty. 

ka-tun s. a spec, of yam kd-tun-huk. 

ka-to exclam. (probly fr. to-ka who is 
[it]). Oh you! oh these. 

ka-iyaii kun s. name of a tree, species 
of Erythrina, B. stricta. 

ka-tak-fo s. the name of a bird species 
of barbet, hlo-hd-tdk the golden-throated 
barbet Cyanops Pranklinii Je. 314, dan 
kd-tdk the blue throated barbet C.asiatica. 
acc.W. "ktak" (its call) Megaloema asiatica 
R. 207. kd-tdk-bon mat s. a shrub. 

ka-t'an-ff s. n. pr. the guardian spirit of 
females, kd-t'dn-fi rum; cfr. nUn-lyen-no 
rum s. the guardian spirit of males. 

ka-for-kun s. a mango -tree, kd-for-pot 
s. a mango, kd-for Mo-sd s. Mangifera 
silvatica, kd-for dan-sd s. M. indica; the 
latter is sometimes incorrectly called by 
the Lepcha's avn-bi a corruption of the 
Hind, word dm. 

ka-fdr i. q. kun-t'6r-bi q. cfr. a spec, of 

ka-tydm or kUl-t'ydm s. a limping, 1am- 
ness; kd-t'ydm mat vb. to limp, kd-fydm 
kd-fydm non vb. to limp, to go halting 

ka-t'yeii s. hopping, kd-fyen tyiik vb. to 
hop; kd-tyefi a-yon-sd tyiik hop skip and 

ka-tyer i. q. kUn-fyer s. chicken-pox; 
kd-t'yer zdk vb. to suffer fr. chicken-pox. 

ka-t'yer-fo s. a species of woodpecker, 
red on back of head ace. W. "Aa-fer" 
Gecinulus grantius, its usual call is "terr 
terr" see R. 227. 

ka-ty6r-kun i. q. kin-fyor-kun s. a species 
of Sterculia: St. coccinea, kd-fyor-pot s. 

the fruit of St. c. ; kd-fydr tHk-po string 
made from the bark of k.; Hooker 2, 7: 
''''katior-pot" Hodgsonia. 

ka-dam s. name of a cloth. 

ka-df excl. a word used in calling a 
puppy, kd-di kd-di id. see di. 

*ka-din T. gfin also kdl-din, kvl-din tiir- 
din adj. very deep as water, pit, valley, 
s. a depth, an abyss; tiir-gon kd-di/'i a 
d. pit; dd kd-din d. lake or water; kyou 
kd-din a d. stream; mel-ld sd-tet kd-din 
go or kd-din sd-tet nyi-wiin-d how deep 
is it. 

ka-den i. q ka-den q. cfr. 

ka-do see kd H. 

ka-dyak or ka-dydk s. the young of small 
animals when just born having no hair 
on belly as cat, pig, unfledged as young 
bird ; mon kd-dydk da-nyi a new-born pig 
is lying there. 

ka-na s. 1. a spec, of wheat, kd-na ku- 
cer i. q. kon kd-na, kd-cer spec, of wheat; 

2. expletive to sUn-kdn q. cfr. 

ka-num excl. an expression of anger or 
dislike; kd-nHm-ho wait, look out, I'll 
pay you off! etc. 

ka-no-kun s. name of tree, species of 
Evodia; kd-no lilo-sd s. Evodia fraxiui- 
folia; kd-no-p6t s. the fruit of which have 
a spicy flavour and are used with chillies 
as condiment. 

ka-nom-kun s. name of tree, spec, of 
Terminalia T. belerica; kd-nom pot or 
kd-nom bi the T.-nut. 

ka-ndm-bdii see titk-nom-bdn, tuk-nal-bon. 

ka-ndl i. q. sd-nol-bi, kd-nol-bi s. a spec, 
of nettle, Procris spec. (Urticaceae) does 
not sting. 

ka-ba s. 1. a kind of cloth formed of 
single twist; 2. explet. to ki-je kd-ba q. cfr. 

3. attached to any other cloth except 
ki-je implies that it is formed of single 
twist as pd-son kd-ba: jsa-sd/i- cloth of 
single twist. 

ka-bum, kur-biim explet. to kHr-fak q.v. 
ka-bo see under kd H. 
ka-bdk (see a-kd, kd hand) applied to 
any large monkey, sd-hu kd-bok a baboon. 

8 ka-fa-li— *ka-run 

ka-fa-li num. forty. 

ka-fal-kun s. name of tree, spec, of Ster- 
culia, kd-fdl-muk s. a plant, Thespesia 

ka-fok-jii i. q. sd-fok-ju q. cfr. a spec, of 

ka-f6n-fo s. the green jay? 
ka-fyar s. 1. a plant, Canna coccinea, 
kd-fydr lyak s. the fruit of Canna c. used 
as necklace. — 2. Phrynium capitatum 
kd-fydr nyom s. the leaf (used as plate 
and for thatching etc.) used also as a 
vehicle or fulcrum on which is rested a 
piece of wood as a reel for cotton, hence 
kd-fydr 3. a reel for spinning cotton on, 
a spindle. 
ka-fyet kun s. a tree. 
ka-muk s. the name of tree from which 
string is made, kd-miik kun s. spec, of 
cotton-tree, kd-muk-ki the string of do. 
ka-mo 1. see under kd 11. 2. incorr. 
for kiit-mo, tuk-mo q. v. 

ka-myum, kiim-myum kun s. a tree, a 
spec, of Boehmeria; Mm-myum ki the 
fibres of the bark of do. used for making 

ka-zu s. a spec, of nettle from the fibre 
of which cotton is spun. 
ka-zdii see under kd 11. 
ka-tsak s. cubit; su go yo gdn lyan-niin 
md-rum md-go-ne yan-ld kd-tsdk ka kd-ti 
zoh tet nyi for they were not far from 
land but as it were two hundred cubits 
J. 21. 8. 

ka-yah-la see kd I. to be. 
ka-yat s. a beard, num-Sim-nyo-sd kd- 
ydt man's beard ; sd-ar-sd kd-ydt a goat's 
beard; kd-ydt hrydn-ho a long b.; kd-ydt 
ak vb. to pull out b. 
ka-yu, kd-yum see kd 11. 
ka-yen, ka-'ayeii s. a string made from 
the fibrous bark of the kd-yen kun: ap- 
plied to a spec, of Boehmeria or Maoutia; 
the best is from Boehmeria nivea: kd- 
yen ki muk. 

*ka-run T.? meat or drink prepared 
for special occasions; ambrosia, nectar. 
riim fat-ba kd-run pii vb. to present 

ka-rup kun— ka-hyal uii 

food to the gods; kilp-zSn-sd kd-run zuk 
fat-d have you prepared the food for 
my beloved child. 

ka-rup kun n. pr. of a tree. 
ka-la-i see sun-gi. 
ka-ldn nydm s. n. pr. of a bush, 
ka-li s. 1. a spec, of squirrel, 2. generic 
term for a squirrel, Sciuridae see sd- 
hryiik; kd-li sal (sq.) to climb. 

kd-li kim s. flying spec; kd-li tuh-jih 
a small spec; ka-li tun-dyeh or iMu-dxin or 
don a very small spec, with white stripes; 
kd-li bydm s. a large flying squirrel. 

ka-lim-bi s. a spec, of Solanum; ace. 
Hooker 2, 182 ''kalumbo" Gualtheria? 

ka-lu, kd-lu bik, sd-lyan kd-lu bik s. a 

ka-lup kiin-tson and kd-lup fya s. name 
of two spec, of maize. 
ka-lel see lei. 

ka-ldk, kiin-lok (fr. 16k to lick?) s. a rat 
Tbr. bon-jdk; see un-liik-nyv, piil-dyan. 
kd-lok nam the first cycle of year, the 
rat-year M. HI- 

kd-lok klip 1. a young rat, 2. a mouse. 
kd-lok kop a rat-trap, kd-lok kop-pvn fop 
the rat is caught in tr. kd-lok tun-jin s. 
a mouse, kd-lok pd-no s. a large kind 
of rat. kd-Uk sd-ot s. the common field- 
rat, sim kd-lok other spec. 
ka-lyun s. a spec, of eagle. 
ka-ham-fo i. q. kur-hdm-fo q. v. 
ka-hom fo s. spec, of partridge, chikoor, 
Perdix chakoor; hlo kd-hom-fo black 
throated hill-partridge, Arboricola tor- 
queola (Yalenciennes). kd-hom-bot s. 
rufous throated hill-p. A. rufogularis Je. 
.3, 578. ace. W. '■'■ko-hum-but' A. torqueola 
K. 208. kd-hom-fo dop a covey of chikoor. 
ka-hom-fdt s. very small spec, of leech, 
ka-hdn i. q. pd-hon see ho/i applied to 
spec. Rubus, E,. Sikimensis. 

ka-hdr kuii s. name of tree spec. Actino- 
daphne odoratum; kd-hor-kun a-dum-bo 
n. pr. of tree, see pd-hydt. 
ka-hdl see ko-hol. 

ka-hyal un s. the name of a river between 
Darjeeling and Chong-tong hills. 

ka-hyak tun-kru— ka-hlet-fo 

ka-hlen— ka-Syop tuk-pum 

ka-hyak tuh-kru s. of a plant Selinum 
cordatum (?). 

kd-hrdk see under kd III. hand. 

ka-hru s. a plant; kd-hru Ku s. bread 
made fr. flour of kd-hru. 

ka-hrdt s. a spec, of grain, kd-hrot Uu 
s. bread made of do. 

ka-hryak-fo (ace. W. "-kar-rhyaK' K. 208) 
s. Grallophasis melanota, M. the kalij- 
pheasant Je. 3, 536. kd-hryak tun-klin fo 
id.; kd-hryak tuii-klin rik s. a spec, of 
creeper; kd-hryak tun-hrip see tiin-brip. 

ka-hryu-fo s. a bird with white head 
and neck M. ; ace. Je. 336 '■'■kurrio viyuvi", 
ace. W. '•'■kar-rio t-yeTrC Surniculus di- 
cruroides R. 207. 

ka-hryum-fo Q'-karreum-pho''' Je. 2, 38) 
s. the black gorgeted laughing thrush 
Garrulax pectoralis, ace. W. hlo kar-rhyiim 
Garrulus bispecularis R. 210; kar-rha-om 
Gr. pectoralis R. 211; ace. Je. 2, 41 '■Hho- 
kan'eum-pho''' Garrulax ocellatus see kur- 

ka-hryo-pum s. the colocynthes. 

ka-hryo-fo (ace. W. kar-rio'R. 211) s. the 
white crested laughing thrush Garrulax 
leucolophus, ace. Je. 2, 316 Dendrocetta 
sinensis; ibd. 2, 307 '■Hho-karrio-pho''' 
Garrulus bispecularis ibd. 2, 304 Hho 
kario-fho" Nucifraga hemispila. 

ka-hrydk-fo (ace. W. "kar-rhyor R. 210) 
Dendrocetta sinensis M.; D. rufa W. hlo 
kd-hrydk fo D. himalayensis or Cochoa 
purpurea W. kd-hrydk bon-fo or kd-h. tim- 
tik s. blackhorned magpie D. frontalis; 
ace. Je. 2, 33 ^'■karriok-tamveep''' Xipho- 
ramphus superciliaris. kd-hryok-fo pd-dam 
a spec, of snail. 

ka-hia s. a panther? M. 

ka-hia, kd-hla bi s. a spec, of pulse. 

ka-hlu rik-bf s. 1. a spec, of vegetable, 
2. spec, of Ku bi. 

ka-hlet-fo s. name of bird with large 
beak and red neck, Homrada bicornis? 
a spec, of buceros; kd-hlet kop zo a spec. 
of rice, kd-hlet no or bii a spec, of fish. 
kd-hlet zo kun s. name of tree spec, of 

ka-hlen or kun-hlen s. a creeper, k. h. bi 
s. the leaves of do. used as vegetable. 
k. h. nydk a certain plant. 

ka-hlyam kun s. a spec, of Sterculia: 
St. villosa; k. h. pdt s. fruit (edible) of 
St. v.; k. h. tuk-po s. string made fr. the 
fibres of the bark of St. v. ; k. h. nydk kun 
Sterculia colorata; k. h. no s. a spec, fish; 
k. h. hrdt no s. a spec. fish. 

ka-hlydn rik s. a spec, of vegetable; 
kd-hlyon-bi s. the leaves of do. boiled 
as vegetable. 

ka-vyo see kHr-vyo. 

ka-sak 1. a spec, of creeper, kd-sdk bi 
s. the leaves of the above used as vege- 
table. 2. or kd-sdk a spec, of yam of 
inferior quality bon fyak Tbr. k. s. din 
cultivated y. ; k. s. sok wild y. see ktir-cin ; 
kd-sdk or kd-sdk c6p-fo see con cdp-fo s. 
a spec, bulbul, Alcurus striatus or Cri- 
niger flaveolus. 

ka-sam num. thirty M. 116. 

ka-SU, kd-siim see under kd II. 

ka-so nydm t'am-blyaka. a spec, of butterfly. 

ka-sdk see under kd-sdk 2. 

ka-Sii see kd I. to be. 

ka-$um s. flesh Tbr.; kd-siim kat s. 
vulva Tbr.; kd-mm-jii the raspberry plant 
Rubus flavus; kd-sum pdt s. the yellow 
raspberry; kd-siim hdn a. the large red 
r. Rubus sikimensis see kd-hdn; kd-siim 
gryap s. the yellow raspberry. 

ka-Sum-kuh s. the almond tree; kd-sum 
pdt s. the almond. 

ka-Ser s. a hedgehog; kd-ser ju s. the 
prickles of hedgehog; kd-ser tuk-ndn to 
roll up ; k. s. fiydt-ndn to open out. 

ka-So kun s. a spec, of oak; kd-so pdt 
the acorn of do.; kd-so rol s. a spec, of 
oak; kd-so Idn other spec; kd-so Idn pdt 
the acorn of do.; kd-so dor s. a spec, of 
tree-fungus from the oak-tree (edible); 
kd-so nydm s. a spec, of butterfly; kd-so 
mm kun s. a spec, of tree, chestnut tree, 
oak; kd-so mm pdt s. chestnut. 

ka-Syo tuk-pum (?) ace. Je. 138 Ephialtes 
lempigi, ace. Je. 3. 453 '■'■kuhupho". 

ka-syop tuk-pum (?) ace. Je. 124. kashiop 


ka-wu-fo— kan-kf kun 


tak-pum ace. W. kasM-op tak-pum Syrnium 
nivicolum E,. 205. 

ka-wu-fo (ace. W. "^w-te" R. 208) s. 
the green pigeon, Sphenocercus sphenurus. 

T. ku-liu. 

ka-ar-fo or kd-uyar-fo (aec. W. '■'ka-er''' 
Macropygia tusalia and Chalcophaps in- 
dica R. 208) the ring-dove M. 

ka-un-kun s. Clerodendron Terticillatum ; 
kd-un bi s. the leaves of 01. v. eaten as 
vegetable; kd-vh nyok s. other spec, of 
CI.; kd-vn a-Mr s. CI. odoratum. 

ka-ur-fo s. the spotted dove, Turtur 
suratensis Je. 3, 480. 

ka-ol-rik s. a spec, of plant, kd-ol-pot s. 
the fruit of do. 

ka-'aych see kd-yen. 

ka-'ayer see kd-dr. 

kak vh. to shake i. q. krdm, tu-i kdk; 
to cough, hlen kdk vb. to have a cough. 

kak contr. fr. kd-ka? kdk-fop whatever 
comes to hand i. q. a-fop sd-re kdk top 
fop bu-no whatever you get take it away. 

kak-la s. cardamoms, Amomum. 

kan s. the mark ' (L. alphabet) placed 
in nyin-dd cfr. M. Gr. 10. 

kan s. the diacritical mark final ' with 
the ran cfr. M. Gr. 10. 

k&n vb. 1. to put out of place, also to 
do so with violence, to eject, to squirt 
out; kdn-nyon vb. id. jit kdn-nydn to 
squirt out urine; md-ro kdn-nyon to dis- 
miss from service also for one to leave 
one' s. from disgust. — kan tydl, a-dyan 
kan tydl to trip up. — 2. kan kan stagger- 
ing from weakness, md-ro kdn-kdn a person 
st. thro' w. 3. to give a long note as in 
calling or song or music. 

kaii id. q. kon; dum-pu kan tsdk vb. to 
place post of house crooked, kun-kdn-ho 
or kun-kon-bo adj. crooked, bent, kdn-nd 
kdn-nd or kdn-ld bent as old man; zo 
kdn-la ndn rice to be bent down as when 
overripe or by wind. 

kan-kf kan-ky6k see ki-kyok, winding, 
circumlocation : rin kdn-ki kdn-kyok. 

kan-kf kuii s. the padma-tree Prunus 
puddum (seven specc), kdn-ki pdt s. the 

fruit of P. p., a cherry; kdn-ki bdn n. pr. 
of a village W. 

*kan T. gans s. snow; *kdn-cm jon-nd 
T. gans-can Ijons-lna n. pr. of the Kun- 
chinjinga mountain see kon-lo cu. 

*kan T. rkafi-pa s. foot. 

*kan T. gan- *kdn-z6k T. gan-zag s. a 
tobacco pipe, k.-z. tan vb. to smoke p. 

kan-jok s. the end of a ridge, where 
streams running on both sides meet to- 

kaii-^en adj. uneven as leg^ one longer 
than the other. 

kan pa-map s. the pigmy owlet. 

kan pa-ha s. a spec, of night-jar said 
to have one leg only. 

*kan-lin s. T. rkan-glin a trumpet made 
from a human thigh-bone, used by the 
lama's. Hook. 1. 173. 

kan-16 kan-tse see under kan. 

kah-so s. offering made to rvm. 

kat s. (L. alphab.) the seventh final 
mark thus giving the power of t. 

*kat T. god 1. loss, damage, injury. 
2. misfortune, calamity, kdt zdk vb. 
to sustain loss, a-nam kdt nyak-kd'pld 
mi dop, fam-cdn fat, tiik-mo, a-kHp-lyenr 
bydtrtixn to have this year these mis- 
fortunes: property to be burnt, to loss 
cattle, to be robbed, to have unmarried 
daughter become pregnant. — 3. inter- 
ruption, hindrance, i. q. pvr-cdt: ob- 
stacle, delay, kdt mat vb. to injure or to 
hinder, to interrupt; so-nun kdt mat fat 
to be delayed by rain; go li-wUn-sd kd- 
sum Tnd kdt-tiin when I am speaking do 
not interrupt me. 

kit, kdt kdt dangling against each-other, 
knocking against each-other; sd-lu sd-li 
kdt kdt ba ndn to go along with quiver 
and bow knocking against each-other. — 
kdt-td kat-td sharp, harshly violent i. q. 
hdt-td hdt-td. 

kdt see kd V. 

kdn (infantile 1.) vb. to dress, kdn byi 
vb. id. redupl. kun- kdn said to sooth 
child when dressing, kun-kdn byi let 
(your mother) dress your baby. 

"■kdn— ka 

ka— ka (ka-m) 


*kcin T. dkon vb. to be rare, uncommon. 
kun-kdn s. a little scarcity. 

V&n nydn s. a Bhutiya fr. NE. of Sikhim. 

kan see han. 

kap (see kap) vb. to be hurried, flurried, 
flustered; kdp-pd kdp-pci flurried, shaking 
as garment when running. 

kam, a-kam; bon-kdm s. the upper jaw 
see a-krik. 

kdm or kal vb. to add to, to increase, 
to augment, to extend (size), to amplify, 
to reinforce (as troops), to supplement (as 
work), to superadd so as to strengthen 
falling bank or to level deficient ground; 
kom kdm byi vb. to give money in addition; 
Id-vo kdm non the month to be lengthened 
(as 31 days); kdm- Id adv. additively, 

Der. kdm, a-kdm s. a block of wood 
or stone used as a seat etc., ace. W. an 
overhanging rock W. 64. td-kdm or td- 
kdl, tuk-kdm or tiik-kdl, tun-kdm or tan- 
kdl s. a block of stone or wood for sitting 
on, a seat, a table nan td-kdm. 

kam i. q. kam V. q. v. 

kar see under kar. 

kar kun s. a spec, of betel, Areca 

*kar-'ayd f.dkar-gyogs s. plating, tinned 
over as copper, used by L.'s improperly 
for gilding; kdr-ayo ton vb. to plate, to 
gild, sdn-ka kdm kdr-ayo ton vb. to plate 
copper; also kar-yo, for T. dkar-gyal 
1. plating, 2. solder; kar-yo kyop vb. 
1. to plate, to tin, 2. to solder; kar-yo 
sit vb. to plate with white metal. 

kal; kdl-ld kdl-ld adv. higgledy pigg- 
ledy, confusedly, upside down, turning 
and twining. 

sd-kdl sd-kdl waddling, sd-kdl sd-kdl 
Lorn to waddle like the duck. 

kdl vb. to make a defense or support 
as against heat of fire. 

kcil see kdm. 

kal see luk-kdl. 

kal-dih incorr. for kid-din see kd-din. 

-ka postp. M. 79. 1. denoting local 
relations in answer to the question where 

and whither: in, to, on, upon, over. 
U-ka in the house. — dor-je-lin-nun pdt- 
ka from Darjeeling to Tibet [T. hod-la']. 
— Un-te-ka fo place it on the table. ■ — 
a-kup-ka dum, ran to spread the cloth 
over the child M. 80. — in the midst 
of, among, hu a-zom a-fdn a-gyap-ka 
bam he lives in (or in the midst of) 
plenty M. 80. — mim-sim-nyo-ka a-flik 
some among human beings. — non-ka id. 
2. with reference of time: on, at, dur- 
ing, o-re sd-dyak-ka on that day. — 
o-re to-tddi-ka at this time. — 3. denotes 
comparison c. non M. 32; a-yu non-ka to 
ti gum who among you is great i. e. the 
greatest? — 4. concerning, relating, 
regarding, with regard to; ko-lu-ka ac- 
cording to orders; for: kd-su bo-ka for 
my husband. — co nap-sdn-ha &o-myan 
ryu the rainy season is a good time for 
study. — 5. sign of the object, c, dat. 
or ace. for, to, on, upon M. 23. pa -no 
kiip-ka sot-tiin su ryu te what is the use of 
killing the kings son P. — distributively : 
kd-ka ka vb. to portion out shares. — 
6. -ka followed by nyi to have. 7. in 
room of, in place of, instead of: zo-ka 
ka to give in the room of rice. 8. -ka is 
added to the inf., partic. and root of a vb. 

a) in sense of inf. fam-cdn md-ryu-nd 
ndk-ka fd-tim-fo gat-pa in order to ob- 
serve the noxious animals (i. e. the ma- 
kara's) a fd-tim-hvcA is required P. — 

b) in case of, in the event of; a-do 
md-go-nun-ka in the event of your not 

ka hortat. of kd q. v. ; kd-yu nan-ka 
let us sit. 

ka (ka-m) vb. t. (in a few phrases con- 
fused with T. skaU). 1. to place upon, 
to lay on, ka-liin bu id.; (a-')pldn(-ka) ka; 
on pldn bii ka lade the horse. — met. to 
place, to deposit mind; 2. to suspend, 
to hang up, tiik-po-nim ka vb. to hang 
up with string; 3. to rest on (as stick) 
pd-fun ka; 4. to add to, to supplement 
sd-dyak kat ka vb. to add a day; — 5. to 
assign, to portion out, to share, to allot; 



ka — ka zuk 

to raise up as to the throne pd-no hri-ka 
ka; 6. to embrace, ka Ml vb. to hug, 
a-mo a-kup-ka ka Ml the mother hugs 
the child; a-tyak cin-lop ka vb. to bless 
by laying hands on head; a-lut-ka ka to 
deposit in heart; — 7. to ascribe, to charge, 
to accuse, tuk-mo ka vb. to accuse one 
of theft; — 8. to impose as fine cet-bo ka. 

s. a-ka ad 2. throng which goes over 
forehead or round body, belt of ban; 
a-tyak ka s. a belt for supporting fr. the 
head the load on back; a ring as of 
chain, ad 3. a support as to-ka s. a sup- 
port for load, on-ka s. a horseshoe, on- 
ka fop-bo s. a farrier, a horseshoer. — 
ad 5. a portion, a share; part J. — kd-ka 
s. a share, a portion, division, quota, kd- 
ka rit vb. to divide into shares. — kam 
in comp. a pillow see tyak. 

*ka (in comp.) or kd T. bkd s. hon. 
the words of a king or great man, com- 
mand, order; *k6 non T. bkd gnan the 
order is given. — *ka-gyur or k6-gyur 
T. bkd-gyur; *k6-gyur non vb. to pro- 
claim or promulgate the order. — *ka-cet 
T. bkd-cad s. the punishment of god or 
king; pestilence Ex. ka-cet zdk vb. to 
fall under wrath or rather suffer p. — 
*kd-td T. bkd-rtags s. a sign of order, a 
signet, a signal, a guarantee. — *kd-bum 
T. bkd-bum s. name of a T. book. — 
*k6-yuk s. a written order, a warrant, a 
diploma. — *ka-rin T. bkd-drin s. grace, 
favour, mediation, advocacy; ka-rin mat 
s. 1. to be kind, to show grace, 2. to 
intercede, to make intercourse; pd-no-sd 
ka-rin the grace of king, see also gun- 
ka-ldn T. bkd-blon s. an officer 


of king, a king's minister. *ka-ldn poii 
ace. W. ka-lon-pon, Anglice '■'kalimpong" 
n. pr. of a L. village W. 72 Qpon: a 
stockade); ace. M. ka-lun pun T. bkd-lun 
spun id. from: *ka-lun T. bkd-lun s. order, 
commandment. — */<;«- few T. bkd-len s. 
hon. an answer of great man, a reply. — 
ka-Un grdm-lim anticipating, being before 
hand with ka-len han-lim mat vb. to 
anticipate, to perform before hand. — 

*ka-lok T. bkd-lok s. disobedience, mutiny, 
rebellion, ka-lok mat vb. to disobey, to 
rebel, to revolt. — kd-l6m or kd-lu agree- 
ably to, according to orders; k6-l6m-{k6- 
lu)-ka mat vb. to act according to orders. 
— *ka-tmk T. bkd-tsag s. a given order, 
a bond, an article or condition of treaty; 
ka-tsuk ne vb. to keep do. — *ka-sok or 
kd-sok s. T. bkd-sag s. the L.'s pronounce 
it as if written Jta-sok a written order 
of king, a diploma, a patent. 

ka- abbrev. of kat see ka-cam, ka-cot, 

ka-ku-fo s. the European cuckoo, Cuculus 
canorus, ace. W. "kuk-ku"^ R. 207. "ku- 
ku pho" Je. 1. 322. 

*ka-R5 T. ka-ka the alphabet M. 1. 

ka-ca s. a sickle, a reaping hook. 

ka-cii s. a spec, yam s. under buk. 

ka-cam adv. in three days, a period of 
three days hence. 

ka-cu s. buttermilk after butter has 
been extracted. 

ka-c6t adv. in four days, a period of 
four days hence. 

ka-jak see ka-tan. 

ka-je i. q. ki-je q. v. 

ka-nyam i. q. td-klun Tbr. 

ka-nyf, ka-nyim see under kd II. 

ka-tan or k. t. ka-cet or k. t. ka-jak adv. 
absolutely, completely, entirely, k. t. or 
k. t. k. c. or k. t. k. j. md-l6t-ne i. q. fdk- 
kd md-lyot ne. 

ka-tuk see kd-tiik. 

ka-tur s. an altar can-je torn lyan M. 

ka-den or ka-den M-je s. a spec, of 
cloth of single twist; ka-den fam-blydk 
s. a spec, of butterfly. 

ka, ka-do see under kd II. 

*ka-bur T. ga-pur s. camphor. 

ka-mi (Hind, kamar) s. a blacksmith. 

ka-mum see kam under kd II. 

ka-mok du s. pestilence Ex. 9. 3. 

ka-tsdn see ka 11. we friends or relations. 

ka-tsdii s. day after to-morrow. 

ka zuk 1. vb. to excel, to be superior, 
to be preeminent; 2. s. excellency, su- 

"ka-ya— *kan 



*ka-ya, *ka-yu, *ka-yol T. dkar-yol s. a 
cup, a bowl, ka-yd Up s. a saucer. 

ka-rin T. bka-drin s. faTor Ex. see 

ka-hrin 1. adj. difficult, 2. s. difficulty, 

*ka-Si corrupt, fr. T. gser"? ka-U Ian 
s. a touchstone. 

*ka-rd T. ka-ra s. sugar. 

ka-la-si-di Skt. kdlasiddhi n. pr. name 
of one of Ta-se's wives fr. India; in P. 
manuscripts also ka-la-su-di (sic). 

*ka-wo T. ka-ba s. post of house, a 
pillar, a column; ka-wo diim-po the centre- 
post of h.; * ka-wo sap s. the pedestal of 
pillar; ka-wo sur-ji-ho a square-angled p.; 
ka-wo a-blam a cylindrical p. 

*ka-wo T. gau s. (the spelling ko-ro 
apud Schlagintweit, Buddhism in T. is in- 
corr.) 1. a large amulet, worn round neck 
and sometimes by great men on cap, a 
locket containing a picture of Ta-se or 
other charm, an amulet; *ka-wo td-mo 
sure amulet, a name once born by Ta-se. 
2. a spec, of snail. 

kak Tb. t. to sift, to winnow td-i kak. 

kak rb. 1. to be costive, to be bound 
(bowels); 2. to be overcooked; kd-kak-ld 
adv. dry, overcooked as food; man kd- 
kak-ld mydn the meat is overcooked. 

kak onom. s. the sound of blow; kak- 
Id buk vb. to give a sounding blow. 

kah vb. to separate from others, kan to 
vb. to place separate; alone, to become 
single, to be disunited, to be disserved, 
to become disconnected (as pairs, friends) ; 
to be odd. 

redupl. 1. kmi-kan-ld putting out (at 
right angles) as branch from tree stick- 
ing outwards, protending, a-nyor kun- 
kan-ld nydn to pay attention, to prick 
ears forward to hear. 2. a-kan adj. 
single, alone, solitary, an odd one; 
hlom a-kan an odd shoe. 

cans, kydn or kyen to disunite, to separate. 

*kan or kdii T. rkan s. the foot; *kan-ji 
T. rkan-bzi fourfooted, a quadruped; *kan- 
nyi T. rkaa-gnyis s. a biped, a man; 

*kan-te T. rkan-stegs s. a footstool; *kan- 
yon or *k6n-ydn T. rkan-yan (light-footed) 
s. independence, freedom, adj. uncontroll- 
ed, unconstrained, kdn-yon bam-bo s. an 
independent person; kdn-yon mat bam or 
kdn-yon nyi to be independent, to have 
nothing to do, to live at ease. *kdn-rik 
see under kon T. gan? *k6n-r6 rik T. 
rkan-dra sgrig simultaneously, regularly, 
uniformly, vb. to be regular, vik-sdn 
kon-rd rik-lun 16k for soldiers to do their 
exercises simultaneously; vik koti-ro rik- 
lun Urn for them to march s. see kon-rik. 
mlo kon-ro rik-lun to vb. to arrange things 
regularly. — *kan-lin or kon-lin T. rkan- 
glin a trumpet made of the femural bone 
of man. — *kan-l6 or kdn-l6 T. rkan-gla 
s. pay to a messenger, kon-lo koh-tse or 
kdn-lo kdn-tse vb. T. rkan-gla rkan-btse 
to pay a present to messenger. — *kan- 
sum, T. rkan-gsum s. a small table, a 
tripod. — *k6n-sdn or *k6n-86 T. rkan-za 
za-ba (lameness) lame, halting, kon-so 
nun-ndn he has become lame, koh-so 
nyim-bo adj. a lame person. 

num-kan-mo perhaps from kaii "foot" 
s. a barking deer Tbr. 

kat (contr. fr. kd-ta q. v.) num. one 
T. gcig. the indef. article a, an T. cig^ 
zig; lyah o-ba-sd mun-sd pd-no kat nyi- 
yam-o there in this land reigned a demon- 
like king P. 57. also used to express 
"a person", "one such one" as kat-sd 
a-bryan the name of such a one, used 
also in thread as go a-dom kat mat so 
I'll do for you, I'll give it you; a-yum 
kat mat md-nun-nd gdh if I do not give 
it, if I just don't pay you out. 

kat-ka adv. partly, in part; kat-sd: 
kat-sd nam-ka once upon a time, in the 
space of time. 

kat kat 1. one — another, un hu-niin rum 
hd-sd kd-nyi byek-ka mik mat ndk-so su 
go yo gdh kd-nyi kat kat-sd brydt dydt 
the Lord watch between me and thee, 
when we are absent one from another 
Gen. 31. 49. hu-nun rin kat li dyok kat 
mat he said one thing, but did another; 



kat— kam 

kat-nun kat-ka eachother; kat{-nun) kat 
(-ka) li one said to the other; hu-nun 
Tin kat li yah ayok kat mat he said one 
thing but did another. — kat rin-re kat- 
ka nyon li to tell one person what you 
have to say to another to mix two stories; 
kat-tun kat md-tuk-nd one not to be in 
time for the other (as in fulfilling en- 
gagement). - — 2. a few, md-ro kat kat a 
very few men. kat nydt one or two, a 
few. kat fi nydt fi one or two came at 
a time by degrees. 

kat-bo first; kat-bo-re the first; kaf-sd, 
kat-bo-ka, kat-bo-sd firstly. 

kat-td-dydn adv. the year before last; 

— kat-t'yin 1. at once, all at once, 
suddenly, 2. one time, once on the 
occasion; — kat-fyin md-(op-nd go-run 
kat-fyin fop-so I shall get it at one time 
or another; kat-fyin kat-fyin sometimes, 
kat-fyin kat lat kat-fyin kat lat sometimes 
one comes sometimes another, kat-dyom 
once upon a time; kat-dy6m-ka 1. in part, 
partly, 2. once upon a time ; — kat-fi adv. 
somewhere, in some direction; — kat-ba 
or kat-bi (more def. or near than k.-ba) 
somewhere, kat-ba- (or hi) Id md-nyin- 
ne no where; kat-ba (or bi) md-nyin-nd 
gdh kat-ba nyi it is somewhere or an- 
other. — kat-bon on one side, kat bon 
kat-b6n on one side on the other s. ; kat- 
bon kon-niin on one side : kat-lqn-kon nun. 

— kat-mat one thing, hat-mat hat-mat 
here and there, a-ldh kat-mat li a-nye 
kat-mat li now he speaks one thing and 
then another. — kat-mu the one, kat-mii 
kat-mu the one the other. — kat-tsoh-ka 
the day after the morrow; kat-cdm three 
days hence; kat-cot four days hence M. 71 
(see also ka-). — kat-zdn only one. — 
kaf-ld one, but one, kat-ld md-nyi-ne there 
IS not even one. — kat-lon one-sided, on 
one side, kat-lon lydk to turn from side 
to side, kat-lon klo-ld da to lie always 
on one side. — kat-lon kon one side; kat- 
lon hm-nim lih or kat-lon-ka lih to lean 
to one side, to have a bias, to bft partial, 
kat-lon kat-hn md-lih-ne to be impartial, 

to be unbiased. — kat siim-vydt the year 
after next. 

kat see knn. redupl. kUt-td kat-td hot- 
tempered, impatient, sak kut-td kat-td 
lydk vb. to be very passionate. 

*kat-non possibly fr. T. dkd-snon (in- 
creasing difficulty), kat-non-niin with 
great difficulty, hardly; kat-non-niin md- 
non-ne to be scarcely able to proceed; 
with possible contingency or eventuality 
gen. used with neg. go a-re ayok kat- 
non-niin (or Tnim) zuk (or zuk md-KHn-ne) 
I can hardly or it is bai-ly possible for 
me to do this work. 

kan vb. to be agitated; to ascend, to rise, 
to be elevated, attached to mi: mi-kan vb. 
to smoke, mi kan kan smoke to rise; — 
kan han also kan kan clouds, puffs as of 
smoke: k. k. di vb. to come in puffs, kan- 
bo smoke Tbr. — to be in a hurry, to be 
flurried, to suffer mental emotion, a-yu 
lat md-kan-niin let not your heart be 
troubled; a-ldh kd-sii sok kan now is my 
soul troubled J. 12.27; kan-niih-sd sak- 
cin au agitated mind; — kan tHh-foh to 
be flurried, to be troubled agitated; kan 
fdh fdh non-ne to hurry away. 

a-kan adj. hurried, a-kan ayok a h. 
business. — kan-ld adv. excitedly, ner- 
vously. — kan-ts'at i. q. gat-fsat necessity, 
difficulty, kan-tsat-tuh-sd ayok i. q. gat- 
tmt-tuh-sd ayok urgent business. 

"kan-tu na-yurti" ace. W. Geocichla 
citrina R. 218. 

kap vb. (see also kdp) to cover over, 
to envelop, to wrap round as garment, 
a-filh kap to cover over corpse; to thatch 
(house); Up kap to cover with leaves; 
to silence by talk rih kap. — kap-fim s. 
the placenta when first presented with 
child during labour. — kap byi vb. to 
cover over g. 

a-kap s. 1. a garment thrown over the 
body like a shawl or wrapped round the 
body (as in sleep), a wrapper; 2. the skin. 

kam I. an obsolete f. see ka we under 

kd n. 

kam II. see fyak and ka. 

kam— kar 

''kar— *kar-co 


kam III. vb. to sift, td-i kam bam (he) 
is sifting flour see kram, kak. 

kam IV. kam-md kam-md unpassireness, 
unsensitiveness i. q. md de m,d yen-nd 
kam-md kairn-md non to go along, regard- 
less of anyone or anything; kam-md kam- 
md hr&n to rise up with fixed look as 
silly person. 

kam V. adv. (fr. ka a djeal, a little d.?) 
1. a little, a small quantity; — kam bo give 
(me) a little; — kaTn kup a very little; — 
kam zon only a little ; — ■ kam md — ne not 
quite; kam md-mydn-ne not quite ripe; 
kam, m,d-ryu-ne not very good; kam md- 
nyin-ne not at all; kam,-nun gdn almost 
litly. "if a little more"; kam- nun gdn 
Mm go tsam I almost caught him; — 
kam sd-gdn-ka or kam a-byek-ka within 
a short or little interval or space of 
time; — kam-tyin seldom M. 70; — kam- 
•pat-ka in a short time, for a short t., 
shortly; — kam^at-ren a short time since, 
lately; — 2. also a great deal, a large 
quantity, hu kdm kam nyi he has bulk 
of money. 

kdm, abbrev. fr. kam. kdm- fat tydt 
little time yet. a-kup-sdn-na ik kdm-pat 
tydt go a-yu dyep-ka bam-so little child- 
ren yet a little while I am with you. 
J. 18. 33. 

*kam-[)0 T. skam-po adj. dry, zo kam-po 
dry rice without any condiment. 

kar vb. n. to twist, to curl as hair, as 
tail, as leaf. 

kd-kar-ld adv. I. twisted, curled, 2. 
hurredly, hastily, suddenly, untimely, 
3. nervously, excited, intemperate, im- 
passionately. a-ts6m kd-kar-ld curled hair; 
kd-kar-ld mak vb. to die suddenly; kd- 
kar-ld U vb. to speak in an excited, in- 
temperate manner; kd-kar-ld non to go 
suddenly; kd-kar-ld klon to send off in a 
hasty manner; — sd-kar-ld adv. suddenly, 
hence startled, sd-kar-ld mak vb. to die 
suddenly, sd-kar-ld nun li to be startled. 
kar kar or kar-rd kar-rd 1. twisting, twin- 
ing, curling, writhing, spiral, kar-rd kar-rd 
dak vb. to have spasmodic pains ; kar-rd^ 

kar-rd tydm vb. to writhe, to gyrate (as 
snake), to kick convulsively as fowl when 
dying; kar-rd kar-rd mat vb. to twist, to 
curl. 2. kar-rd or kar-rd kar-rd hot- 
tempered, sak kar-rd lydk vb. to be hot- 

kiir-kar-rd or kur-rd kar-rd 1. wriggl- 
ing, writhing; 2. in passion, irascibly, 
extravagantly, kiir-kar-rd tyam, vb. to 
writhe, to wriggle; kur-kar-rd mat vb. 
to show passion, to be excited. 

kydr (also kyer) vb. cans, of kar vb. 

1. to twist up, to turn up as mustache; 

2. to set (sun), tsiik kydr non the sun 
has set, tsuk-kydr kon west; 3. in pass, 
sense: to be crooked as horn, tooth, 
claw; to be twisted, curled; — har-rd 
kydr-rd adv. winding as road, meander- 
ing as river, rotatory, sinuous, kydr- 
kydr-rd adv. nervously, forcibly; kydr- 
kydr-rd cet-tim mat vb. to endeavour 
with all one's might. — kyar-rd kyer-rd 
zigzag; — kd-kydr-bo adj. kd-kydr-ld adv. 
wry, obligue, uneven; bent double, worn 
out, shrivelled up, parched up, small and 
miserable-looking i. q. mak det-bo: zo md- 
t'op-nd mat kd-kydr-bo nun-non thro' want 
of food I am famished; so-zdn-nun kd- 
kydr-ld nun or ap-bam to be pinched or 
perished fr. cold; ban kd-kydr-ld nun 
the knife is worn out; kd-ju kd-kydr-ld 
a thin pinched up dog; on kd-kydr-bo (or 
kd-kdr-bo) a miserable wretched-looking 
boy; kd-kydr-ld a-jdn-nd-bo a miserable 
wretch. — a-kdr adj. twisted, curled. 

*kar T. akar s. in *kar-tm T. skar-rtsis 
s. astronomy, astrology, k. ts. kyop to 
make an astronomical calculation, k. ts. 
kydp-sum-bo 1. a horoscop, 2. a calendar; 
k. ts. nak-tsiim s. astrology, divination; 
k. ts. nak-teum tsu vb. to divine, to cast 
nativities; k. ts. nak-tsiim-tsu-bo or kar-tsu 
ydm-bo or k. ts. myon-bo s. an astronomer. 

*kar T. dkar in: 

*kaP-gy6n T. dkar-gyoh s. a sausage, lit. 
a whits s. i.opp. to nak-gyon T. snag-gyon. 

*kar-bo T. dkdr-pyogs s. the white or 
light side, see co. 


kar-j6— kf 

kar-j6 s. a sort of curved knife, a 
reaping hook. 

*kar-vo T. mgar-ha s. a smith; jer- 
(kom-, fun-jen-) kar-vo a gold- (silver-, 
hlack-) smith; applied to all specc. of 
woodpeckers k.-vo fo. 

*kar-y6 T. dkar-gyal see kdr-ayo. 
kal 1. vb. to be crooked, 2. s. the 
hammer of gmi; — kd-kal-ld adv. turn- 
ed, crooked, curved, kal-ld kal-ld adv. 
crooked, lame; kalrld kal-ld 16m vb. to 

kal vb. to take refreshment; to make 
a light repast, to lunch, a-z6m kal vb. 
to take luncheon. 

a-kal s. refreshment, luncheon, a slight 
repast during day. 

kf s. cotton, genus Grossypium see kum- 
fot. ki nok vb. to separate seed from c. 
ki je vb. to twist cotton, s. twisted cotton; 
ki-je Mm superior cloth; — ki tydm vb. 
to wind c. into ball, s. a ball of c. ; — 
kt fyer vb. to twist cotton or fixing them 
together, preparatory to twisting them to- 
gether; — ki bri vb. to twist c, U hrim 
c.-thread; — ki ril vb. to roll c, s. a roll 
of c; — ki vu or vdr to wind, to twist c. 
round hand; — ki sop vb. to spin cotton; 

— ki ay ok vb. to make cotton fine with 
bow (tun-dyok q. v.) to card c; — ki 
kyiim strong double twisted thread; — 
ki pan thick twisted c. ; — ki fom bad c. ; 

— ki hyol c. which has its seed, uncarded 
c. ; — ki brydp short bad c. ; — ki mydm 
c. not yet twisted (?). 

Comp. U kd-fydr s. a spinning reel; 

— ki kydr-k6 s. a machine for cleansing 
c. of seed, a carding wheel; — ki-cvk s. 
c.-seed; — ki-fdk s. a loom; — ki-den the 
warp of cloth ; — ki-pot the capsula of c, 
c.-pod; — ki bydp carded c, which is 
separated fr. seed; — ki-mik the thread 
placed for the warp or woof, ki mik fi: 
tick-tok ki mik-ka fi to behead Tbr.; — 
ki tsiin fine-twisted, well-drawn c; — ki 
ydp quitted c, c. wool; — ki lak-do s. a 
bunch of spun c. ; — ki lun-jon the fringe 
or unwoven part of the cloth cut off. 

ki-fo— kfii 

when cloth is woven; — ki-Ut i. q. k-i- 
cuk; — ki wo-mo s. a spindle. 

ki-fo (?, ace. Je. 292 kih-fho) s. Ge- 
cinulus grantia. 

kf, kf-m, a-kf explet. to fo, a-fo. ki 
fdm masticated. 

kf vb. to prosecute, to sue for, to claim, 
to contend for, to dispute for, to engage 
with, to struggle, to gasp for. nyot ki 
to claim and dispute for a field; lyan ki 
to cl. a. d. for ground; hik ki sd-ar ki 
to contend for fowls and goats; hik zo 
ki hrvf (or hnp-lim ki) for fowls to 
contend for grain; — a-sdm, ki vb. to 
gasp for breath; ki da id., a-s&m ki-da id. 
kim-bo s. a suitor, a claimant, liti- 
gation, dispute, altercation; kim-bo mat 
vb. to dispute, litigate. 

ki in composition: ki-kd s. strength, 
power, capability, ki-kd md-nyin-num-bo 
powerless. — ki-dick great distress, misery, 
pain; e bu-niin top-Mn ki-dHk zdk-bam- 
sdn-nd kd-sii dun-ka di-wd-o come unto 
me, all ye that labour and are heavy 
laden Chr. 

kit vb. 1. to snatch, to seize or take 
away by force, to divest of, kit bu-non 
to carry away by f., to depredate P.; 
kit lyo to take away; to-niin Id a-re rem 
kd-sH lyan-nun kit md-lyo-ne yan-ld go 
kd-do bot-tun a-re rem fo no man taketh 
it from me, but I lay it down of myself 
J. 10. 18. 

*ki T. skye (-bd) vb. to be born. *ki- 
wo to have remembrance when reborn 
(hrun) of actions in former life, hrun- 
lun ki-wo to be reborn and to retain 
remembrance of actions in former life. 
kf-kyok (redupl.?) winding as road. 
ki pyon-zo s. a spec, of rice. 
kf-lim s. an excrementious fluid ejected 
from the body of a spec, of ant, ki-lim 
tuk-fyil s. that spec, of ant; ki-lim ki-nok 
variegated as cloth. 

kfn s. the cry of dog (as when beaten) 
yelping, shrill (as voice), kin-Id lik vb. 
to cry out as dog when beaten, to yelp, 
nyiim kin a shrill voice. 

kin— kir 

'kfl— kun 


kin, a-kin, nuk-nu a-kin s. posterity. 

kin, a-kin s. the forehead; kin jom 
mm vb. to knit the brows, to frown, 
back of a knife; border of country, 
tree, hill, banks of river; corner of house 
li-kin; hem of garment; margin of book 
co-kin; corner of nail; a neat, fine 

Comp. kin-tsum (Skt. laldte Ukhitani) 
"lines of forehead" s.fate, destiny, fortune; 
k.ts. Mdk-ka lyan fate bears the blame; k.ts. 
ndk-ee mat vb. to foretell one's destiny; 
k.ts.-nun to to be destined, to be fated; 
kd-su kin-tsuTn-nun to ydn go a-ba mak 
fate has decided that I die here P. a-do 
Id-yo kin-tsum-ka bam to attribute your 
sins to fate. — good fortune, prosperity 
kd-su k. ts. fop-md-o shall share my 
wealth; — elect of God in P. to kd-su 
kin-tsum-ld o-re-ka c6 md-o whosoeyer 
are of my (Ta-se's elect are with me) 
P.; — kin-tsum ryum good fortune, k. ts. 
iyum-bo fortunate; k. ts. a-jdn s. mis- 
fortune; k. ts. jdn-bo unfortunate; — kin- 
tsum riim the god of fortune P. — kin-zda 
Tbr. litly. the marks on the forehead, 
the Hindu tribe i. q. lum; sat-non, pur-du 
sit-bo. kin-zdn-bo an Indian M. 132. 

kih-gldt adj. partially bald. 

kft see under M. 

kit explet. of man meat. 

kfn-t'uk see fuk (and te?). 

kin; kin kin ddk vb. to have griping 
pains (in stomach); td-bdk-ka kin kin ddk 
to have spasmodic pains in stomach, kin- 
bu s. a small insect destructive to clothes. 

kfp, a-kfp s. a slight narrow shoot, a 
slender sprout, a picker; kun-tson kip 
young head of Indian corn; un-kip a 
narrow branch of stream; dUm kip hrap 
vb. to sew a rent in cloth issuing from 
seam or other previous sewing, pd-kip 
or pHr-kip id. 

kfm s. a spec, of small dark-brown 
flying squirrel Sciupteros albourgus. 

kir vb. to pick out, to scrape out with 
forefinger; kir-hm dot vb. to pick out, 
to extricate with finger. 

*kfl T.'Mril-ba vb. to cling to, to hug, 
to clasp, to wind round, a-mo tHk-tok-ka 
a-kiip kil-bam the child clings to its' 
mother's neck; kil-luH tiik-cdk mat vb. 
to embrace and kiss. P. 

kii s. a screw, kil vun-lUn tyan vb. to 
screw in screw; kil vunrliXn ak vb. to 
unscrew and take out. 

kil-zo s. a spec, of rice. 

ku, ku-m cfr. T. bskul-ba or 'gugs-pa 
vb. 1. to urge, to impel, to incite, to ani- 
mate, to instigate, to cause, li-ld kit to 
charge saying Ex. 1. 22. dyok kii, to urge 
on work, to cause to do work; nd-var 
ka to impel ship; rin kii to exhort, to 
impress upon; kiim gat nyi it is necessary 
to urge, ma-nyi kii vb. to repeat the 
mani, to drawl out them. 2. to play at 
the game of mik-mon or sd-fdn bik; to 
move the pieces at the game also called 
ku nyom to play a chess, drafts. 

ku vb. to pass away (as year), to ex- 
pire (time), sd-dyak kH-non the day is 
wasted, has been lost; nam kH-non the 
year has passed away. 

kuk- reduplic. of klyop q. v. 

kuk vb. to bow, to bend down, to in- 
cline downwards, lean forward to bow 
the head: a-tyak kiik; a-pot-sd a-Um-niin 
kuii-sd a-kon kUk-non the branch of the 
tree is weighed down by the weight of 
the fruit. — kUk-vyek-nyim-bo i. q. td-gak 

*kuk T. bkuk^-pa) vb. to call out, to 
invoke; to summon, to assemble, to 
invite, to congregate, to convene, to 
assemble, zum-bo kiik 1. to .convene an 
assembly, 2. to invite, piin kiik vb. to 
convoke together, to convene together, 
to form a congress. 

kuh praef. reduplication of kdn, kan, 
kom, kdn, kdn, kya/'i, krdn, krdn, krom, 
kron, krydn, kryon, klyom, klyom, gdn, gan, 
gryan; gryon, gldn, hdn, hon, hom, hdn 
q. q. V. 

-kun, -k-iin postp. see -Hn, mak-kiui dy- 
ing, mk-kiin admonition. 

kun s. a panther? M. 



kuii — kun-cdn-rik 

kun-cdr-rik— kun-ddfi 

kun s. the ridge (of house, mountain, 
nose etc.) W. 73 Q'kang"); kun brdl or 
hyok to cross ridge; kiin ryak vb. to 
follow r., kun ryak-ld the direction of 
ridge, kun ryak-ld non vb. to follow r., 
kun ryak-ld U zuk vb. to build house 
parallel with ridge. 

kun-gan incorr. fr. T. Kun-gan always, 

kun-t'ye-la adv. sound noise of falling 
post; kun-tye-ld glyot nyon sound of fall- 
ing p. 
kun-mo fo s. the snow-cock. 
kut redupl. of kat. 
kiit Tb. feminam subigere kut bam. 
*kut T. skud see tun-kict. 
kut-mo old L. s. a thief, a theft; kiit- 
mo fydn a thief and robber see tuk-mo. 
kun praef. 1. i. q. kd e. c. kiin-nyem or 
kun-em i. q. kd-nyem; kun-no i. q. kd-no 
q. v.; kun-fyer i. q. kd-tyer; kiin-tydr i. q. 
kd-fyor; kun-ndm see kd-nom q. v.; kun- 
hlen \.(\.kd-Men; kun-hlyom see kd-hlydm; 
kun-hlydn i. q. kd-hlyon; kun-sdk i. q. kd- 
sdk; 2. reduplication of kdn, gan, dyen. 
-kun, -k-iin postp. used for -nun in the 
neg. imp. when the preceding final c. is k 
(Id kaf) as md-zuk-nun or mdk-zuk-kmi 
M. (corr. -ne is omitted and the fin. k 
before -mw reduplicated see md-ne). 

kun s. a sort of fishnet, a plain net 
without the a-pot weights for sinking it: 
sun-li kun; kun tset vb. to make a k. 

kun, kun kun or kiin-nd kun-nd 1. clouds 
of smoke, 2. intense black, kun-nd kun- 
nd di vb. to come in dense clouds (smoke) 
shining black, dark-red, a-nok k. k. jet- 
black, see kan. 

*kun T. rgun s. a grape; *kun-can T. 
rgun-can s. wine J. 2. 3; kun-can tan-ban 
ci Un-lun (he) drank of the wine and 
was drunken G. *kun-sin T. rgun-sin s. 
vine J. 15. 1. 

*kun-ga ra-wa T. kun-dgd ra-ba s. 1. a 
school, a college, 2. a library. 

kun-cet-rtk s. a creeper used as to 
flavour bread. 

kun-cdn-rik s. a spec, of creeper. 

kun-cdr-rik s. a spec, of creeper. 

kun-nyel s. repetition see a-nel. 

kun-tin s. long black pepper. Piper 
longum; k. t. rik s. the creeper of do. 

kun-til s. 1. a small spec, of tuk-mo 
tadpole, 2. a shrub. 

kun-tu kun n. pr. of a tree. 

*kun-tu zdn-bo T. kun-tu bzan-po n. pr. 
Samantabhadra P. 

kun-tek kun s. a spec, of figtree, see 
mon td-ry6n kun-tek; k. t. pot the fruit 
of k. a small fig-spec. 

kun-tek rik or kuk-t.rik s. a large creeper; 
k. t.-pum the bulbous root of k. used as 
a bitter tonic. 

kun-tdii s. a creeping plant, k. t. bi s. 
the leaves of k. used as vegetable. 

kun-fil kun s. a bush. 

kun-fo s. a desire for drinking, imbib- 
ing, ci k. f. din-bo s. a wine-bibber; cd 
k. f. d.-bo s. a great drinker of tea. 

kun-fdr rik s. a spec, of creeper Tricho- 
santhes anguina, k. f. pot s. the fruit 
of T. 

kun-fdr fam-biyak s. butterfly, white with 
red and dark-edged wings. 

kun-dap s. a seed-bearing grass. Job's 
tears, Coix lacryma. kun-dap lyak s. a 
necklace made from the seed of Coix 

kun-dfh kun s. a spec, of fig-tree Ficus 
macrophylla; k.d.pot the fruit of P.m., 
a small fig; see kiin-ddn; sd-guk. 

kun-dii s. the egg-plant Solanum see 
a-pram, sd-hor, fon, nok, a-yan, hik-ti. 
kun-dun see tun-dim. 
kun-du s. soft prepared hide, tanned 
leather, in opp. to kom-fun q. v. kun-du 
kom-fun tanned hide; kun-du gin leathern 
belt or throng; kun-du ba-guk leathern 

kun-do con-gi '■^kundo chong-ge'^ s. Yuhina 
gularis W. in R. 213. see kun-ru c. 

kun-ddn s. the fig-tree, k. d. kun; go-niin 
a-dovi kun-don-kun sd-grdm-ka si ydn li- 
ren ho den-ri-wUn-d because I said unto 
thee I saw thee under the fig-tree, be- 
lievest thou? J. 1. 50. k. d.-pot 1. a spec. 

kun-dydm — kun-tson 

of large fig, the fruit of k. ddn kun; tlie 
fruit of the kun-din is now called kv.n- 
ddn; I have not seen the kun-don for 
many years M. 2. Tbr. the female breast. 

kun-dyam see kun-dyom. 

kun-dyut s. a spec, of plant. 

kiin-dyu s. dishonesty, fraud, deceit, 
duplicity, kun-dyu mat vb. to be dis- 
honest, to defraud, to cheat, to impose 
on, to deceive, kiin-dyu mat-bo s. a knave, 
a cheat, a rascal. 

kun-dyom s. a spec, otpd-am: kun-d. pd- 
am Polygonum paniculatum; P. molle; 
kun-dyom tyol a nodule or the stem of 
the plant; k. d. tydp s. 1. a thicket of k. d. 
2. name of place on road to Tuk-vor. 

*kun-mo T. rkun-ma i. q. kit-mo. 

kun-tsap rfk n. pr. of a creeper. 

kun-tsu s. name of vegetable, hrydk 
kun-tm Hibiscus esculentus. 

kun-tsu 1. explet. to lum q. v. 2. kuTi- 
tsu pd-no rip s. the marvel of Peru. 

kun-tson s. mais, Indian corn, Zea mays; 
there are the following species: kun-tson 
pur-vyet; k. ts. ya-Jcor; k. ts. nd-aydm; k. ts. 
pd-lam suk-kya; k. ts. kd-lup fya; k. ts. 
kup; k. ts. pd-dyor or pd-dyir; k. ts. kun- 
dyom; k. ts. t'yak-nop; k. ts. hyir; k. ts. gol- 
pya\ k. ts. sun-dur; k. ts. gya-tso; k. ts. 
dum; k. ts. nok; k. ts. sd-nar dyit; k. ts. 
mik-tak; k. ts. kdn or rd-kdn. The head 
of maize bears several names ace. to its 
growth: kun-tson ban kiip sdl the young 
head when first appearing; k. ts. a-bok 
the h. when seed commences to appear: 
k. ts. bok zuk; k. ts. td-ji mik when the 
grain begins to get a little larger: k. ts. 
td-jim mat; k. ts. pd-fyu mik when the g. 
begins to get a little firm: k. ts. pd-fyu 
mik mat; k. ts. tiin-bol hop mik when the 
grain has acquired firmness ; k. ts. ral ryu 
head when ripe. 

Comp. kun-tson kip young shoot from 
stem; kUn-tson kun s. stem of I. c. ; kun- 
tson duk a young tender head of m.; 
kUn-tson pak the head of m. ; kUn-tson pi 
the husk of m.; kitn-tson fop the skin 
round grain; kiin-tson mik the grain of 

kun-zom— kun-lyum 


m.; kitn-tson mik-tak a variegated head, 
some of the grain being white and some 
brown or black, also a spec, kitn-tson 
len s. a young shoot of head, besides 
the true head. kUn-tson hyO, s. the grain 
of mais out of head; kiin-tson sum s. the 
beard of mais. 

kun-zom s. the thistle Carduus, the 
following species: k. z. hlo-sd; k. z. dan-sd; 
k. z. nok; k. z. hlii. see tUn-kun bi. 

kun-ra (see rdn) 1. handsome-worked, 
ornamented; kun-ra ban or kUn-ra pd-yuk 
s. a damascene blade; kUn-ra sor s. worked 
pattern in the plaiting of basket or the 
pattern of cloth spotted; kiin-ra sor sd- 
uyak a short day? M. kiin-ra kum-fyon 
or pum-fyon (ace. W. kanda pan-thong 
the crested P. E. 204) the spotted hawk- 
eagle Limnaetus nepalensis ace. W. also 
L. kienerii. 2. a shrub Buddlea nee- 
mala, k. ra-bi the leaves of B. eaten as 
vegetable; kiin-ra bdk-to a large spec; 
kUn-ra bi or tuu-krok s. a spec, of fern; 
kiin-ra kd-nyem s. used sometimes im- 
properly for the grain of kd-nyem q. v. 

kun -ran the mustard plant, mustard 
Sinapis; k. r. nok S. niger; k. r. pd-dy&r 
S. alba, the seeds rich in oil; the leaves 
used by the L.'s as a vegetable: kun- 
ran bi. 

kun-rii i. q. sun-rii. 

kun-ru cdn-ge fo i. q. zon-rii can-ge q. v. 
see kUn-do con-ge. 

kun-riip bi (?, ace. Hooker 2, 47 kenroop 
bi) s. Dentaria. 

kun-lo s. a spec, of nettle, kun-lo bi s. 
the leaves of k. used as vegetable. 

kun-lok rik s. 1. a wild creeper spec. 
Mimosa, kUn-lok pot s. the fruit of above, 
the root and seed used as a delargent 
in washing; the latter also after heating 
in fire and soaking in water for three 
or four days and then cooked is eaten. 
2. Tbr. the knee. 

kun lyak un lyak Tbr. a necklace of 
green glass beads, see kuii-un. 

kun-lyum s. a spec, of Smilax, k. I. bi 
s. the leaves of k. I. used as vegetable. 


kun-hrom— kup, a-kup 


kun-hrom see pun-hrom. 

kun-sum s. a spec, of wild cucumber, 
Cucumis acutangulus. 

kun-$el rik s. a creeper, kun-sel hi s. 
the leaves of h. s. used as vegetable, 
pru hun-M s. a certain plant. 

kup, a-kupjs. a child M. 28. 6n-kup 
1. a little child; — a-kup zdn childish 
M. 105; — a-kup-pun a-mo-lem dyen to 
whine after mother; — a-kup dim s. a 
doll. — 2. offspring, descendants. 
a-kOp bo mo riil dat-td dat tarn vb. to 
be a pest to parents, to be a bad child; 

— kiip-nun a-mo a-bo a-liit fik i. q. bo mo 
tam-sHk gyUm q. v. — a-kup dii s. labour- 
pains. — a-kup kd-ta zon an only child; 
a-kUp td-ayu kd-ta zon kat nyi to have 
only one daughter; a-kO-p td-ayO. td-gri 
sam two daughters and one son; a-kup 
td-gri td-dyii sam two sons and one 
daughter; — a-kiip glydk s. a deaf and 
thumb child; kilp tek-bo s. the last ch. — 
{a-')kvp niim-fran-bo the eldest son; (a)- 
kvp num-rdn-bo the eldest daughter. — 
(a-)kup bdn s. a bastard. — (a-')kup byer 
s. twins. {a-')kup byer gek to give birth 
to twins. — kHp z&h a grandchild, Mp 
zon td-gri a grandson, kiip zon td-uyiju a 
granddaughter, (a-')kiip yan s. a legitimate 
child; — (a-)kup Idm-bam-bo an adopted 
child, kicp-ldm lyo to adopt a child. — 
kiip-lo s. a step-son or -daughter. — kiip 
sun s. an only child. — a-kUp dyen tek-bo 
the fourth child. ■ — a-kUp a-byek-bo the 
third child. — a-kUp a-z6n my own child 
(an expression of endearment of mother). 

— a-kiip a-hlep-bo the second child. 
kiip kyun lyo vb. to pray to obtain 

children. — a-kUp gek i. q. a-kUp bii,. — 
kup-cot i. q. dyen-c6t the amnium, kiip-cot 
un or k. c. sdl the liquor amnii. — a-kiip 
nyim-bo having children; md-nyin-niim-bo 
childless, kiip nyim to tsdt the maturity 
of females. — a-kiip ton-ndn to become 
barren, to cease from childbearing; — 
kHp-tyol the secundines ; — kHp-fin having 
children. — a-kiip Mt mat-ba vb. to foster 
an adopted child. — kiip-tbr see td-bdk. 

a-kiip ba vb. to be pregnant s. child-birth; 
(the interest of money): to become due; 
kiip bUn-bo pregnant. — kup-bo a person 
having children; kiip -bo kup -fin pater 
familias; — a-kiip bye to vb. 1. to beget, 
2. to place child on back. — kiip mat 
I6n to adopt, bring up a child M. 129. 
kHp-mo a woman whose generative powers 
are weak; — a-kiip yem kdn vb. to warn 
a child; — a-kiip yol vb. to miscarry; — 
kup rdn-bo s. a nurse. — a-kiip lydk s. a 
cradle, a baby's clothes; a-kiip lydk mat 
vb. to rock a child; — kiip sol i.q. dyeii sdl. 
— Joiip ayit s. a woman having great gene- 
rative powers, prolific. — 3. creatures, 
men zon kiip Hind, admt; simply an 
expletive td-gri td-dyO, kiip males and fe- 
males, rdn-kUp a Lepcha, sometimes also 
used in a familiar affectionate or com- 
passing sense. 4. the young of any ani- 
mal, a cub see kd-ju kiip; 5. horizontal 
root see buk kiip, a-kiip I6n to branch 
off said of stalk of corn; 6. profit, inter- 
est of money opp. mo M. 129; a-kiip 
pldm-bo adj. profitable; a-kiip md-pldm- 
niin-bo profitless; a-kiip ka vb. to charge 
interest; — 7. kiij} affixed to words gives 
the signification of small, little opp. wo 
see 1. riin-nyit u/l kiip; sap kiip Phoenix 
acaulis; advly. simply, only, merely, 
kd-ta kiip one, only one; alone, quite 
solitary; kd-ta mii kiip the body alone, 
one'self alone ; a-tet kiip onlj this; a-nam 
kup this year only; — 8. a diacritical 
mark, vowel M. 3. — point see nyin-do 
kiip s. V. nyi. 

Deriv. fam-kUp s. anything small, 
a little one, a kid; f. k. man s. a foetus 
not full grown in womb or the shell; 
the flesh of any young animal; t.k.mdn 
gek vb. to have a premature birth; f. k. 
man fa-ba a-krik yak to eat the flesh of 
very small animals causes titulation of 
the jaws i. e. disgust. 

kum praef. 1. i. q. kd- q. v. kHm-myUm 
see kd-myiim. 2. often confused with 
piim or piin- q. v. kum-fydn see piin-f. etc. 
3. reduplicat. of kom, kram, krom, klydm, 

kum — kur- 

kur— kur-tdt 


gan, gram, gryom see also kun. 4. prefix 
of unknown s. see kum-yd kum-U jocu- 
larity, with s. yd and E; kum-yo kum-ba 
virtue s.yo and 6a; in s. of "backwards" (?) 
kum-tul, kum-fal see tul and t'al, blik. 
kum-bal, kum-hydr, kum-sin. 

kum adj. arched, concave, vaulted, s. a 
small cave or arch as under rock, kicm 
kum ham-bo. 

kum-nyel explet. to kum-fal s. t'al. 

kum-t'ydn see pun-tym. 

kum-dak see ntim-dak. 

kum-dun pr. T. gzan other, another, a 
different person or thing; kum-dun kum- 
dun others, various; kum-dun kum-bak 
other, another, pd-no kup gek-lun rin 
kum-dun su-ld md-li-ne when the kings 
son was born nothing else was spoken 
of. P. kum-dun{-sd) md-dok-ne unequalled, 
incomparable, unique. 

kum-fdt s. the cotton-plant Gossypium; 
kum-fot ki s. the cotton of do.; kum-fdt 
ki do vb. to pick cotton; kum-fot pi s. 
the pod of do. 

kum-bak explet. to kum-diin q. v. 

kum-bal s. a bag slung over shoulder 
for holding things, kvm-bal tun-gip s. a 
knapsack, a couriers bag. kum-bal kun s. 
name of tree Clerodendrum infortunatum, 
kum-bal rip s. red flower of 01.; kiim-bal 
nok 01. urticafolium. kum-bal nyok kun 
s. a spec. Clerodendrum? 

kum-bu zo s. a spec, of rice. 

kum-bu s. a slave, a bondsman, kum-bu 
kum-bdn s. id. 

kum-bo mdn s. a spec, of millet? 

kum-bdh explet. of kiim-bu. 

kum-byoii see pum-byon. 

kum-brdn kun see hron. 

kum-blik see blik. flik. 

kum-zor see pum-zor. 

kum-hyar s. the occiput of head; k. h. 
horn s. the base of o., the nape of neck. 

kum-Sin or kum-sun s. upper part of 
back between shoulders. 

kur- pref. 1. i. q. kd-; kur-cen, kiir-jaii, 
kiir-tyan, kur-bum, kiir-fak-fo; kiir-tydr, 
kur-hryo-fo; see under kd-. 2. incorr. for 

tur: kur-vim for tvr-v. 3. reduplication 
of kar q. v. 4. deriv. fr. T. skar? prefixed 
in s. of starlight, brightness, asterisc of 
notched stick (?); royalty etc., front- 
part etc. 

kur see kar vb. to be warm, passionate; 
kur-ld adv. with ardour; dyok kur-ld mat 
vb. to work with ardour. 

kur-kf; incorr. for kor-ki see kor. 

kur-kun s. the outer side of bent article 
as of tree, the ridged side of anything 
in opp. to km'-go. 

kur-kuii incorr. f. kdr-k. 

kur-Ri see kor-ki"^ kur-M tydp vb. to be 
close, niggardly. 

kur-gu (kur- 4.?) s. the breast, the chest; 
un o-re-nun dyesu-sd ktir-gu-ka tyop-luh li 
he then lying on Jesus' breast saith unto 
him J. 13. 25. kur-gu sd-biir sd-bur vb. 
to expand chest. 

Oomp. kur-gu tuk-blydn s. side or deptli 
of b.; kur-gu lyon s. breath of chest; 
kur-gu hrit s. the sternum. 

kur-go s. the lower inner side of a bent 
(ridged) article as. of (bent) tree in opp. 
to kur-kun. 

kur-gdk s. fruit of any of the spec, of 
wild plantain-trees, wild plantain fruit, 
see tyaii-mo fo-l6m. 

kiir-gyu s. pretence, sham; k.g.kyop or 
mat vb. to pretend, to sham, to feign, 
md-yd-ne kiir-gyu kyop vb. to p. not to 
know; mik-sap kiir-gyii, ky&p vb. to feign 
blindness; dH kiir-gyu, kyop or ddk or mat 
vb. to sham illness, ddk k. g. mat-bo s. 
a maligner. 

kiir-gydn see kar-gydn. 

kur-ndk s. a wild goose. 

kur-ciii rik s. a creeper, a spec, of 
Oateohu? kur-cin mut s. the bulb of do. 
(bitter); kur-cin tydp vb. to be stingy, 
niggardly Tbr. ; kHr-cin tydp-bo s. a miser, 
a niggard. 

kur-nyft s. n. pr. of the fourth month, 
kHr-nyit-nyom M. 141. 

kur-tat s. rejoicings, festivities; kiir-tdt 
mat-sdn kiik vb. to assemble a party for 


kur-tdn — kur-mdm 

kur-ydk-fo— kur-vdn 

kur-tSn s. a salute, an honorary salute; 
kiir-tdn mat vb. to give an h. s. 

kur-tyak s. flattering, palpitating; Liir- 
tydk-ld li vb. to feel palpitation. 

kur-tyu s. the dewlap of cow, the wattle 
of fowls etc. 

kur-t'ak s. a minister of state, a prime- 
minister, k. t. kur-biim id. P., fd-6n Mr- 
t'ak-sdn the public m.'s; sd-gdn kur-fak- 
sdi'i. the private m.'s; ka-ldn kvr-fak krut 
md-rik-nun-sd pe lyo gdn nd tuk-po kd- 
ta-ka hlyot fo-wun-re td-do td-do 6t-n6n-re 
zdn gum when a minister and the officers 
do not agree (metaphorically speaking) it 
is like unto string the plaiting of which 
is all separated. 

kur-t'i-t'fp or kur-tu-tip s. the epiglottis. 

kur-da s. a spec, of frog: kur-dd td-luk. 

kur-daii adj. ruddy as ripe fruit, kvr- 
ddn kur-son 1. ruddy, rosy, rosy cheeked; 
2. applied also to persons of quality 
assembled together: bright, brilliant, 
splendid; 3. illustrious, distinguished, 

kur-du adj. 1. bright as star, brilliant, 
refulgent, luminous, 2. explet. of sd-hor 
star P. 3. cheerful, vivacious, blithsome ; 
pd-nyom kur-du s. a cheerful old man. 

kur-diin incorr. f. kiil-din q. v. 

kur-don s. a plantain, k. d. kun\ genus 
Musa, Musa nepalensis. kur-don gop s. 
the stalk on which the fruit clusters; 
kur-don nyun s. a head or cluster of 
plantains; kur-don pak a single pi.; kur- 
don pot s. the pi. fruit; kur-don bra s. a 
young head of pi. kur-don fam-blydk s. 
a spec, of butterfly. 

kur-nap see nap. 

kur-byek s. pudendum pueruli aut 

kiir-mdt s. freckles of face, sentigo, also 
ephelis or any similar slight alteration 
of pigment. 

kur-mdm s. an assembly, meeting, 
committee, board, council; kur-mdm c6k 
s. a frequenter of public meetings, a man 
of business, M kur-mdm c6k md-myon- 
num-bo he is not a man of business. 

kur-yak-fo see mlm-bdn. 

kiir-yan explet. of kur-vi. 

kur-ham-fo (W. kar-rha-om Garrulax 
pectoralis W. 211 ; Iho kar-^'hyum Garrulus 
bispecularis W. 210) ace. M. : the white- 
spottedlaughing thrush, Garrulaxocellatus, 
applied also to several other specc. of do. 

kur-ham-la adv. projecting M. 

kur-hun s. a scraper, an adze. 

kur-hdp s. the palate of mouth; 2. the 
gills of 

kur-vit rik s. spec, of creeper. 

kur-va s. a spec, of Catechu kur-va 

kiir-vi kur-ydn s. a shrill tone, kur-vi 
(kur-ydn) lik vb. to call out in a shrill 
tone (from fear etc. as women, children), 
to screach. 

kur-vih the space at the end of sloping 
roof, gable. 

*kur-VO i. q. kar-vo. 

kur-v6n s. 1. the front, kur-v6n-ka in 
the front; kur-v6n kon the front-direction; 
kur-v6n kon-ld pok vb. to fall frontwise. 
kur-v6n tsdk vb. to make a stand in front, 
to oppose, to withstand, to resist; kur- 
von tsdk-kun s. resistance; opposition, kiir- 
von tsdk-kun nan vb. to make resistance, 
the bosom, breast, un M lo-kruk-sdn 
kat-mu sd-re dyesu-nun go-bam-bo re dyesu- 
sd kur-von-ka ty&p da now there was lean- 
ing on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, 
whom J. loved J. 13. 23. see kur-gu; 
kur-von ddp opposite, face to face; kur- 
von ddp nan to be directly opposite. — 
kiir-vdn-lem adv. frontwards before, to- 
wards; kur-con-lem nan vb. to. sit oppo- 
site. — 2. advly. towards, sdn-gye-lem 
kur-v6n van turn towards Buddha. — 
3. the presence of person, pd-no-sd 
kur-vdn-ka ndn to go into presence of 
king. — attachment, favour, kiir-vdn mat 
or mat nan vb. to sit facing, to show 
favour; kur-vdn van to be favourable, to 
show attachment; kur-von vun vb. to 
turn away from, to show displeasure, dis- 
inclination towards, to display, to show 
repugnance, antipathy, detest. — 4. the 

kur-vdt— ku, a-ku 

ku, a-ku— *ku 


present time, kur-von klo-ld ndk or cin 
vb. to think only of the present; kur-von 
td-gum cin to think of future as well as 
present consequences. — 5. good, righteous 
in opp. to td-gum kon. 

kur-vdt adj. black and white generally 
said of stripes, striped. 

kur-vyo or ka-vyo s. a sort of basket 
for catching fish; it is placed near a 
water-fall or where fish are obliged to 
jump, when they fall into the basket; 
kur-vyo hydn vb. to fix k. v. 

kur-sak s. 1. part of dress, which covers 
breast; kur-sdk-ka tap vb. to place in 
bosom Ex. 2. female's breast, udder of 
cow Tbr. 

kur-son adj. hairy, hirsute, km'-son gya 
hairy; kur-son nyim-bo a h. person, kur- 
son t'am-blydk s. a spec, butterfly M. 

kur-sdii see son and kur-du\ kur-son 
kiir-du adj. 1. bright as star; 2. cheer- 
ful, jovial, radiant; 3. gorgeous, glittering 
as assemblage of people; kur-son 1. bright, 
lucid, n. pr. of 5 th month M. 141. 2. s. 
a planet: sd-hor kur-son. 3. the morning 
star see kiir-nap ; kur-son tuk-sim-bo a comet ; 
kur-son rip s. a spec, of air-plant (orchid) ; 
kHr-son tam-blydk s. a spec, of butterfly. 

kur-Sin see En. 

kiir-'ayak see nUm-bon. 

kur-'aydt-fo s. a certain bird. 

kul- prefix 1. i. q. kd-\ kUl-fydm, kul- 
din etc. see kd-. 2. i. q. kHr-; kul-fi-fip. 
3. pref. in sense of downwards, reverse? 
see dak, dydk. 

kul-ca i. q. li-cd s. the uvula. 

kul-dak i. q. pul-ddk a spec. frog. 

kul-dat s. wagging head a game of 
children, kUl-ddt mat vb. to wag head; 
kul-ddt bik s. derived from the motion 
of the head, a coleopterous insect. 

kul-dyak s. a shallow hole, uii k. d. a 
pool of water. 

kul-dyok plump into k. d.-ld klo vb. to 
fall plump into. 

kul-dydk see kd-dydk. 

ku, a-ku T. a-lcu, Uu-bo s. a paternal 
uncle, a-ku kiip s. a paternal cousin. 

ku, a-ku s. the growth of previous year, 
said of grain. 

ku i. q. rd-ku s. a store, a provision, a 
stock of grains; zo ku tsiin vb. to lay up 
a store of provision. 

*ku T. sku 1. hon. body or person of 
great man pd-no ku the p. of king. 2. an 
image, a picture; ku zuk vb. to make an 
image; — ku sdn kyop vb. to gild or 
plate an image; — ku pi vb. to draw a 
picture; — ku tso-nun pi vb. to paint a p. 

Comp. *ku-kre T. sku-bgre (^-ba) hon. 
to grow old L. gan non; ku-krem-bo sUn 
vb. hon. to remember. — *ku-g6n T. sku- 
Kan s. hon. sepulchre, a tomb. — *ku-nd 
T. sku-snon s. hon. an old man an aged 
person. — *ku-cdt T. sku-pod s. good 
conduct, merit, virtue, honesty, ku-cdt-ho 
or k.-c. mat-bo, ku-cdt nan fyen-bo an up- 
right well behaved person; ku md-cdt-ne 
vb. to behave ill, to act unworthy. — 
*ku-ce T. sku cas s. hon. personal property. 
— *ku-con T. sku-can hon. s. a present 
sent to a sick man with message of 
sympathy; condolence; a present, a gift 
ku con pu vb. to present gift. — *ku-jo 
T. sku- jo hon. a master, lord, chief. — 
*ku-jon T. sku-gson hon. s. a young man, 
a young gentleman. — *ku-ten T. sku-rten 
s. a figure, a symbol, a type, an emblem, a 
representation. — *ku-to T. sku-stod hon. s. 
the belly L. td-bdk. — *ku ton T. sku-tan 
s. 1. a large picture, 2. a spec, of butter- 
fiy. — *ku-dun T. sku-gdun s. hon. lit. 
"the bone of body" hon. the son of great 
man, a prince, the son of Lama; a skeleton; 
relics. — *kum-dun T. sku-mdun hon. s. 
the presence of king or great man. — 
*kum-diin c6 T. sku-mdun mci to repair 
to the presence of do. kum-dUn co-h 
hon. (I) shall go to you. — *ku-den T. 
sku-ldan s. a deputy, a representative, 
a viceroy. — *ku-bum T. sku-bum s. a 
shrine, a tomb, a sarcophagus, a ceno- 
taph. — *ku-min T. sku-min s. hon. the title 
of king majesty. — *ku-tb'al T. sku-mtml s. 
L. vi hon. blood. — *ku-tsdp T. sku-tt<ab 
s. hon. 1. an embassador, a messenger 


ku— kuii 


of king, 2. a deputy, a viceregent. — 
*ku-zu T. sku-gzugs hon. 1. the person 
or body of king, great man, 2. the image 
of gr. man. — *ku-rim or ku-ryum T. sku- 
rim s. "respectful ceremony" the exorcising 
of evil spirit by lama, in Tibet used for 
"respect, honour"; mun ku-rim maty\). to 
exorcise evil spirit by propitiatory offer- 
ing, ku-rim ydn s. fee for exorcising. — 
*ku-T6 T. ska-rags or sku-i\ s. a belt, a 
girdle. — *ku sum T. sku gsum Skt. trikdya. 
— *ku so T. sku-sogs s. hon. an honorary 
title, lord, master. — *ku so T. sku-sa s. 
hon. the flesh of great man. 

ku, bdk-ku s. the navel. 

*ku T. gvd s. loss, detriment, ku zdk 
vb. to suffer loss. 

*ku, a-ku T. gus-po adj. highprised, 
dear, expensive, a-ku to vb. to get little 
from your money; ku non it has become 
dear, the price has risen. 

*ku T. 'gugs-pa vb. to invoke or pray 
aloud to God, to call the name of the lord. 

ku-trni s. a sort of basket for carrying 
rice etc 

ku-mo s. a lady a grandee (female) an 

*ku tn6k T. rku theft and mag{-pa) 
son-in-law s. a man who has not paid 
his marriage-fee; ku mok myok a son-in- 
law, who has not paid his marriage-fee. 

kuk vb. to rake, to scrape or draw 
towards self as with stick; to hoe super- 
ficially; to pitch with a stick; to pull 
upwards with hook; to laddie, to spoon 
out, to hit with stick, to bat; to toss as 
bull with horns, kuk dycin vb. to toss. 

kun vb. 1. to agree, to accord with; 
kun bam vb. to agree, to be of one mind 
k. com to be accordant; 2. to be proper 
md-kun-nun-sd ayok mat vb. to do what 
is improper, kun-til vb. to feel accord- 
ing to the cause, to feel sympathy; ho 
sak-ddk sdm go go-run go kun til-lun si-so 
whether you grieve or rejoice I shall in 
accordance feel with you. hil fat-tuii-ren 
kun-til sak-ddk he lost and therefore felt 

kun s. 1. a tree kun Idn id. M. 137. 
H. I, 306. Tbr.: sd-sim T. sin; kun-don- 
kun a figtree J. — kun-ji kun a figtree 
applied to Picus bengalensis and several 
other species. — kun a-zo ryu md ryu 
a-p6t tyak the goodness of the tree is 
known by its fruit. — ku?i gron a hollow 
tree. — kun dym a small sized tree, a 
young tree. — kun nun s. a branching, 
wide-spreading tree. — kun min an old 
dry tree; kun-min zdn-bo said of a very 
old man without descendants Tbr. — kun 
mlam a dottard Tbr. — kuri sin a dry 
tree. — kun ayon a rotten t. — kun a-zum 
a live t. — kun hlem nol to clear tree's 
away for field. — 2. stalk, the stalk of 
corn etc. — 3. pole kur kun the pole of • 
tent. — stock sd-dydr mi-sd kun q. v. — 
4. wood kun-sd wooden or belonging to 
w. kuii Idn, nun-nan 1. to become stiff 
like wood (said of dead person) Tbr. 
2. also to be very tough not to die as 
old man Tbr. — kun buk zdn said of ban 
when very blunt. — kun glih solid wood. 

— kun ju green w. — kun tsok hard w. 

— kun al soft w. 

Comp. kun-kdm s. a block of wood 
used as a seat. — kun-kup) s. a young 
tree. — kun kiir-kiin the outer side of a 
bent tree, kuii kur-go the inner side of 
a bent tree, kun kur-go tyat-td cut the 
tree on inner side of curve. — kwfi Mop 
a chip of wood; — kun-gol Mo Parb. 
Jala-pahdr n. pr. of a mountain W. 58. 
kun-gol Mo "a tree fallen or upset" W. 64. 

— kun-gH s. a bare twig of tree; kun 
gri-ka fo a-ldn tsdt nan-nyi si a-ldn kam- 
pat-ka lyan Ian Idm-non the bird is now 
seen on the twig and presently has flown 
away; kun-gri-ka fo tsdt nan-nun-sd liyet 
md-nyin-ne there is no difference between 
him and bird perched on a twig said in 
reference to a person in any doubtful c. 
as in illness, whether a man would live 
or die, being like a bird on a twig, that 
might fly away at any moment. — kwii- 
glyan s. stem of t. — kun-cur s. a notch 
in t. — kun-juk s. a sprout from t. old 

kuii— kut 

kum — ke-bo 


or cut down. — kuh-juk Idu-juk din id. 
to shoot out. — kuii-nyak s. a shoot. — 
ktirl tuk-brdl s. space between roots and 
tree. — kun fyon the buttresses of t. — 
kun dyon s. a bush, kuii dyon cuk-niln 
from amidst of a bush Ex. — kuii pa- 
tin a stick. — kuit pd-tun a staff. — kun 
pd-(pi'/H-^ten a parasite plant. — kun pdk 
s. a stump of t. standing. — kun pi s. 
the bark. — kun pon-bo s. a box, a coffin. 

— kun, pot ydm-bo a fruit-tree, kun pot 
md-yd-niim-bo a tree which does not bear 
fruit. — kun ban,, kun a-bdn 1. s. the trunks 
of tree, the base of the tree, kun a-bdn 
a-ydk van-lUn fyaii bam-re zok rin to 
make use of language as if one was 
planting a tree upside down with its 
head in the ground, kun-bdn n. pr. of a 
Lepcha-village W. 71. "tree-foundation". 

— kun-brdn ; kun-brmt a cluster of young 
shoots from t. — kun-for see for. — kun- 
rik s. a creeper, a climber. — kun-li s. 
the seed of t. — kun-litt s. the heart of t. 

— kun-hyo s. the gum of tree, kwi-hyo 
lyak necklace made of g. — kun Man fo 
s. "the tree-climber" spec. Sitta. — kun-sor 
s. the grain of wood, kun-sor ryak-ld cit 
to split w. in direction of g.; kun-sor 
pak-ld cit to cut against g. — kun-san 
explet. to Idn. — ■ kun-Un s. a splinter. — 
kun a-fya the roots of tree, kun a-fya- 
nii.n ak vb. to root up tree. — hm-on [T. 
sin-rta] s. a carriage, cart, vehicle, k. o. 
kor-lo the wheel, k. o. zo-bo a carriage- 
maker, k. 0. kun-bo or ku-bo s. a coach- 
man, carter. 

Deriy. a-kun s. 1. a small tree, a bush, 
ko-gro a-kun s. a rose-bush; 2. the tree 
of umbrella; 3. a large link in chain; 
4. (incorr. see kofi) the hem of garment: 
ta-go a-kun. 

kun see tUn-kun tim-ld and md-i^nu it-') 
kun\ kun un s. a green glass bead Tbr. 

kut vb. to rule a line; kut-tom-bo a 
line; til-Id kut fom-bo an unwritten book; 
CO kut-t'dm-bo a ruled book. 

kut s. chameleon or a saurian spec; 
kut liim-bii s. a cock Tbr. 

kum vb. to biud round as with hoop, 
to gird roiuid; kum-bo s. a hoop, a circular 
binding, a girdle, a-kum s. 1. frame of 
anything, 2. the edging of anything; see 

*kum see ku. 

*kur s. T. gur tent; kur-cHk-ka within 
his tent G.; kur tsdk vb. to petch a tent; 
kur rat vb. to strike t. 

Comp. kur-kun s. the pole of t,; ''kur 
cok T. gur-mcog s. a superb tent, taber- 
nacle; kur tak-po s. the ropes of t.; kur 
tiui-gryop or k. ya-lo the kanauts, the 
walls of tent, the curtains; *kur fok T. 
gtvr-t'ag s. the fly of tent; ^kur ]ii-bo T. 
g-pur-ba s. the t.-pegs; *kur-sin T. -H/l 
s. the pole of t. ; kw-raii s. the feast of 
tabernacles J. 7. 2. 

■'kur-gum T. gur-kum s. saffron. 

*kur-mo T. skur-ma s. a present lak-to, 
kur-mo kUii vb. to send a pr. 

kul vb. to be surrounded, encircled 
with (as halo) Id-vo-ka tiin-kun kul-bam 
the moon is surrounded by a halo. 

Deriv. a-kul 1. adj. encircled with, 
surrounded with, 2. s. a circular support; 
a girdle see a-iwl:, tun-kul anything sur- 
rounded by a halo or with anything en- 
circled; see kum. 

*ke T. gal adj. important, urgent; s. 
importance. *ke ci T. gal ce important 
business, ke md-ci-ne or ke-ci md-nyin-ne 
it is not urgent, it is of no consequence. 

*ke T. gegs, skegs s. hurt, damage, 
misfortune; ke zdk vb. to fall into trouble, 
to receive damage, injury. 

*ke T.'gegs s. delay, hindrance, stopp- 
ing, protraction; so-nap ke md-nyin-ne 
it will be soon night; non sdn ke md- 
nyin-ne to make no delay in going, to 
be soon ready to go. 

*ke-yo T. bskyod and mgyogs swift, 
very quick P. 

ke-bo s. a dynasty, government, rule, 
power; ke-bo zoh a powerful govern- 
ment; ke-bo luk vb. to raise a dynasty; 
ke-bo ru-bo kup s. the subjects of a 


*ke-ma— *ko 

*ke-ma T. Uye-mo adj. cheap. 
ken, a-ken i. q. a-kan single. 
kep, a-kep s. a young sucker see 

"*ko s. T. gos coat in opp. dum q. v. 
vyik-sdn-nitn . . . hit dum-pdn lyo-lun a-ka 
fd-li vyik rel-ld rel-ld kor-ka a-ka kat mat 
un ko-rem Id lyo un ko-re md-hrap-nicn 
a-ton-nun p'ak-kd tok fom-bo gum then 
the soldiers took his garments and made 
four parts, to every soldier a part; and 
also his coat: now the coat was without 
seam woven from top throughout J. 19. 
23; clerical garments; — in comp. silk; 
"ko-cen T. gos-cen silk, flowered cloth; 
*ko-cen ca nak-mo satin M.; *ko-cen pu- 
mo velvet M.; ko-mo a great cloth. 

*ko s. T. ko leather; *ko cop T. ko cab 
s. a leathern belt (belt and buckle). 

ko vb. to be muddy, thick (water etc.); 
un ko da thick, muddy water; ko-ld mat 
vb. to thicken as soup, porridge etc., to 
incrassate. a-kom adj. thick (as water- 

ko, a-ko s. a kind of earring worn by 
women only; a-ko ti vb. to wear an 

ko see fyak-ko. 

*ko 1. T. go-ba vb. to understand, to 
comprehend, to be cunning, to know; 
2. T. go s. comprehension, understanding, 
counsel, advice, admonition; ko-nyim-bo 
s. a person quick in understanding, ko 
md-nyin-nu7n-bo a p. slow in under- 
standing, illiterate, ignorant. — ko nyi-ld 
mat-td-o know, understand; — ko cdk byi 
vb. to explain, to advice, to give counsel; 
CO ko cdk byi vb. to explain, to expound. 
— ko tyak vb. to receive advice see tyak. 

Comp. ko-pap s. explanation ko-pap 
byi or diin vb. to explain, to expound, 
to interpret; — *ko-lo T. go-blo s. under- 
standing, comprehension, ability of doing 
anything, talent, wisdom, power; ko-lo 
gyu-bo an intelligent person, or a p. 
having knowledge of, a sage, a philo- 
sopher, hu-nun ko-lo md-gyu-ne he can 
do nothing. — ko-lo md-ku-ne to have no 

ko-gro— kok 

capacity for, to have no understanding, to 
be powerless, ban nyi gdn, bu-nun ko-lo 
md-Mu-ne if you have a ban, the snake 
can do nothing; — ko-lo md-yd-ne not to 
know, to be ignorant of; — ko-lo fSyom- 
non the understanding is bewildered; — 
ko-l6n (lit. receiving knowledge) s. under- 
standing, intellect, comprehension; ability, 
power; ko-lm nyim-bo a person of good 
understanding, adj. sagacious; ko-ldn md- 
nyin-num-bo a p. of slow comprehension, 
weak understanding. 

ko-gro, ko-gro-kun s. a sort of tree see 
piir-gu ko-gro rip; the flower of the 
above used to decorate the altar at the 
offerings to the deity; 2. the rose Rosa, 
ko-gro a-kuii s. a rose-bush. 

ko-gr6 {-zo) s. a spec, of grain i. q. 
tson-gro or taon-zo. 

ko-ce ko-ce interj. mercy! 
*ko-juk ge-bo fo s. a spec, of eagle ace. 
M.; T. kyab-jug dge-ba? 

ko y6n s. liberty, independence, liberty, 
ko yon bam to be at liberty. 

ko-lum s. 1. impotent or having the 
appearance of impotence; td-dyil ko-lum 
s. a barren woman 2. i. q. tyan-ma an 
elephant with large body and small tusks 
hence inferred, that he is weak in sexual 

ko-hi (Parb. kohi') s. an eagle ace. M. 
Haliaetus leucogaster; pa-zH ko-M id. 

ko-hol s. (Newari: kahdl) a trumpet 
a bugle, a horn, ko-hol fop vb. to play 
a clarion, ko-hol mat vb. to blow a t.; 
ko-hol mdt-bo s. a trumpeter, ko-hol pd- 
lit (a-re-pdn giin jam) kdn ro rik-liin mat 
to band instruments simultaneously i. e. 
in tune: mlo-kdn lot rik-ld fo vb. to place 
things regularly. 

ko-wifi or ko-wen s. a spec, of cicada. 
kok vb. to copy, to transscribe kok- 
lim pi. 

kok, a-kok adj. 1. old and tough said 
of birds, Mk kok; birdlime dyok kok etc. 
2. the outer part of bamboo, pd-kok 
the stipules of grasses, trees etc. 

kok; kiik-kd kok-kd sound as of beating; 

kon — kop 

kop — *kor 


kuk-kd kok-kd bUk vb. to beat with 
numerous sounding blows. 

koii vb. to be bent a little, to incline 
to one side, to be out of the perpendi- 
cular; kiin-kon-ld adv. aquiline as nose, 

koii ace. W. 65 highest or preeminent 
kon-lo-cu T. karl-cen dzo-na n. pr. of a 
mountain W. 58 "the highest curtain of 
the snow" n. pr. of a god, the g. of the 
m. W. 65. s. the collar of the cloth 
ta-go kon. 

*kon T. skon s. the body of slaughtered 
animals, spoken especially with reference 
to the animal slaughtered as offering to 
mun; ricm fat-ba kon kat fat at the time 
of sacrificing to God an animal was 
sacrificed, applied also to the body of 
man or beast. 

*kon-bu T. skan-pu s. a small bowl, 
a cup. 

kot expletive to fat: fam-kot explet. to 
fam-nyot q. v. 

kot, a-kot adj. 1. offensive, filthy, bad 
(said of smell), 2. burnt flesh or hair; 
a-kot fan or mat to burn flesh or hair; 
a-kot novi smell of burnt flesh; kot ri- 
nom s. an empyreumatical smell. — tam- 
kot s. anything burnt or parched bearing 
smell as of burnt meat. 

kon kon flights as of clouds, whiffs as 
of smoke, smell; pum-byon kon kon di 
clouds to come in flights; mi kan kon 
kon li smoke to come in whiffs; see 
kan kan. 

*kon-cok T. dkon-mcog s. the Buddhist 
Triratna P. the supreme being, God. 

kop vb. to join, to fasten as by placing 
a piece on each side of, to fix together; 
an-to kat-nun kat-ka kop to fix boards 
on upon the other; kop-lun dam to fix 

kop vb. to be slow in anything, to be 
tardy, sluggish, to be lazy, to be in- 
active, to be indolent, supine, inert. — 
kop-bo s. an indolent lazy person; a 
dawdle, a person slow in anything; — 
zuk-ba kop-bam to be a dawdle; ri/i li-ba 

kop-bam etc.; kop-pd kop-pd 16m vb. to 
walk lazily, sluggishly along. 

kop; (see kon, kan) kop-pd kop-pd 
puffs as of smoke, k. k. di to come in 

kom vb. 1. to put over shoulders as 
shawl; dU7n kom s. a shawl, dum kom 
kom to put on shawls (women in opp. pa 
male). 2. to embrace round, to meet 
round, to unite round. — kum-kom-ld adv. 
covered over, wrapped up (as man in 
cloak), 2. (see kiul-kon-ld') bent down, 
also kun-koiii-lu. — kyom cans, to wrestle, 
to embrace; a-kyom s. wrestling, a-kyo7n 
Tnat vb. to wrestle. 

kom, a-kom see ko. 

kom, pa-kom or pur-kom s. a frame work 
filled with earth made in raised houses 
for a fireplace; a hearth stone, fireplace. 

kom-bo, kom-fun s. leather (uutanned), 
hide; kom-bo hra-non (girl) to have lost 
her virginity Tbr. 

*koP T. skor, kor; skor-ba see kor. *kor 
T. skor s. 1. circle; kor-ka adv. around; 
a cycle: lo-km' a c. of years, da-kor a c. 
of months, sa-kor a c. of weeks i. e. a 
month, za-kor a c. of days i. e. a week. 
2. theme, subject; kor-ka adv. on account 
of, for the sake of tin mi-no kd-ta kor- 
ka md-go-ne and not for that nation only 
J. 11. 52; according to, resembling, like. 

*kor T. skor-ba vb. to go round, to 
encompass, to surround, to encircle, to 
begird J. 11. 54. kor-liin 16m or kor lom 
vb. to walk round; li-ka kor kat lom to 
walk round the house; also ^\.i. pradakU- 
ni kar; — kor lam vb. to fly in circles; 

— kor kd-kydk vun vb. to make seven 
circuits; — kor da and kor da nyi to lie 
in coils as snake, rope; — kor-lun di vb. 
to circumvent; — rih kor-luh li vb. to 
speak with circumlocution, periphrasis; 

— sak-cin-ka kor bam or kor ciu to re- 
volve in mind. — kor kyop vb. to compass. 

kor-bo s. the periphery, the circle, the 
surrounding part or party; kor-bo mun s. 
the evil spirit of the place. — kor-ld adv. 
circular, ambient; kor-ld nan to be sur- 


*kor-ju— *k6k 

kdn— *k6n-Sd 

rounded by, to be encompassed. — kdr- 
rd kor-rd writhing, wriggling. 

a-kor s. a circuit, a course km' g&n-ban 
lot hron to walk out and return by a 

Comp. kor-ki s. a circle, a circum- 
vention in warfare or hunting; kor-ki vut 
yb. to anticipate the movements of enemy 
or game by surrounding on every side. 
kor-ten-ka adv. lit. on the side and all 
around in behalf of, *kor-fik T. skor-fig 
a pair of compasses. 

kyor cans, of kor to surround, to cause 
to surround; to encompass, to beset as 
animals surrounded to be caught; fam- 
cdn kyor; to surround a place with stones: 
Idn-nun kyor: to barricade; to enfold, to 
wrap up child; dum kyor swaddling 
clothes, a wrapper; to cause to recur, to 
repeat; kym'-lm li vb. to repeat; kyor-Uin 
zuk to remake, to work again; to have 
had it run round, to have its time or 
course, see suk kyor, po kyor. 

*kor-ju T. dkor-? vb. to prosper, to 
flourish mim-nim zuk-fom-bo kor md-jii- 
nd-so whosoever eats the bread of the 
widow will not prosper. 

kol vb. 1. to bend, to crook, to curve; 
2. to be crooked; kol-nan crooked; kol-ld 
bent, curved crooked; kd-kol-ld adv. 
curved at end, hooked, a-kol adj. crooked. 

*kd see *ka T. bku. 

k(j nyo i. q. a-fo yd vb. to have a good 

*kdk T. 'gag -pa vb. 1. to hinder, to 
prevent, to prohibit, to stop, to make a 
fence, to screen, to guard against. — 
non-sdn kok vb. to hinder from going; 
mi kok vb. to screen the fire; tuk-pol 
kok vb. to make a fence; 2. to become 
stiff, as from cold: hydn-sd kdk-no/i to 
be hard, callous, to be unexorable, to be 
rigid, obdurate, unfeeling, unsusceptible; 
3. see kok, to be unyielding as clay for 
making bricks etc., when there is too 
little water; 4. to harden, coagulate, 
concrete, to incrassate, to clot, vi kdk- 
non the blood has coagulated. 

kdk-bo 1. adj. hard, rigid, 2. s. im- 
pediment, obstruction, prohibition, 3. a 
stern, unyielding, obdurate person a-lut 
kok-bo a hardhearted p.; an opposer, a 
guard against, a protector, a defender. 

a-kok adj. stiff (as hand from cold etc.), 
stiff as mud or daugh not having properly 
risen or fermented (as chi). — kok-lyan 
(ad 1) s. a place of shelter or defense 
an asylum, a place of refuge, a sanctuary. 

kdn vb. to branch out; kun kon (tree) 
to branch out; un kdn (water) to branch 
out Gr. 2. 9; a-(^ur k&n antlers to b. out; 
blti (lorn) kdn to branch out in ridges 
(into roads); kon-lun gek vb. to branch 
out into families; rin kon-lun li vb. to 
br. out in speach, to discourse; kon di 
i. q. a-cur di. — redupl. huh-kon-ld adv. 
bent downwards; kun-kon-bo adj. aqui- 

Deriv. a-kon s. branch of a tree; hii- 
nun a-kon kd-sti-ka nyi-ld a-pdt md pot 
niim-bo gun-nd-ka nut dyen every branch, 
in me that beareth not fruit he taketh 
away J. 15. 2. the spout of a pot; 
posterity; discourse; road. 

*kdn -T. rkaii see kan. 

*kdn T. gan{-ba) adj. full, replete in: 
*kdn rik T. gan sgrig ("full, complete" 
"to adjust") s. arrangement, adjustment, 
settlement, regulation, organization, used 
also in s. of compensation; kon lot-rik s. 
compensation, recompence, requital, equi- 
valency, remuneration; kon lot rik byi vb. 
to give back accurately; kon lot rik mat 
vb. to make compensation, to remunerate. 
— kdn lot to or kon lot rik to id. — ^7?- 
sOmi mlo-kon l6t-rik-bo return me accurately 
my article, make me full compensation. 

kdn-ka-na 1. a kind of hooked hoe si/^i- 
ko; 2. a spec, of wheat kd-ce kdn-kd-na. 

kdii te see te. 

kdn-ki kun see kdn-k. k. 

kdn-cen see kdn-c. 

kdn-nd i. q. kdn-kd-na 2. 

kdii pa-ha see kdn-p. k. 

*kdn-Sd T. bska/is-bsags s. the perform- 
ance of confession; kon-so toil vb. to give 


kdp — kdm 


absolution by the confession of sins; kon- 
sd mat Tb. to make confession, see also 

k(5t vb. to be contented, to be satiated 
(with) J. to be gorged, glutted, to be 
filled with kot tet zo or kot md kot fa vb. 
to eat belly full, to be contented with, 
to be satisj&ed with, kdt-/d byi or kot dut- 
M mat vb. to satisfy. 

a-kdt adj. satiated, filled to satiety; 
a-kot zo vb. to eat to satiety. 

kon s. side, direction, gyom kdn adv. 
to the right; vim kdn to the left, pru kon 
to the north, tsuk-lat kdn to the east; — 
a-lem kdn in this direction, side in s. of 
a party, faction; advly. postp. towards 
go liu-kin dp I fired towards him. hii 
pun-jum-kdn-ka dyu he fought on the 
side of the enemy go-nun hi"i-ed kdn-ka U 
I speak in his favour. — cause, reason; 
account: ktip-pdn kdn-nOn hd-yu sdm 
duk they were grieved because of the 
children Ex. 1, 12. — m kdn- nun or m 
kon-nun mat-lun: on what cause? what 
side? regarding what? why? wherefore? 
m kdn-nim jdk-kun-d or -bam-miin-gd 
regarding what are you disputing? su 
kdn-nun klo-ndn from what cause did it 
fall, what occasioned it to fall? dr kdn- 
nun on this account, therefore cfr. s. mil, 
pe-lon, tai etc. 

kdn-mo s. one on the side of, an actor, 
an agent, a factor, kd-sii kdn-mo gi/m he 
is my agent, my factor. 

kdn vb. to let, to allow, to permit, to 
suffer, to give leave, to induce; by affix- 
ing the vb. kdn 1. the causal is formed: 
buk-kdn to cause to beat; zuk-kdn to c. 
to work; din- kdn to direct, to lead; — 
2. the third person (object.) imperative is 
formed: him ndn-kdn let him go; hiim 
di-kdn let him come. 

kdn vb. to taste; a-re kdn or a-re kdn 
nak taste this mn-pu ydn kdn ndk to 
taste to see, if it is nice. 

kdp vb. 1. to be in concord, to har- 
monize, to coincide, to be in unison one 
with another, to agree together, to be of 

one mind, to fraternize, 2. to be joined 
together as man and wife; bydk hydp kdp 
be united and live together in harmony. 
kdp-ld adv. unitedly. 

kydp cans, (in many phrases confused 
with T. rgyab(-pa) 1. to fix, to attach, 
to append, to join, to connect, to adhere; 
2. to begin to work, to do, to make, to 
cause, gives a trans, sense and is similar 
to the Hindustani word lagdnd; go a-dom 
kydp-so I'll give it to you. — a-rnik kydp 
vb. to fix the eye upon, to look favour- 
ably upon, to be pleased with, to feel 
attachment for, a-mik md-kydp-ne to be 
displeased with, to dislike, to disappoint 
of, to feel antipathy towards. — dyok mat 
kydp to begin work. — kor kydp to en- 
close around, to surround, to fence round. 
— t'e-tsv. kydp vb. to seal, to hii dyen-tutk- 
rem lyo-ho-re-nini rum a-fd/i giim ydn fe- 
tsii, kydp he that hath received his testi- 
mony hath set to his seal that God is 
true J. 3. 33. — pdr kydp T. par rgyah(^-pa) 
to print, to attach type or printing. — hd- 
kydp-nydn-to vb. to establish a covenant 
Ex. — sd-nyim kydp vb. to go a begging P. 

kdp s. a kind of trap for rat or any 
animal, which by a falling weight kills 
the rat, a-mo-re zo kdt-ba kdp-ka fdp re 
zdil nydh the mother (pregnant), when 
satiated with food, occasions (to the child) 
a feeling, as if a kdp had fallen on it. 

kdp, a-kdp s. a feather of bird, a f. of 
wing or tail etc., a quill, tsdii-kdp the 
feather of arrow; puh-kdp s. the large 
feathers of wing of birds, a quill; pvii- 
kdp nyu-gu s. a quill-pen. 

kdp an explet. as kdp num-fyen ci fan 
drink chi. 

kdm s. 1. silver P. kdm Id/i. T. dnul; 
kdm jii vb. to melt s.; kdm jii-set s. a 
crucible for melting s.; kdm fok vb. to 
work or malleate silver; — kdm Met adul- 
terated s.; — kdm-sd a. silver. — 2. silver- 
coin, money, a rupee; tam-pu i. q. ci 
pdt Tbr. kdm fi ydn ndn-ne money comes 
and goes. — kdm kat one piece of s.; 
one rupee. 



kdm— kycin 

kom cin-bo s. a miser; — kom nyim-ho 
s. a possessor of money; — k&ni Mn-bo 
one possessed of m. — kom fan vid-bo- 
nd-ba lyot md-ayit-ne no liberation till 
money is paid. — kom kor bam to cir- 
culate money. — kom cik vb. 1. to pay 
money; 2. to -weigh m. — kdm-nyo bi 
to lend money; kom nyo lyd to borrow 
ra. — kom top to get to find or earn m. 

— kom pld vb. to issue m. — kdm fiydt 
vb. to keep back m. — kom bi vb. to 
pray m. — kom tsu kydp vb. to count m. 

— kom tsun vb. to heap up m. — kom 
lam bi vb. to return loan. — kdm-zuk-bo 
i. q. kom kar-bo s. a silversmith. — kom 
lit vb. to have abundance of m. — kom 
mok vb. to expend m.; kom mok-ydm-bo 
s. a spendthrift. — kom vyik vb. to handle 
or turn over s. — kdm Mn fat vb. to 
waste m.; kdm Mn ndn to be foolishly 
expended; kdm-mn-bo s. a spendthrift; 

— kdm mk fo vb. to coin m. — kdm dp 
vb. to sound money. — 3. white kdm 
vik opp. jer-vik white tusks of elephant, 

Comp. kdm hip 1. i. q. kdm-sd a-kiip 
s. interest of money, kdm-{sd) {a-)mo 
principal; kdm kiip gek the increase of m.; 
2. a small piece of silver, a little m. — 
kdm-ku s. a silver image; — kdm td-gip- 
bii s. a purse J. — kdm tUn-krdk s. a spec, 
of fern. — kdm t'dn-kUt s. a silver fringe. 

— kdm fam-bik s. the Cassidae spec, of 
coleopterous insects see jer f. b. — kdm- 
*nor s. wealth. — kdm-pum-bo s. a s. 
drinking-vessel. — kdm-pdt s. 1. the in- 
terest, 2. silver pdt explet. kdm-pdt-ka 
Idk vb. to cast s. — kdm pdt i. q. k. lo-n. 
kdm po-tya s. a piece of s. set in coral. 

— kdm- f ram s. a necklace of s. beads. 

— kdm-bdn s. the capital of m. — kdm- 
mo 8. see under kdm-kup. — kdm-zdt s. 
a treasury. — kdm-yd s. silver-plating; 
k. y. kydp vb. to plate k. y. t'dm-bo adj. 
plated. — kdvi lun-kut s. silver-wire. — 
kdm-ldn s. money; silver. — kdm-sdn s. 
s. -plating; k. s. kydp vb. to plate; k. s. 
kydp fdm-bo a. plated. — kom-a-lun s. 

credit of m. — kdvi-un T. dnul-cu s. 
quicksilver, mercury. 

kdm vb. to curdle as milk, to con- 
crete, to coagulate, incrassate, jellify, to 
coalesce, to clot to solidity, nyen mak 
kdm or kdm-ndn the cream has formed; 
Ua kdm-ndn the wax has become thick, 
has concreted; vi kdm-ndn the blood has 
coagulated, a-kdm adj. boiled dry (as 
rice) clotted, inspissated zo a-kdm, man 
a-kdm, see also ko. 

kdr vb. to scratch, to scrape the earth 
(as y fowl with foot), nydt zuk-ba num- 
sim-nyo hik zo ddn-re zdn fdt kdr-md-o 
man wheii preparing field (for food) 
scrapes the earth like a fowl in search 
of food. 

kdl vb. to have imperfection in speach, 
to lisp, a-li kdl vb. to lisp. 

kdl vb. to insert, to stick into i. q. SrrfZ 
to probe, kdl-cdt; td-li kdl-cdt to have a 
severe stomach-ache lit. as if a spoon 
was pushed into the stomach. 

kdl-kun s. the walnut-tree Juglandacea, 
Juglans regia Hooker 1, 338. 

kdl-pdt s. a walnut; kdl-pot tyok vb. to 
break w.; kdl-pdt cuk the kernel; kdl-pdt 
fok the outer shell; kdl-pdt fop the inner 
skin, testa; M-po'f ^z the epicarp; kdl-pdt 
gryd the tryma; kdl-bdn (kol-bon) "walnut- 
tree foundation" n. pr. of a L. village. 
"W. 71. kdl s. a spec, of fern kdl tiin- 
krdk, kdl bi s. a spec, of fern. — kdl-pdt 
ace. Hooker 2, 198. Stauntonia. 

kya s. a large balance, scales; kyd-ka 
or kyd-niin cik or kyd-ka tek or fek-ndk 
vb. to weigh in do. kyd sdn scales and 
weights; 2. (L, alphabet) the sign v 
suffixed y: kyd, etc. dya. 

kya; kd-kyd-ld adv. drenched, wringing 
un-nun kd-kyd-ld sal to be drenched with 
water; vi-nun kd-kyd-ld sdl to be welter- 
ing in blood. 

kyak see kd-kydk seven; kydk tap 

kydn (cfr. I.yari-po) 1. to be light (not 
heavy) as matter, body; bii. kydn a light 
load; md-zit kydn-bo light of body; 2. easy, 

kyan— kycip 

kyam kyal — kyak 


facile; 3. good, kind (disposition) affec- 
tionate, sak-cin kydn-bo or a-liit kydn-ho 
a good, kind disposition, a-kydn adj. light, 
not heavy (as body also as mind). M. 30. 

kyan, a-kyaii, tun-kyaii s. a corner, an 
angle; kydrl-ka nan vb. to sit in a corner. 
tim-kydh mun an evil spirit of great ma- 
lignity and power from whose obstacles 
there is no escape. 

kyat vb. 1. to raise up carefully, kydt- 
Id tsun vb. to raise up at once without 
shuffling; hjdt-ld adv. straightway, lightly, 
unhesitatingly; kydt-ld tyiik vb. to spring 
up lightly; kydt-ld noh vb. to go straight- 
way; kydt-ld li vb. to feel light, cheer- 
ful. 2. to strip off as grain off ear of 
corn, leaves off branch. 

kyat (%eO vb. to be quiet; powerless, 
incapable, unarmed, incompetent; kydt-ld 
at rest, in tranquility, kydt-ld da vb. to 
lie at rest, to be calm, to be tranquil, 
to be placed, kydt-ld havi-md pax vobis- 
cum Chr. ; so-nap-ka kydt-ld da nyi or 
so-nap-ka kydt-ld the tranquil rest ob- 
tained at night or the tranquility of n. 

a-kydt (a-kijet) s. 1. ease, quiet, tranquil- 
ity; sabbath Chr. 2. safety P. 18. — 
a-kydt-td nan vb. to live at ease i. e. 
without working. — a-kydt tap vb. to 
obtain tranquility. — a-kydt lyan-ka gek 
vb. to be born in a land of peace. — a-%ai 
mat vb. to rest Ex. a-kydt hyo mat 
bam vb. to remain at rest, to live at 
ease. — a-kydt-sd 16m s. a safe road opp. 
to a-fydn lorn. — (a-)kydt-(a-')dyan rest, 
ease, repose; peace P. 

*kydn incorr. i. q. kyon q. v. 

*kydn T. rkyen s. (occasion; event, 
cause, circumstance; calamity) see also 
*kyem; fate, divination, destiny, kydn-sd 
CO s. a book of fate; kyan ndk or mat 
vb. to look into the book of fate; kydn 
ndk-ho or k. ydm-bo s. a diviner P.; sd- 
hor kydn ndk-bo s. an astrologuer; kydn 
bup vb. for book of fate to prove false, 
kydn fan to prove true. 

ky^p vb. to chuck, to chirp as young 
chicken, to cluck. 

kyam kyal see kdl waddling, ambling 
k. k. lorn to go waddling along; k. k. ddn 
to amble. 

*kydm-hyat T.rgya-bskyed(-pa) s. 1. ex- 
aggeration, hyperbole; imagination, fancy, 
fiction, romance; go-ni/n kydm-hydt-re zdn 
ruk-nyam mat-re zdn nyon-te yo-ban md- 
tsu-ne because it may be considered ro- 
mance and falsehood therefore I do not 
record it. kydm-hydt vydt vb. to con- 
jecture, to suppose, to imagine; kydm- 
hydt mat-liin hyperbolically. — 2. vb. to 
follow up the conjecture or idea, hence 
to track, to follow by trick to essay, to 
divine, to spy. ku-ju-niin mdn ri-sd 
kydm-hydt non-bam the dog is following 
the game by sent; — kydm-hydt-bo s. one 
who conjectures, a diviner, a romancer, 
a tracer, a tracker, a spy, a scout. 

kyar see kar see tsiik-kydr. 

kyar-kd Hind, carka s. a cotton-carding 

kyar-bo kuii s. name of tree-wood used 
for carving images; ace. M. Berberis 

kyar s. the button that retains the 
thread on spindle kd-fydr-sd kyar s. the 
button of k. f. 

kyal vb. see kar, kydr, to twist round 
and tie as hair a-tsom kydl to tie up 
mouth of bag; tuii-gip kydl; twisting 
round the neck and drawing it to a knot. 

kyal see gydl. 

kyal vb. to smooth or shave off as 
sharp edges or roughness pd-li kydl vb. 
to smooth e. of p. 

kya; kya kya touching, handling, a-kd 
kya kya mat vb. to handle, to touch 
every thing as children, o-re su mat kya 
kya mat-tiin-d why are you meddling 
with that. 

kyak s. a cane-ladder (tiin-gron), rope 
(tuk-po-sd kyak), ladder, flexible 1. for 
descending precipice to obtain the honey 
from the bee's nest; kyak yet vb. to 
descend p. vot tsam-sdn-ka kyak sd-gor- 
ka glydt to let the ladder down the 
precipice te secure the bees. 


kyak— kyiim 

kyum — *kye-bo 

kyak; kyak-kd kyak-kd adhesive, sticky 
as clay, plaster. 

kyaii vb. to be extremely cold, to freeze, 
to chill, uh kyan-non the water is frozen; 
a-re uh Qiydn) tdn-ba a-fo kyan byi when 
I drink this (cold), water it chills my 

redupl. kiift-kyan {la) expresses with 
fd-vi extreme exhaustion of body, mind 
or sound, fd-vi kun-kyah li vb. to feel 
utterly prostrated in mind and body; 
a-sut kiin-kyah-ld fyo to hear sound very 

kyap vb. to be turned, twisted as tail, 
to hang in curled or twisted manner, to 
hang down (as face) a-mlem kyap-ld mat 
vb. to have a downward hang dog-look 
Tbr.; kyap-lu mat vb. to turn, to curl 
as tail, kd-ju-sd tuk-sim kyap-ld mat. 

kyam-ka (obsolete) on account of, for, 
for the sake of, i. q. kor-ka, a-do kyam-ka 
for you. 

kyam vb. to be quiet, to be still, to 
be calm, to be quiescent, to be smooth; 
a-lom md-kyom-niin kyam-ld ham do not 
keep wandering in this manner, remain 
quiet, kyam-ld bam-md-o remain quiet. 
un-dd-re kyam mat da-nyi or un-dd kyam- 
ld da-nyi the sea is smooth, sd-kyam-ld 
adv. gently, quietly, silently, tacitly. 

kyal-bo s. a bag, a leathern bag, a 

*kyih-kor T. dkyil-kor Skt. mandala. 
kyit see kit under ki. 
kyu (see a-kdi) s. a measure of about 
a span; kd-kyu a span, space from end 
of thumb to first knuckle of forefinger 

kyup vb. to seize hold of, as child mother 
to clasp (as kite a fowl), to embrace, to 
hoop, to fix, to clasp round, to encircle. 
a-kyu-p s. a ring, cordon, cincture, hoop 
kd-kyiip a ring. 

kyum 1. to be tightly or closely twist- 
ed (ki) hlyot-lun kyum vb. to twist 
(cotton) tightly together tuk-po kyum-ld 
nyok to twist string tightly. 2. to per- 
severe in, to persist in, to return to 

a subject (as when twisting thread) to 

kyum deriv. fr. rkyen the subject or 
argument of a speach, rin kyum the sub- 
ject argument of conversation. 

kyum (see kyam) s. an indisturbed 
place, abode; lyah kyiim; man kyum, ham 
kon to preserve game; ua or no kyiim 
to preserve fish. 

kyul (also ML) cfr. T. sgril-ba vb. to 
flow^ round, to embrace, to hug, to en- 
circle; tuk-tok kyiil to embrace, to hug 
round neck P. 36a. 

kyu; adv.: kd-kyu-ld unwashed, dirty, 
filthy, unclean, kyu-kuh s. i. q. kd-sum- 
ku/i T. Ma-sa skyag fr. a saying that the 
leaves make the barking deer vomit. 

kyun s. 1. a cradle, a hammock Ex. 
kyun nydk vb. to rock cradle; dUm^kyun 
s. a hammock for sick people or for 
children, the L. cradle being a hammock. 
2. womb, kyuii nok the womb, kyun nok 
zuk-bo the goddess of procreation i. q. 
nd-zoh nyo rum. 
kyut incorr. f. kydt. 

kyum, a-kyum explet. to kydt, a-kydt 
kyum consecrated: hik kyum pyel a con- 
secrated fowl, kept as an offering to a 

kyum kyum (see kyam) a halting gait; 
k. k. lorn vb. to go along in a halting 

*kye T. skyes s. a present, ke so noh 
vb. to send a present. 

*kye, kf T. skye-ha hou. to be born. 
*kye T. 'kye-ha vb. 1. to dissolve, to 
break up, to separate; zum-bo kye-n&n the 
meeting is dissolved; 2. to be scattered; 
3. to depart. — kye-ld adv. in s. of in- 
stantly, momentarily kye-ld hi vb. to get 
a glimpse of, to see for an instant sd- 
lyiip tet. sd-lydp kye md-yd-nd-ha quicker 
than lightening.— /t^e-jno s. a peace-maker, 
one who separates persons fighting, kye- 
mo mat vb. to separate persons fighting, 
kye-mo mat-bo s. a peace-maker. 
kye vb. to be awry said of mouth. 
*kye-bo T. rkyal-pa or rkyal-bu s. a 

kyen— kyok 

kyok — kyon 


skill for holding water: un kye-bo Hind. 
viasak. can kye-bo s. a leathern wine-bag. 

kyen see under kaii. 

*kyen T. sky en vb. to be shy, to be 
ashamed, to be modest. 

*kyen T. gyan s. a wall, an enclosure 
kyen-sd li wall of house, *sa-kyen a mud- 

kyeii, kyen-nd kyen-nii shrill, sharp as 
sound kyen-iid kyen-iul lik vb. to call in 
a shrill voice. 

kyet see kydt. 

*kyen in comp. ''kyem T. skyen(^-pa) 
hasty, swift, quick: kyevi-bo, adj. agile 
(an agile person), speedy, swift; one who 
essays, attempts, endeavours, kyem- tan 
T. skyen-don s. swiftness, agility, prompti- 
tude, attempting, endeavouring, striving, 
exerting, kyem-tdn mat vb. to be agile 
etc.; to endeavour, to strive, to exert, 
to labour. 

kyep vb. to add to, to multiply, to ex- 
tend, to enlarge, to magnify, kyep-lim to 
vb. to add to; kyep tyol mat vb. to make 
accession to, to increase, to augment, to 

*kyeni in comp. f. T. rkyen see *kydn 
^da-kyem T. bdag-rkyen s. reward, re- 

*kyeni in comp. f. kyen q. v. 

kyer see tsuk-kyer or fo. kydr. 

kyel see kydl. 

kyo, ka-kyo s. barley; kyo td-i ku s. 
barley-bread; d/i-kup kyo td-i Eu fd-no- 
sd no nydt bfin-bo kat a-ba nyi there is 
a lad here, which hath five barley-loaves 
and two small fishes J. 6. 9. 

*kyo T. skyo-ba vb. to be mournful, 
to be unhappy, to be in misery, to be 
out of repair, to be dilapidated (as 

*kyo-mi s. T. skyobs and mif hon. an 
arbitrator, investigator; a lawgiver. 

kyok (cfr. T. 'kyug-paf) vb. to move 
hands up and down as in digging, to drive 
into forcibly mon kyok vb. to vaccinate; 
fat tun-gydl-sd kyok to scrap ground with 
t., to dig; nyen kyok to churn milk; prlt 

kyok to hew with axe; to pick; fo kyok 
the bird picks. 

kyok vb. to be crooked, curved, to wind 
as river, road; adj. crooked: pun-jen kyok 
an iron ladle; kd-kyok adj. oval-shaped; 
winding, kyak-kd kyok-kd crooked as tree, 
path etc.; met. to be incorrect as language, 
also used in s. of mind to be turned, to 
be distressed or to be irritated, to be 
disordered, used in comp. with lo\ also 
without the lo as an hon. term for "wrath" 
rum kyok God to be wrath, likewise with 
fw as hon. t., thus: pd-no t'u kyok the king 
is exasperated. 

kyon, a-kyon s. frost, snow. 

*kyon T. rkyon(-ba) (to stretch out) 
kuii-kyon-iid adv. about here and there, 
k.-kyoii-iid noil vb. to go hither and 

kyon s. (cfr. T, klun river, ace. M. fr. 
*Aj/0/>i to stretch out) a river, a stream; 
bla kyon ser nan-bo lyaii a land inter- 
sected by ridges and rivers; hu td-bdk- 
nun ur'i a-zum-sd kyon-sdn pld-so out of 
his belly shall flow rivers of living water 
J. 7. 38; — uA-kyon s. a running stream, 
a river; im e-den-niin uii-kyoh kat siii- 
rem un sdl-kdn-sd it-ka pld-bdn o-ba-nun 
rit-liiii un-kon fd-li nun-non and a river 
went out of E. to water the garden; and 
from thence it was parted and became 
into four heads G. 2. 10. 

kyofi s. (cfr. T. groi'i, ace. M. fr. *kyon 
to stretch out) a town, a village W. 71 
li-kyoh; pd-no kyon the kings city; kyoii 
a-lem s. a row of houses one behind an- 
other M. kyoii tel s. the end of village M. 

kyon vb. (p. kyo7i) to labour hard, 
to toil, to exert one'self at work, md-ro 
kyoii an active and diligent person; to 
be poor: md-ro jan-kyoH-bo M. 146 jan- 
kyon-bo J. 12. 4. an indigent person, 
a-jdn a-kyon the poor; see also kydn kyon 
(fr. kyoit like non fr. 7i6n) to be hurt, 
to be injured, to be blemished, to have 
defect, sd-dydr mi bu-wiiii-sd hii-nvn kyon- 
non he was hurt by the bursting of a 
gun; sd-fdii-nihi bik kyon-non the cow is 



kyoft-sa— kyor 

hurt by tiger; bu-min kyon to be hurt 
by snake. — on kyon the horse is un- 
sound mlo kyon the thing is spoiled, see 
also *kyon 2. 
kyoii-sa myar bik a spec, of warp. 
kyot incorr. f. kydt q. v. 
kyon see kyon. 

*kyon 1. T. rkyen s. cause, occasion, ac- 
count; kyon o-re-nvn mat-ba thro' that 
cause, on that account; quality: kyon 
a-ryum good quality; kyon a-jan bad 
quality, see *kyem. 

*kyon 2. T. skyon s. fault, defect, damage; 
sin, vicious quality; md-kyon-nd there is 
no fault, it does not matter; kyon-nyim- 
bo unsound, impure; kyon md-nyin-num- 
bo without defect, stainless, immaculate; 
kyon mat-bo s. a mischief-maker; — *kyon 
to T. skyon 'doffs(-pa) vb. to calumniate, 
td-do a-mik-ka kyon md-to-ne vb. not to 
see the beam that is in one's own eye. 
— kyon diin vb. to speak scandal, to 
slander, to defame, to tell tales; kyon 
dun-bo s. a telltale, a scandal -monger, 
a traducer. 

*kyon (and kydn incorr.) 3. T. bkyon vb. 
to reprove, to rebuke, to reprimand, to 

kyop vb. see /top, to be slow, lazy, tardy 
caused by sickness; ddk-nim kyop-n6n\ 
kyop kyop to be slow in doing anything; 
kyop kyop I6m. i. q. I6m-ba kyop-bo to be 
slow in walking as sick man. kyop-bo 
s. one reduced to a supine state, tun- 
kyop adj. slow; tun-kyop-sd md-ro a slow 

kyom see kom. 
kyor see kor. 

kyor vb. to be mean, low, dirty-look- 
ing, to be out of repair, to be dilapidat- 
ed; U kyor a dirty house; mik kyor s. 
matter of eye. kd-kyor-bo adj. mean, low, 
dirty-looking md-ro kd-kyor-bo a black- 
guardly looking p. 

kyor see under kyol, appears to mean 
the sound made by things falling as 
water kyor -r a dydn, un kyor-rd dydn.^ 
kyor tat-non. 

kyol— kydn 

kyol vb. to mix, to mingle, to stir to- 
gether as tea, to infuse; nyen-sd un kyol 
vb. to mix water with milk. — kyol tol 
vb. to mix, kyol-fol-bo s. a mixture J. 19. 
39. — kyol-ld undividedly, wholly; kyol-ld 
hyul vb. to swallow down whole without 
masticating, kyul-ld kyol-ld hyul id. — 
kydl-ld kyol-ld id.; kyol-ld or kydl-ld 
kyol-ld or kydl-ld kyol glo vb. to fall plump 
(into water). — a-kyol adj. s. mixed, a 

kyd see pd-kyo (steps, stairs). 
kyd vb. to take out as with spoon, to 
ladle out. 

kydk adj. handsome, elegant, comely; 
md-ro kyok-nyim-bo a good-looking, hand- 
some person. 

*kydn T. rkyan s. the wild ass of Tibet. 
*kydn T. rkyan Q-pn) simple, single, 
dum kydn s. a s. sheet of cloth; un- 
mixed, plain. 2. straightway (i-wun-sd 
hii kydn lot non on arriving he straight- 
way returned. 

kydn vb. 1. to be distressed, to be 
afflicted P., difficult, inexplicable, to 
be bewildering, see mon kyon, rin kyon; 
2. to squeak, to jabber as monkey sd- 
hu kyon. 

kydn see kon. 

kydn vb. to be glutinous, to be viscid; 
kydn kydn or kyin-nd kydn-nd adhesive, 
sticky; kydn kydn glo vb. to fall as treacle. 
kydn vb. (pret. of kydn) to suffer, to feel, 
to undergo pain or suffering; duk kydn 
to undergo suffering, kydn- bo wretched, 
miserable, an unfortunate being; a-kydn s. 
deterioration; kydn to vb. to feel sympathy; 
kydn dydk (dydk see ddk) often pronoun- 
ced ten dydk M. 1. vb. to feel pity for, to 
pity, to be merciful, to feel compassion 
for go-nun a-dotn kydn dydk I pity you. 
2. s. compassion, kydn-dydk yd vb. to 
know compassion, to be compassionate, 
to be merciful; kydn-dydk ydm-bo a com- 
passionate person, merciful; kydn-dydk 
md yd-num-bo merciless, unfeeling, in- 
sensate, hard-hearted, cruel. 3. to be an 
object of pity, kydn dydk-bo a merci- 

kydp— kra 

krak — *kra-gan 

able wretch, pitiable object. 4. misery, 
wretchedness, kyon dydk-kd alas for, woe; 
ryu-ld mat-dun gan-la sak-cin-ka ryu-wun 
md-fyak-num-bo-sdn ,ky6n-dydk-ka woe 
into those, who speak good but who 
possess not a good spirit. P. 

kyon-dyit (see d% "to cause a painful 
feeling to come") kydn-dyit never ten-d. 
ace. M. (see kyon-dydk) s. mercy, com- 
passion, pity, sympathy, vb. to have com- 
passion; kyon-dyit-sd sak-cin-nun thro' 
feelings of pity or from motives of com- 
passion. — kyon-dyit ydm-bo a merciful 
man. kyon-dyit-ydm-bo td-do fam-cdn-ka 
kyon-dyit mat a merciful man is merciful 
unto his beast; kyon-dyit mat vb. to show 
mercy, pity, sympathy. — kyon-dyit mat- 
lii/'i a-zom byi ce pray have compassion 
on me and give me food. 

kydp see kop. 

kydn; vb. 1. to be one upon another, 
to cover (as horse or any animal in 
copulation); kyom bam copulare. 2. to 
be united or act in concert (two), a-kyom 
s. embracing, copulation. 

kydr vb. to be moist as rice (over- 
boiled), to be wet, sloughy as mud, kyor-rd 
kyor-rd thin, too thin, soft from moisture; 
sd-kyor id. sd-kyor ayit fop s. a spec, of 
small red butterfly tydk tuk-nyom. 

kydl vb. to blunder, to mistake, to err 
to confound, go kydl I mistook, I erred, 
hu kydl mat he made a mistake; to mis- 
take for fam-cdn o-re ti krdk-liin lyan-sd 
kydl-ndn that animal being so monstrous 
was mistaken for laud P.: hlo-sd kyol- 
sum-bo no. — kydl, tun -kydl s. an error, 
mistake, blunder, misconception kydl-re- 
ka lat vb. to fall into error. 

kydl see under nio corrupt, fr. kyoU q.v. 

kra the diacritical sign j corresponding 
to the English r and affixed to the follow- 
ing eight letters k, g, n, p, f, b, m, h. 

kra (old L., obsol.) krd-ka 1. at the 
present time, just, now, kdm krd-ka md- 
nyin-ne I have no money at present; 
2. quickly, directly, straightway krd kra 
id. hik-niin zo-rem M-wiin-sd krd krd t'i 

on seeing the rice the fowl came directly 
to it. krd-ld Uydk vb. to cross over so 
as to arrive quickly instead of going 
round: tak-pdl krd-ld hydk to cross over 

krak or krak vb. to shake off, to brush 
oif as carpet, when shaking out dust, krak 
dydn vb. to shake off i. q. mik krap sdk. 

krak onom. krdk krdk chucking as hen 
desirous of laying eg^. krdk-kd krdk-kd 
rustling (as paper); krdk-kd krdk-kd mat 
vb. to rustle. 

krak vb. to be active, to be prompt, 
assiduous, quick in doing anything, in 
opp. a-yut sluggish; ayok-ka krdk to be 
active to work. 2. to be obedient; krdk- 
bo 1. an active person, 2. an obedient p. 
md-rd krdk-bo. 

kd-krdk from hand to hand kd-krdk 
bu-ndh to pass from one to another. 

kran; kuii-krdh-ld stooping, k. k.-ld Idm 
vb. to walk stoopingly. 

krat vb. cfr. hrit, krat, to comb as hair, 
to rake, scratch, to dress or card as 
woollen garments; a-tsdm krdt to comb 
hair, to tear meat with teeth, krdt-bo 
s. one who combs; a comb, a rake, krdt- 
ddk U vb. to feel raking pains. 

kran; kun-krdn-ld adv. thin and ugly; 
illfavoured; almost bare (tree), scanty, 
said of head with little hair or tree with 
leaves and not bearing much fruit. 

krdm, a-krdm adj. without incumbency, 
or children, free. 

krdi vb. to pick (as ear) etc. a-nyor 
krdl to p. ear; tiik-ndm krdl to p. nose; 
a-fo pd-tin-sd krdl vb. to p. teeth with 
toothstick; 7ni krdl vb. to pick out live 
ashes; krdl dot vb. to pick out (as out 
of hole). 

kra vb. to become insipid, bad and 
flavourless, said of ci: ci kra ndn. kra 
kra met. idle, lazy, careless, headless, 

*kra T. skra hon. s. the hair: u-kra 
T. dbu-skra. 

*kra-gan or kra-gen T. grags rgan s. an 
honorary terra for an old man. 


*kra-t§(5n— *kran-iik 

*kra-tsdn T. grva-Pan s. a priests abode, 
a hermitage; kra-t>6n-mo s. a monk M. 

*kra-SO T. grm-sa or grags-sa; kra-so 
md-dok-mrn-sd lyan -a place unequalled 
in celebrity. M. 

*kra-si T. bkra-sis s. blessing, con- 
secration, honour, dignity, respect, re- 
verence; kra-si kyop or mat vb. to con- 
secrate; to respect, to revere, to glorify; 
li-ka kra-si mat vb. to consecrate build- 
ing; kra-si tsok vb. to receive blessing 
or consecration; kra-si na-sd mat vb. 1. to 
counsel as yuk vwn, 2. to consecrate to 
office, the L.'s use kra-U in sense of 
virtue, behaviour, good conduct, also as 
a verb (neg.) kra md-U-ne to be virtue- 
less, to be illbehaved, useless, kra-sim- 
bo i. q. ryum-ho adj. virtuous, good, use- 
ful, kra-sim-bo viin-ta tsen-sd mat vb. to 
give or invest with office, to inaugurate. 

Comp. kra-si Ken-dydii T. bkra-sis kye- 
'dren n. pr. one of Ta-se's wives P. 

krak i. q. krdk. 

*krak-tsu T-. brag-cuf s. petroleum, 
naphtha; pitch Ex. 

kran vb. to be strong on legs, to be 
able to walk; lom kran-bo a good strong 

Deriv. kd-kran-lu adv. arms stretched 
(from side); kd-kran-ld din to stand in 
that manner; — kiiii-krun-nd apart, straddl- 
ing (as legs); km-kran-hd din vb. to stand 
with legs apart. — kin'i-hun-iid nan vb. 
to sit astride or with legs apart; kn/l- 
kran-nd to vb. to place straddlewise as 
two sticks thus A. — tun-krah s. a support 
for legs; po tuh-kran stilts, ijio tun-kran- 
ka lom vb. to walk on stilts; tun-kran 
hri s. a chair. — kruii-rik s. a creeper. 
Clematis smilacifolia. 

krat vb. to have pointed edges, to be 
toothed as saw, to be ragged at edges 
(as cloth) cfr. krdt\ pd'kvat ragged, tooth- 
ed, pointed. 

*kran-rik T. 'dra-sgrig s. miscellaneous 
stores; kran-rik mat or mat-t'o vb. to 
make preparations, to provide stores, to 
get things ready. 

*kran-cet— krfk 

*kran-cet T. 'gran-byed s. emulations, 
rivalship; kran-cet mat vb. to rival, to 
vie with, to emulate. 

krap vb. to be too short as clothes. 

krap vb. to be adhesive, to stick to- 
gether, to be sticky; krap krap or hrap- 
pd krap-pd adv. sticky, adhesive; krap-ld 
1. adhesive 2. together, krap-ld tsam vb. 
to catch together as two or more things. 
mik krap vb. to sleep. 

kram vb. to shake as straw after thresh- 
ing; zo kram to shake up and down, to 
winnow; to thresh corn by dancing on 
it kram mat; — kram-bo s. 1. a winnow- 
ing basket, 2. salt Tbr. 

Deriv. td-kram s. a dancing festivity 
at the harvest; td-kram mat vb. to dance 
and make merry (harvest-home), td-kram 
mat-bo s. any thing very nice, luxury Tbr. 

kram ; kum-kram-ld short with shagged 
head as tree, thickly headed and short, 
see krii, kriim, kri. 

*kram-su probly from T. dgra-mcu or 
Eam-su brawling, contention. 

*kram-ze ri-bo T. sgra-cef i. q. *an- 
lop q. V. 

krf; kd-kri-bo adj. 1. dishevelled (as 
hair), 2. small, dwarfish (as boy), see 
krti, kriim, kram. 

kri, a-kri s. twigs covered with bird- 
lime for catching birds fo-kri. 

*kri T. gri s. a knife. 

krf, krf-m to be bitter Ex. 15, 23. 
krim-bo, a-krim acrid, bitter (as food or 
speach); t'am-kri s. anything bitter. 

kri chipped; sd-gry6n kri see sd-grydn; 
a-krit adj. chipped (as a bason), jagged, 
notched; pd-krit id. 

*kri-bo or kri-po T. dril-bu Skt. ghantd 
s. a bell, *kri-cen T. dril-cen a large b., 
*kri-cun T. dril-cun a small b., kri-bo li 
the tongue of b., kri-bo nydk vb. to ring 

krfk, a-krik s. 1. the lower jaw, inferior 
maxillary 2. the extremity of bow sd-li 
krik. a-krik cap vb. to smack the lips; 
— a-krik cum vb. to have the teeth set 
on edge by anything sour or s. contraction 

krfk— *krip 

krfm — kruk kuii 


of mouth from anything astringent; — 
a-krik fiim-vyain-ld the lower lip or the 
chin protruding as the face of an old 
man; — a-krik tyu vb. to eat; — a-krik 
md-vyan-nvn hold jour jaw. 

krfk s. small particle applied to stone 
Idn krik a small stone, gravel. 

krfn-fo s. a spec, of parrot (?) M. 

krft T. bkres-pa s. hunger P. hit dak 
s. hunger, vb. to be hungry; krit dak 
gdn li-ka md-bam-ne the hungry person 
does not stay in the house. — krit-tun 
mak vb. to die of hunger. — krit-tim 
team or nom seized with hunger. — krit- 
nam pld to have a famine. — krit nom 
hunger, also the grawing sensation of 
empty stomach; vb. to feel hungry; — 
bit not (ddk') s. hunger and thirst; famine. 
— krit pd-hu s. a famine. 

*krin T. drin s. kindness, favour, 
affection, grace, benevolence, generosity. 
krin-nun mat-ba thro' the intervention of, 
krin mat vb. to be kind, to show favour, 
affection; krin len cik vb. to repay kind- 
ness. *krin ce T. drin-ce great kindness. 
*krin-so T. drin-gzo s. (return of kind- 
ness) used incorrectly by L.'s for kind- 
ness, krin-so yam-bo or krin-so nyim-ho s. 
a grateful person; krin-so md-yd-nOm-bo 
or k.-so md-nyin-niim-bo an ingrateful p. 
M. 107. krin md-so-ne to be ungrateful; 
krin md-so-niin s. ingratitude. 

kn'p vb. to brush off with hand; to 
rub or scrape ont with h. as dirt from 
clothes; krip-dydn vb. to brush and fling 
out with h. 

*krip T. grib s. a stain, a blot, spot, 
blemish, filth, defilement, pollution, con- 
tamination, dik-pu hip the uncleanness 
of sin; ki-krip the u. from childbirth, ii- 
krip the u. fr. death, na-krip the u. fr. 
leprosy and other diseases, yu-krip the u. 
thro' pregnancy; — krip mat vb. to defile, 
to stain, to pollute, krip zdk vb. to be- 
come polluted. J. 18. 28. krip son mat 
kdn for female to get character restored; 
krip-nyim-bo adj. foul, impure, polluted, 
uncleau, filthy, sullied, coutauiinated. 

k. md-nyin-num-bo adj. clean, pure, im- 
contaminated. a-Lrip adj. unclean. J. 

krfm see kri. 

kril; kd-kril-ld black and white mixed 
or rather a dirty brindled colour, as hair 
before becoming grey or where sun burnt: 
a-ts6m kd-kril-ld, par-cii'i kd-kril-ld dirty 
from soot. 

krii, kriim vb. to be firm, to be sted- 
fast, kni-ld adv. firmly, dum-pu krii-ld 
tsdk vb. to fix a post firmly; — to lean 
upon or press against with foot, to sup- 
port one' self or as on a stick: pd-tuii 
krij; sd-gdr krii-Uin hron vb. to mount a 
precipice sticking to it, digging one's feet 
into it; — to be determined, to be re- 
solute in actions, to be decided; dyok 
krn-h'in zuk vb. to stick to one's work 
with resolution. krt1m strong stout and 
tall; kriim zon strong and stout as young 
man, see kram, kri. 

kru vb. to squirt out or eject liquid 
forcibly a-bo/i-niin kn"(-ld fyot vb. to 
squirt water from the mouth; — vi krii- 
ld fyot (blood) to fly out with violence; 
— jit krii-ld hr to urine with violence. 

kruk s. a small sloping mat or shelter 
from rain; vb. to fix k. kruk td-gwn-ka 
kriik vb. to fix k. on back over load; 
li-krydn kriik to cover a small watch- 
house with k. 

krut vb. to drag, to pull, kn'it bu-non 
to pull along. 

krum see krii. 

krum; krum kriivi said of hair long and 
flowing or reaching to level of shoulder 
a-tsom kriim krum long flowing locks. 

krul i. q. h-dl. 

kru vb. to be rosy, to be ruddy as ripe 
fruit or face; a-krum adj. ruddy, ripe (as 
peach, apple etc.). 

*kru T. gru s. an angle, *krup-ji T. gru- 
bzi a quadrilateral, a square. 

*kru T. gru s. a large ship, see nd-vdr; 
son kru s. a steam-boat, a steamer. 

kruk kun s. the bail-tree; hlo-sd and 
dan-sd two specc; kruk- pot the bail- 


''kruk— krul 

krul— kro 

*kruk T. sgrug-pa vb. to pick, to gather 
up, lo kruk s. a student, a disciple, the 
apostles Chr. 

kruh i. q. grun. 

kruii t'am-blyak s. a spec, of butterfly. 

*krun-yuk T. drun-yig s. a writer, a 

krut cfr.T.^j'o* s. council; advice, counsel, 
opinion, consultation, krut com vb. to 
accord in counsel, to be unanimous; — 
h'ut tydp-to vb. to confirm the opinion 
of council; — krut fik-t'o or mat-t'o or 
li-fo to make an agreement; — krut dok 
to be of one opinion or the advice to 
accord with state of affairs, to be un- 
animous in consultation; — krut don to 
seek counsel, to ask advice; — krut byi 
vb. to give advice ; — krut a-ryum (a-jdri) 
hyi or do yd to give good (bad) advice; 

— krut mat vb. to consult. P. sot-MA- 
sd krut mat vb. to consult to kill. — krut 
rik vb. to consult, hd-yu-nun hum s6t- 
sdn h'ut rik non they took counsel to- 
gether for to put him to death J. 11. 53. 

— krut lyo vb. to receive advice. — 
krut vydt vb. to ask counsel. — krut-ka 
fyen vb. to take into counsel. — md-ro 
krut-ka von or tat vb. to agree with in 

Comp. krut-nyim-bo one who receives 
or gives counsel, a counsellor. — krut 
tydr s. the time for consultation, to have 
reached the age for giving advice, middle 
age, krut tydr-ka mak vb. to die in middle 
age. — • krut don lyan md-nyin-ne there is 
no one to consult; there is no mode of 
consulting. — krut-lom s. the course or 
plan decided upon in consultation; kruf- 
I6m mat vb. to follow one's advice or 
the course directed in consultation. 

krup vb. to be astringent, a-krup adj. 

*krup see under *kru. 

krul s. the bed of river or course of 
mountain, the divisions of land or country; 
un krul Urn vb. to walk along bed of 
river, to follow the windings of stream; 
lyan krul I6m vb. to walk along course 

of mountain; blu krul-lun Mm vb. to 
follow the course of the ridge. 

krul see krii; krul-ld krul-ld tall applied 
to man or beast. 

*kre T. dre see on-kre. 

*kre T. bgre-ba see ku kre. 

*kre T. gral or gra^ s. a species, a 
class, rank series, order, kind. 

kre incorr. f. krd q. v. 

krek vb. to be dried up, to be ex- 
ceedingly dry, krek-kd krek-kd very dry 
and brittle; krek-kd krek-kd s6n to be- 
come very dry and brittle, kd- krek- Id 
adv. dry and hard, so as to be brittle, 

kren vb. to be exhausted, barren (as 

kret, pa-kret in rage, passionateness 
pd-kret nyim-bo or ydm-bo or pd-kret 
sum-bo s. passionate, a passionate person; 
pd-kret mat vb. to be in a rage; pd-kret- 
Id adv. 

kren vb. to long for (as for food), to 
desire greatly, to labour (as in childbed), 
to strain etc. kren-ld ndk vb. to push 

krep vb. to be miserly, to be stingy, 
niggardly, to be unproductive (as earth); 
krep-bo s. a miser. 

*krem-bo T. dran-pa s. memory; krem-bo 
nyi to have good m. ; krem-bo md-nyin-ne 
not to be able to remember, krem-bo md 
nyum-bo forgetful; krem-bo sun vb. to call 
to memory; krem-bo sun tet mak vb. to 
die as quick as thought. 

krel vb. to put into as into hole, to 
pour into, to enter, to penetrate, krel-ld 
tap vb. to put into, to insert. 

*kro T. skra see *can-kro, *u-kro. 

*kro T. grva (see also kro) s. a school, a 
cell of convent; *kro-pdn T. grva-dpon s. 
a schoolmaster, a teacher, *kro-hruk T. 
grva-prug s. a disciple, schoolboy. 

*kro T. grogs s. 1. a companion, 
2. counsel advice, arrangement. 

*kro T. spro s. gaieties: kro kro; go g6 
kro kro festivities, gaieties. 

kro: kd-kro-ld adv. stretched out as 

*krok— krdk 

horns (a-r&ii); bik a-ron kd-kro-ld cow 
with horns branching out in front; or 
legs {a-(on)\ kd-kro-ld nan \h. to sit with 
arms or legs, stretched out. 

*krok T. skrag vb. to be terrified, to 
be alarmed, to be startled, krok dydn vb. 
to be terrified, to be put to flight; krok- 
Idt s. terror, alarm, consternation. 

krok krok onom. cracking sound as of 
dry leather. 

*kron T. 'c/ron(-pa) hon. vb. to die pd- 
no kron-non the king is dead. L. mak. 

*kron T. gran vb. to be stiff from cold 

see kron. 

*kron T. gron s. a house, village, town. 

kron-yiik J. 8. 2 incorr. f. krun-yuk q. v. 

krom projecting as teeth fo krom. — 

kinn-krovi-lu adv. id. — kun-krom-bo adj. 

beaked, pointed as mouth. 

krol vb. to get foot into a hole when 
walking; Um-ba a-t'on krol-lun Mo when 
walking to trip in a hole and fall. 

*kr(5 vb. T. pral-la to cut into pieces, 
to carve, to slice (as meat, paper etc.) 
dum kro vb. to cut out clothes. 

*krd-bo T. gna-pa see under kro, 3. a 
religious scholar, a disciple of lama, a 

krdk, a-krok s. a seam in cloth. 
krdk vb. to bend fingers (half-way) 
a-kd krok hand with fingers half-bent; 
a-kd kr6k-lvn buk vb. to beat, with bent 
knuckles of fingers. 

krdk vb. to continue; Mm kr6k-kun si- 
sot non to be fatigued fmrn long walk- 
ing. — nan krok-kim si-sot non to be 
weary from long sitting. — mm kd-yu vydt 
krok-kun-sd Tm luk-Uin hd-yu-lem li so 
when they continued asking him, he lift- 
ed up himself and said unto them J. 8. 7. 
krdk vb. to be good, right, proper; 
krok-pa it is good, it is well, is is right; 
a-dom bo len mi-ka fan-niin krok it were 
better to burn it then to give it to you. 
— to be well, to be healthy; to get better 
o-re-niln' irnat-lun hii-nun hd-yum ^o-tsdt 
sd-re-ka krok-pii vydt then enquired he 
of them the hour when he began to 

"krdk— krdp 


amend J. 4. 52. tal-ld krok-sdn md-nyin-ne 
there is no chance of his getting better 
M. to be glad P. 

■'krdk T. drags adv. very, much greatly; 
ti krok very great, monstruous P. cu. 
krok verj small. 

*krdk T. drag (confused with grags) 
adj. stout, strong, brave, violent, severe, 
mighty. *kr6k-bo T. drag-po or grags-pa 
a great man, a noble man; chieftain J. 
pd-no krok-bo-ka to the great king M. 136. 
krdk-bo-nun hum li the nobleman said 
uuto him J. 4. 49. *krdk ce T. grags(-pa) 
ce(-ba) wearing the dress of great person, 
assuming the great man; krok ce mat vb. 
to assume the great m., to give one'self 

*krdn T. 'grans{-pa) vb. ("to be satisfied 
with food") hou. to serve up food: pd- 
no-sd kro II. 

krdn vb. to be aloud, noisely; lik krdn 

to call aloud; hryop krdn to weep aloud. 

krdn vb. to be stiff (as leather), coarse 

(as cloth), rigid, unyielding; a-kron adj. 

coarse (as furniture, cloth). 

krdii high, tall; longlegged; kUn-kroa- 
Id high; — krorl krok or tun-kroh-bo adj. 
longlegged (as man or animals); — kr&h 
bik a cow of the plains longlegged in 
opp. to the Bhutiya nyo bik a hill cow; — 
kroh bik zdn deceitful Tbr. 

krdn-fo s. a spec, of parrot, see krin-fo M. 
krdt (see krat, krii) vb. to be gapped 
as ban ban krdt, to be jagged, broken, 
as tooth a-fo krdt, to lie or be placed 
with intervals between kun-tson krdt a 
head of maize with grain here and there 

redupl. krijit-td krdt-td ragged (as 
clothes), in patches as cultivated ground; 
a-krdt s. a gap or notch in teeth, broken 
tooth; half formed said of the grain of 
Indian corn. ' — pd-krdt adj. jagged, 

krdn vb. to scratch (as with nails, 
claws), pUn-ci-nun krdn. 

krdp vb. to cast from the hand, to 
throw from the h. in quantities, Id/i krdp 


*krdp rik— kryul 

vb. to fling a shower of stones; yiik krop 
vb. to send off nnmerous letters; — to 
winnow td-lyu/'i krop, to sift, to separate 
as corn from chaff or dirt, to knock 
down as fruit from tree, fam-pot krop 
to beat grain from head (as sesamum); 
kvn-dap krop vb. to beat out the grain 
from the kun-dap grass. 

*krdp rik T. grabs 6-griff(-pa) i.q. so mat. 

krdrn see krop vb. 1. to send in every 
direction; to spread out in every direction. 
yuk krovi-luii klon to send letters in all 
directions; advly. (and krom krorri) on 
every side, in every direction; a-ts6m 
krom krdvi hu hair to be dishevelled, fly- 
ing in every direction; 2. to be violent 
in speach, so as to be heard in every 
direction, md-ro krom lik or krom-Uiii lik 
or krom-re zdh lik to call aloud, to roar. 

kryan s. a small house or shed as to 
afford shelter to watchman over fields, 
li-krydn or nyot- or (redupl.) kun-krydii 
or U kvh-krydn s. id. 

kryap-pa adv. completely, altogether. 

kryak vb. to tread with foot, to tread, 
to tramp; kryak lyan the place where 
one treads. 

kryap vb. to spring upon, to pitch upon, 
kryap-ld ful vb. to spring upon as horse; 
kryap-ld tsdt vb. to quickly spring upon 
or alight upon as upon horseback, bird 
upon branch. 

kryu, a-kryu s. the slough of a snake, 
the skin of a bird, the scurf, skin, epi- 
dermis; hu-nun kryu fan the snake has 
cast skin. 

kryuk vb. to be deprived, emptied of 
its virtue as comb of bees, after honey 
is extracted; vot kryuk; md-ro a-fyu kryuk- 
ndn the man has become an empty shell. 
a-kryuk s. the comb of bees after honey 
extracted; see tu-kryuk and gryuk. 

kryup vb. to suck dry as orange etc., 
ci pd-ti^ut; kryup-ld nu the o. is sucked 
dry; kryup fat to be sucked dry, kryup- 
ld dried up as skin over sore. 

kryul, a-kryul adj. full, clustered, a-tyum 
kryul full clustered bunches. 


kryok vb. to cry out (fowl). 

kryok vb. to hoe, see tdk-tsu. 

kryon; kuh-kryoh-ld erect used in s. of 
convalescence, kH k-kryoh-ld tet luk nan 
to be sufficiently recovered, to rise fit, 
to get up. 

kryon kryon here and there kryon kryon 
iidk vb. to look here and there. 

kryom vb. to be moved upwards as 
roof by wind; as the earth when burrow- 
ed by mole; kryom-ld or kryom kryom adv. 
up and down, flapping upward, motion 
backward and forward motion; kryom 
kryom tyu vb. to move up and down (as 
jungle) to flap, to flatter: kru-sd tor; 
kryom kryom tyii-bam the sails of the 
ship are flapping; pur-uyam-nixn fdt 
kryom-ld di the earth is raised by the 
mole; sun-mut-tun li-cap-mum kryom-ld 
lut the roof of the house is blown off 
by the wind. 

kryol; kryol-ld nearly all, almost all 
kryol-ld non nearly all gone, kryol-ld Mat 
nearly all fallen. 

kryok vb. 1. to dash down, to throw 
down with violence; 2. to go off as gun 
Tbr. tsun krydk-nyon to lift up and dash 
down, to glance off, to slide off as bullet. 

kryon p. kryon vb. 1. to praise, to com- 
mend, md-ro kd-sum kryon go-run dyep 
go-run whether men praise or find fault 
with me, it is all the same. — kryon-ldt 
s. praise, commendation, eulogy, applause. 
— kryon- bo one who commends or one 
who receives commendation. — kryon cok 
laudable, praiseworthy. — kryon-mu spe- 
cious, plausible. 

Deriv. a-kryon or td-kryon s. praise 
commendation, a-kryon fop-sd/i tun-dok 
ka to obtain praise; td-kryon sd vb. to 
praise, to commend, to laud; md-ro-nun 
td-krydn-sd yda jilm-bo ton to give alms 
in order to obtain ])raise of man. 

krydm vb. to unite, to act in concord, 
to agree, to accord with; kryom-luh zuk 
vb. to act in concert, kryom mat vb. to 
unite in doing anything; — kryom kryom 
or kryom-ld in union together, in concord. 

kla — klah 

klan — klip 


at one time; kryom-ld (kr. kr.) tsun vb. 
to unite in lifting; kr.-ld (kr. kr.) ndn 
to walk in unison (as soldiers); kr.-ld 
(kr. kr.) mydn to be cooked together or 
to be all ready cooked at the same time. 

kla vb. to cut in two with one stroke; 
to cleave; see kla. 

kldk (plainly, openly, bluntly) kldk-ld 
or kluk-kd kldk-kd adv. kldk-ld or kluk-kd 
kldk-kd li vb. to speak plainly, openly, 
bluntly; kldk-ld si vb. to see plainly. 

klak-tsum s. obligation? yuk-mun co-bo 
ts'dm-ka v6n-nan-ba kldk-tsum md-fup-ne 
when a priest enters into the exercise 
of ascetism, he does not readily conform 
to its obligations. M. 

kidp, adv. kldp-ld nearly closed (as 
eyes), a-mik kldp-ld cam to have eyes 
nearly closed as when sleeping. 

kidm vb. to move or change position 
a little, see AZa; kldm-bu ndn vb. to move 
along or crawl along (as sick person). 

kla; adv. kla-ld straightly, directly, 
immediately; kla-ld ndn to go away 
straightly; without stopping; kla-ld mak 
vb. to die suddenly or going anywhere 

kla, a-kla s. a line of matting. 

klak vb. 1. to be surrounded with (as 
fence); 2. to be finished (as work, house); 
klak-ld adv. directly. 3. to come round, 
to revolve as years nam sok-klak the 
year has come round T. kor etc. 

Deriv. td-klak; tun- klak; tur-klak s. 
circumference, periphery, adj. around, 
circumambient, circular, tur-klak tur- 
num a perfect periphery. — 2. a course, 
a round, a long compass, a high degree 
of perfection, co-sd td-klak s. a high 
degree of learning; co-sd td-klak hyup 
or lei to have completed one's studies 
to have attained a high degree of know- 
ledge. — td-klak kat to have attained one 
degree of knowledge; td-klak nydt etc. — 
md-rum-sd td-klak fcyu vb. to have reach- 
ed or attained very old age. 

klan, adv. Man-Id or klan-nd klan-nd 
very closely together so as not to be able 

to be seen thro'; also gives emphasis to 
darkness: impenetrable, obstrusely; tyan 
klan-nd klan-nd so dark that you can- 
not see. klan-nd klan-nd or klan-ld tsup 
to be quite closed up (as road with 
jungle); — Id-vo klan tsup-non the moon 
is completely hid eather by eclipse or 
clouds. See also Hon. 

klan, a-klan adj. like, resembling; klan- 
ld resembling; a-kup a-bo klan-ld li the 
son is like the father. 

klap adv. see kldp. klap-ld closely 
joined klap fo or klap-ld to to place 
closely as with paste : a-zut klap-ld fi. — 
klap-ld do vb. to live close together. — 
klap-ld bu, vb. to carry close to body. — 
vyen klap-ld hap vb. to shut the door 
closely. — td-klap closely joined; lio tson 
ban td-klap name of a spec, of fish. 

klal vb. to be stiff; a-cdn klal to have 
stiff back; tHk-tok klal to have stiff neck. 
— klal-ld klal-ld Idm to walk stiffly and 
erectly, klol-ld klol-ld lorn id. 

kd-klal-ld or kd-kldl-ld erect, upright, 
stiff; straight out at length kd-klal-ld din 
vb. to stand upright; — kd-kldl-ld da vb. 
to lie stretched out; (bik-nun) tuk-sim 
kd-kl6l-ld dan (cow) to run with out- 
stretched tail. 

pun-klal or pun-klol adj. straight, erect, 
p.-klol-ld din to stand erect. 

kli-la adv. straight out; kli-ld nak vb. 
to straighten; a-dyan kli-ld fly en vb. to 
put legs straight out. 

klik vb. to be perverse; to determine; 
to have one' own way? M. 

klin, adv. klin-nd klin-nd; li klin-nd 
klin-nd a house firmly built, well bound 

klit vb. to polish, to furbish, to clean, 
to smooth down, to rub as stomach, to 
cleanse out by rubbing down; ban klit 
vb. to polish ban; td-bdk klit to rub 
stomach; td-kli klit to cleanse entrails 
by rubbing the fingers down them. — 
klit-td klit-td adv. very smooth, polished. 
klip vb. -to be collapsed as bag or 
stomach from emptiness td-hdk klip-ld mat. 


kluk— klo 

kluk reduplic. of kldk q. v. 

klun vb. to slip down. 

klun Tb. to climb kun klun. 

kiek vb. to press down or stamp down 
as earth, to urge, to hurry on, to trouble. 
klek-lun li Tb. to urge on; klek-lun zuk 
kon to force; klek-lun m to be importu- 
nate in asking. 

a-klek s. continuation, protraction, nw 
a-klek li to be diffuse in speech. 
"klet i. q. glet to let fall. 

klen, a-klen adj. whole, complete, a-klen 
a-lyok id. 

klep vb. to join two bamboos {pd-dam 
etc.) together for the more easy carriage. 
— klep-lun fo vb. having joined fa-dam 
to place them down. — kief bu vb. to 
carry bamboos etc. joined together; they 
are joined together by cane and suspend- 
ed on the head: td-klep klep bu. 

id-klep (see un td-klep) s. 1. the binding 
articles or loads together for the more 
easy carriage, 2. the bandage with which 
they are bound. 

klep vb. to echo the words of another 
as of great man; to chime in with, to 
repeat the words of another klep-lun li. 

a-klep adj. repeating a-klep rin li. 

a-k!ep adj. thin (applied to insects); 
see klip. 

klo (see glo, klet; glet) vb. to fall, part. 
klo-lun; klom-bo falling; neg. klon: klon 
md-Mn-ne cannot fall; klom-lu manner 
of falling. 

klo vb. to be regular, to be of one 
kind, klo-ld of one kind, one side; li 
han-niin a-lon klo-ld cap first thatch this 
side; a-lon-nun pyil-lon klo-ld cap after- 
wards thatch the other side; klo-ld sak- 
cin of one mind, settled in purpose, un 
kyon a-bdn klo-ld lorn to walk on this 
side {a-pin on that side) of river. — 
klo-ld fo vb. to place on one side. — 
a-bdn a-ydk klo-ld fo vb. to place evenly 
regularly. — hu k6n or hii lem klo-ld md mat 
nun don't favour him. — klo-ld li vb. to speak 
decidedly.— n'/i klo-ld li vb. to side with. 
— kat Ion kon klo-ld li vb. to be partial. 

klok— kidp 

klok 1. worn out (cloth), diim khk 
a rag. td-klok, tuk-klok, tUn-klok s. an 
old scrap of anything; diim td-klok a rag. 
2. reaching its point klok-ld fi to reach 
its point or come home as post, dum-pu 
klok-ld md-fi-nd gdn md-imn-ne if the 
post is not sent home, it will not be firm. 

klok, klok-ld i. q. kldk, kldk-ld. 

klon, adv. klan-nd klon-nd blundering; 
klan-nd klon-nd mat vb. to blunder. 

klop vb. to patch up (clothes), to mend 
(pots, pans). 

klop vb. to fade as flower. 

klop s. a piece of cloth. 

kidn vb. to groan, a-kl6n s. groaning; 
ricm-ntin hd-yu a-klon fyo-Mn .... God 
heard their groaning Ex. 2. 24. 

klon vb. i. q. flon to be grazed. 

kldn (cfr. T. zlog-pa) kl6n-ho adj. vb. 
1. to send M. 43. klon gdn nd klon-nii-pa 
we may send it if we like; kl6?i-nun-ka 
md-non-nd gdn if she will not go when 
sent; — kldn-ldm way of sending; 2. to 
permit, to allow pd-on-ka mat-ka md- 
kl6n-ne was not allowed to go out; 3. to 
remit, to exhibit, to grant, to bestow; 
jum-bo klon to bestow charity; 4. to 
transform into, no kat klon to t. into a 

kidt vb. 1. to be stiff as from cold or as 
corpse, coarse as cloth, to be stupid, 
dull of comprehension; to be dead Tbr. 
klot-non dead; klot-bo id. 2. to be plain, 
of one colour. 

Deriv. a-klot adj. plain, of one colour; 
stupid, riii kldt prosy; lyan Hot fiat. 

tuk-kl6t adj. lazy md-rd tvk-klot a lazy, 
useless fellow. 

pUn-klot or piin-klot adj. stiff; plain, 
unvarnished, uncoloured (cloth), pUn- 
kldt-sd md-rd a. a clumsy, useless person, 
who does not know how to work. 

kIdp vb. to cut; ban klop a piece as 
large as may be cut out by two or three 
strokes of ban. 

with redupl. advly.: kd-kl6p beating 
with hand as when punishing children, 
blow, slap; used in sense of a wound. 

kI6p— klyam 

klyal — klydm 


kd-kl6p zuk to be struck by bullet or by 
sword as in action, hu a-dyut-sa kd-klcrp 
zdk-han mik cam-n&n being wounded in 
a fight he died. 

Deriv. a-Mop as much as is cut out 
by stroke of ban. — pun-hlop a cut, an 
incision, hart p.-hUp kat a c. with knife. 

kidp (broad; clumsey) klop-ld broad 
flat, klop-ld hu vb. to carry a broad load 
or with broad throng. 

with redupl. klvp-pd klop-pd clumsy 
as workmanship. 

kIdp s. edge; banks of river: mi Mop; 
mik Mop s. edge of eye, rim of eye. 

kidm vb. to place between, to spread 
as carpet, to lay down as bords, planks, 

klydm caus. of Mdm to cause to spread 
out, klydm bu-non to walk among and 
tread down low jungle as when out 
shooting; — with reduplic. advly.: kum- 
My6m-ld or kun-klyom-ld wide, spread 
out; li kum-klyom-ld a house with a roof 
wide spreading, almost flat not sloping 

kidn vb. to affix, to apply. 

kidl see Mai. 

klya vb. to be even, Myd-ld even, level, 
everywhere alike, regularly, uniform; 
Myd-ld ti said of river in the rains when 
it has risen to its utmost height. 

klyak, kd-klydk-ld straight, flat. 

klyap see klip, klep and fran. 

klyan see klyon. 

klyal see Myal. 

klya; klya klya hlyet to be very slippery. 

klyak vb. Tbr. i. q. gek to be born. 

klyan vb. to be close in texture, as 
cloth, basket-work. 

klyap vb. to be straight as bow without 
string, sd-li klyap-non. 

klyam vb. to be sweet, to be pleasant 
to the taste, ci-nyi klyam-bam sugar is 
sweet; vom klyam-bam salt is sweet. — 
klyam-ldt s. sweetness. 

a-klyam s. sweetness, sweets, pleasant 

flavour, adj. sweet, a-klyam a-fo a sweet 
tooth; a-klyam-pdn so-niin con fat all 
the sweetness is washed away by the 

klyal; klyal-ld klyal-ld or kd-klyal-ld 
long and thin; kun-du kd-klyal-ld an egg- 
plant long and thin. 

klyen cylindrical, kun Myen. 
klyet see klyot. 

klyot vb. to beat forcibly, to strike 
forcibly in any direction; lorn klyot vb. 
to beat road; mm klyot vb. to pound 
mon (as with a pestle); Myot si a beater 
for roads. 

klyon; Myon-ld adv. rapidly, suddenly; 
fydn Myon-ld pld-lat the enemy came 
rapidly; sun-mut Myon-ld di the wind 
sprang up suddenly; un Myon-ld ti the 
water has risen rapidly. 

klyop, Myop-ld i. q. kldp-ld nearly shut. 
a-mik klyop -Id cam i. q. a-nyi My dp-Id 

klyom vb. to be insipid as food without 
salt, to have bad flavour; bi Myom-bam 
vom md-nyin-ne the vegetables are in- 
sipid, there is no salt; n-bon klyom there 
is a bad flavour in my mouth. 

a-klyom adj. insipid; — kun-klyom-ld 
insipid; unpleasant taste. 

klydk (from kd hand and lyok: the palm 
of h.) see Idn-klyok. 

klydn s. a scaffolding for corn not 
threshed or a sort of hut for it. 

klydt vb. to leap over, M. 78. o-re 
a-tdn Myot md-KH-ne I cannot leap over 
the top of that. 

klydp, a-klyop adj. flat, p6n klyop a sod, 
turf. — s. a flat piece of any thing; a 
plate, a board or plank; a-Myop zuk vb. 
to make flat, kd-klydp-ld or kun-klyop-ld 
or kup-Myop-ld i. q. lup-lyop-ld flat, 

kUk-klyop-ld oblong-shaped. 
kHp-klyop-ld zo rice before it forms 
into stalks. 

klydm see Mom. 


Ra— *l<a 



lia the second letter of the L. alphabet 
T. p, aspirated k. 

ka Tb. (T. Ka mouth?) to ask, to in- 
quire M. 

kak vb. to hem, to hawk, to cough up. 

k^t see Kii, vb. to be able, capable, 
talented efficient; to be skillful in rin- 
ka Mat; ts'on-ka Mt; co-ka Kdt etc.; — 
Mt-bo adj. one qualified for, capable of, 
Mt lei vb. to be proficient; Kdt-lel-ho adj. 

*kan T. Ron s. wrath, anger, resent- 
ment; sdm Kan an angry temper. 

*kam T. Kom s. rest, quiet, tranquility. 

*kam T. Kom s. a leathern bag. 

Ran, Jidr-ld adv. hanging down head, 
as when ashamed; mlem Kdr-ld mat vb. 
to hang head down from shame. 

ka vb. to wind skeins of cotton; see a. 

ka num. twenty M. 115 f.: Ka kat; Ka 
kat-sd kat twenty one and so on; Ka 
kat-sd ka-kyot twenty nine; — Ka kat-sd 
kd-ti thirty; Ka kat-sd kd-ti kat tap thirty 
one; Ka kat-sd kd-ti kd-ky6t tap thirty 
nine; — Ka nydt forty; Ka nydt-sd kat 
forty one; Ka nydt-sd kd-ti fifty; Ka nydt- 
sd kd-ti Kat tap fifty one. — Ka sam sixty; 
Ka sam-sd kat sixty one; Ka sam-sd kd-ti 
seventy; Ka sam-sd kd-ti kat tap seventy 
one; — Ka fd-li eighty; Ka fd-li-sd kat 
eighty one; Ka fd-li-sd kd-ti ninety; Ka 
fd-li-sd kd-ti kat tap ninety one; — Ka 
fd-no one hundred: gyd kat\ Ka fd-no-sd 
kat one h. and one; Ka fd-no-sd Ka kat 
or Ka td-rdk one h. and twenty; — Ka 
kd-ti two hundred: gyo nydt; Ka kd-ti 
fd-no tdp three hundred: gyo sam. — 
Ka Ka four hundred. 

*ka or K6 T. Ka s. 1. mouth; Ka sup 
vb. to shut the mouth; Ka siip byi vb. 
to give a bribe; K6 di vb. to be eloquent, 
to be loquacious; Ko di-bo an eloquent 
person; Ko di-wim s. loquacity, garrulity; 
— Ka-ka cdk vb. to instruct, to admonish. 

— 2. mouth, opening, orifice. — 3. front, 
side, face Ka-dyd T. Ka-dii fronting, 
opposite, hon. the presence of king; 

— 4. sheet Ko nydt two sheets of paper 
or cloth etc. — 5. surface, outside. — 
6. sharpness. 

Comp. ka-, kd-, ka-p-; ka-m-. *Ka-kydn 
or Kap-kydn T. Ka-bky6n s. hon. reprove, 
reproach, rebuke, anger; Kap-kydn md- 
mat-tUn do not be angry; Kap-kydn zdk 
vb. to fall under displeasure. — *Ka-Kyd'm 
T. Ka-Kyam s., K. K. rin s. a rumour. — 
*Ka kro T. Ka brag s. a fork. — Ka gye 
s. anything given in exchange for meat. 

— *Ka-cun s. a locket. — *Kap-c6n T. Ka- 
dsun s. a lie, a falsehood: M. 95; Kap- 
con-sd a-pur s. a great liar; Kap-con li 
vb. to lie; Kap-con lin-bo or Kap-con 
mat-bo or Kap-c6n gyu-bo s. a liar; Kap- 
con bi mat vb. to bring a false tale ; Kap- 
con-sd ydm-bo a proficient in lying. — 
*Ka-cd T. Ka-'Sos s. hypocrisy, foolishness; 
Ka-cd lin-bo s. a hypocrite. — *Ka-cu T. 
Ka-cu s. spittle, saliva. — *Kam-cu T. Ka- 
mcu s. quarrelling, contention, brawl, 
dispute, litigation; Kam-cu fuk vb. to 
altercate, to quarrel, to dispute, a-lHt-ka 
Kam-cu tHk vb. 1. to revolve in mind, 2. to 
practise selfdenial; Kam-cu kyop-ba Id/l- 
ka ryak-vydt in an altercation to test the 
truth by holding heated stone in hand. — 
*Ka-^e T. Ka-ce s. a large mouth, boast- 
ing, bragging; Ka-ce kytip vb. to boast, 
to brag, to vaunt; Ka-ce kydp-bo s. a 
boaster, a braggart. — *Ka-^et T. Ka-^ad 
s. a contract, agreement, promise; Ka-cet 
mat vb. to promise, to contract. — *Ka- 
cem T. Ka-cem s. will, testament; Ka-cem 
to vb. to make a will. — Ka-jdn obscene 
Ka-jdn rin: uk-kHn-su rin s. obscene talk; 
ho-nun Ka-jdn-ld li gdn go uk-So if you 
talk obscenely, I shall be ashamed. — Ka- 
nydt s. importunity, teazing, solicitation, 
Ka nydt si vb. to be importunate; — Ka- 


*l(a— *l<a-dok 


tan i. q. lea- fan. — Ka-tak s. a bamboo 
cup. — *Ka-tam, Ua-hram i. q. Ua-hro. — Ua- 
tik, Ko-tik T. Ka-ldig: Ka-tik bam vb. to 
stammer, Ka-tik- bo s. a stammerer, a 
stutterer. — "^Mo-tdn H.Ka-gton-ba s. abuse, 
threats, scurrility, offensive language, 
£ t. li vb. to abuse, to use opprobrious 
language, to blaspheme J. rum-sd £ t.\ 
rum-sd M. t. li to swear, to blaspheme. — 
*Ka-t6m, Mo-tom T. Ka-gtam s. a saying, 
a proverb, apophthegm, tradition; Ka- 
tom-ka niim-Um-nyo-nun rum-ka md-U-ne 
tiik-fyil-niin cu md-U-ne no power of 
speach can enable man to comprehend 
God; the ant cannot in its' view em- 
brace the snowy range. — *]ia-t'dn T. 
bka-fan? s. power of speach, eloquence, 
Ka-tdn nyim-bo s. eloquent, an e. person. 

— *lca-fyen for Ka-prin s. a verbal 
message; Ka-fyen rin kloh or byet to send 
a V. m.; Ka-fyen Ice-Id dun vb. to deliver 
a V. m. — *Map-dar T. Ha-bdarf s. con- 
ceit, vanity, pride; kap-dar-ydm-bo\ a 
conceited, vain person; Kap-dar md-nyin- 
niim-bo a modest p.; I'ap-dar kyop to be 
proud, to be vain. — *ka-d6 T. lUi-brda 
(instruction) s. joke, jest, badinage; Ka- 
do li to joke, to be facetious. — ko-dun 
prob. T. Jca-sdum s. agreement, concurrence, 
conceit; K6-dun nyi to agree, to concur, 
to coincide, to be of one opinion. — *Iia- 
nak T. Ua-nag (a black mouth) a word 
of abuse: a harlot, a prostitute. — Rap- 
plim s. denial; contradiction, refusal; 
Kap-plim cik vb. to deny, to contradict; 
to refuse. — *ka-pok T. ka-'pag 1. vb. to 
heap a little above measure; ka-pok ak 
vb. id. 2. s. abusive language lia-pok 
kyop or ton or mat or li vb. to abuse. — 
ka-pyok 1. full exact measure; Ica-pyok 
cik vb. to give full measure corn in fri 
by sweeping with hand, 2. the mouth of 
measure. — *lia-tso T. Ka-rtsa s. invective 
language, abuse; Jca-tso dek vb. to abuse. 

— *Ka-ts6 s. the mouth-disease of cattle. 

— ka zdk-rin i. q. Ka-jdn. — *ka-ze T. ^a- 
za& s. food, used generally by L.'s to ex- 
press provisions for a journey. — *ka-yo 

T. I^a-ze s. deceit, hypocrisy. — ■ */,'am-ri 
T.lca-dri L. fam vydt s. civility, salutation, 
compliments; Icam-ri mat vb. to salute, 
to give c.'s. — *Jca-rok 1. T. ka-rog{-pa) 
silent, quiet, 2. abuse Ka-rok sor vb. to 
quarrel, to altercate. — *ka-len T. ka-lan 
s. an answer, reply, petition to good or 
evil spirit; deprecation made by hon tin; 
Ka-len-ka nydn vb. to grant petition; 
ka-len kyop vb. to petition, to beg an 
answer. — *Ua-lep T. Ea-leb s. a cover 
for pot, ka-lep kyop or dap to cover do.; 
— *Ua-lo T. Ka-lo s. guidance, manage- 
ment, ka-lo-niln mat do it from the 
copy; Ma-lo mat to manage, to direct, 
to guide, to lead. — *ka-hrin i. q. fca- 
t'yen. — Ka-sur s. priming hole, nipple of 
gun Ua-siir ze Idk vb. to prime; Ka-sUr 
nyor the priming pan. — *ka-s6 T. ka- 
gzug s. pain in the mouth. — *ka-su T. 
Ka-zugs (eloquence): rin Ka-m respectful 
language ; gentle language ; ka-m-ka pyet- 
sd rin respectful, gentle 1. — *kam-su see 
*kam-cu. — *lca-sd s. abstinence from 
meat or ardent liquors, ascetism; Ica-s6 
fHk vb. to practise ascetism; ci ka-so 
(man ka-so) who never tasted spirits 

*Ra i. q. T. /,-ag, Ka part; Ica-cik T. ka- 
cig some, several. 

*Ra, R6 T. mkd s. the heavens, empty 
space, in comp. Kan- *ka-ro-ma or *kan- 
ro-ma T. mkd-gro-ma Skt. ddkini P. 
kan-ro rum dar-mit id. P. *ka(n)-ro-ma 
nin s. hermaphrodite. 

*Ra-ce lyan T. ka-ce-yul s. Kashmir, 
ka-ce-mo T. ka-ce-pa s. a Kashmiri. 

Ra-ta s. the path of huge animals 
thro' jungle; tyan-mo-sd ka-ta; sd-fdn-sd 

*Ra-ta T. ka-btags s. a small scarf, 
generally sent along with a letter. 

Ra-td s. the eggs of the Hj pUn-rdn; ka- 
to fit vb. to lay the eggs; pUn-ron iM-to 
fit-Uin vyan-nun or pld maggots are pro- 
duced from the eggs of the blowfly. 

*Ra-dok T.mkal-mdog s. (kidney colour) 
kidneys, reins. 


Ra-byii-fo— *Kam 

"Ram— Ru 

Ra-byu-fo i. q. fd-Un-fo s. the dark rose- 
finch Procarduelis nepalensis. 

Ra-lu s.the knee-joint, condyles, interval. 

*Ra-§a T. Ka-m i. q. sd-kd q. v. 

Rak vb. 1. to be increased; used in 
bad sense: a-far Mak-ld ndn the price 
has risen; — a-ri nom Mak-ld nam the 
smell has become worse; — rin Kak-non 
the language has risen or become out- 
rageous; — a-c6r Kak-non the sourness 
has become more intensive. — 2. to stick 
in throat of child, see nyon, a-hrit Kak- 
non the bone has stuck in throat of child. 

a-Kak s. an offensive smell, an ex- 
orbitant price. 

Rak-tik s. Hind, kartla Momordica cha- 
rantia; K. t. pot s. the fruit of M. ch. a 

Ran vb. 1. to be transverse, diagonal; 
Kan to vb. to place transverse; Kan t'&m-ho 
a thing placed transverse. — 2. to stop, 
impede progress, to be alienated, to be 
estranged, to quarrel; hu-do-mum pd-no 
mat-bo rel-ld ke-sar-sd Kan bam whosoever 
maketh himself a king, speaketh against 
Cesar. J. 19. 13. — Kan gyo-bam to be 
at a variance, to separate thro' quarrel; 
— hd-nyi byek-ka Kan gyo-bam they two 
cut each other. 

a- Kan s. a misunderstanding, a dis- 
agreement. a-Kan a-zd a quarrel. 

Ran see under Ka. 

Rap see under Ka. 

Rap vb. to be broken, to be smashed 
or cracked as two eggs being knocked 
together; Kap-tom-bo cracked. 

*Rap-len-do T. Kab-len-rdo s. a load- 
stone; K. I. d. pun-jeii s. a magnet. 

Ram see Ka. 

*Ram T. Kam (a bit; appetite) *Kam- 
dok T. Kam-ldog (aversion, etc.) s. fruits, 
consequences, retribution; a-do dyok a-jdn- 
sd Kam-dok-ka zo-so (thou) shall eat the 
fruit of thy own evil acts. — Kam-dok 
nyoh to feel the effects of to suffer the 
consequences. — *Kam-lok T. Kam-log s. 
nausea; vb. to feel sick, to be sick, to 
vomit; Kam-lok-sd zdn nyon to feel sick. 

*Ram T. Kams s. state of health; Kam- 
zon T. Kams-bzan s. inquiry after one's 
health, how are you? Kam-zon vydt vb. 
to salute, to inquire after one's health. 

*Ram T. Kuttis s. 1. region, dominion; 
kingdom Kam-sum T. *Kams-gsum s. the 
three worlds: heaven, earth and hell; 
2. name of the eastern province of Tibet 
a large kingdom bordering on China and 
Central-Tibet; Kam-bo an inhabitant of 
K'am; — Kam-bo pron-bo a religious men- 
dicant; — Kam-bo sd-hu s. a spec, of 
monkey supposed by L.'s to have come 
originally from K'am (Eastern- Tibet) 
Presbytis schistaceus. 

Ram-kf i. q. kdn-M-kun q. v. 

Ram-gat kun s. a spec, of Prunus; Kam- 
gdt pot s. the fruit of do. 

*Ram-bu-kun T. Kam-bu s. an apricot- 
tree; Kam-bu pot s. the fruit of do.,' an 

Rar vb. to be eager after; to be anxious 
after, to be in a hurry for, to be greedy 
after, to lust after a-z6m-ka Kar to be 
eager for food; — td-dyu-ka Kar vb. to 
lust after women td-ayu-ka Kar-bo s. a 
lecher; — co-ka Kar to be eager for 

a-Kar s. concupiscence; love, affection. 

*Rar T. mKar s. staff, stick; Kar pd-fun 
s. a walking stick; *Kar-sil T. mKar-gsil 
s. Skt. khakkhara a kind of staff used 
by la-ma's see kdr-kun. 

*Rar, Kar-wa T. Kar-ba s. bell-metal. 

Rf vb. 1. to haunt, to adhere to, to 
remain, 2. to be twisted, entwined, in- 
soluted Ki bam, vb. to remain beside, to 
adhere to one's side, a-pyil-ka Ki bam 
to be haunted by ghost; — Ki-bam-bo s. 
a close companion a follower, an ad- 

*Rf-bo T. mKris-pa s. the gall; Ki-bo 
pum the gall bladder. 

Ru, neg. Kun: md-Kun-ne, Ku-m part, 
cfr. T. Kugs-pa vb. 1. to be able, to be 
capable of M. 107. ho a-re zuk Ku-d 
are you able to do this; Ku-mm-bo one 
capable of; Ku tet to the utmost power; 

Ru— *Run 

Run— * Re 


sd-tet Mu-tet as much as possible. — 2. to 
be well, to be in good condition; md- 
Icun-ne to be unable; go md-Mun-ne I 

Mm-bo s. adj. an able person, able, 
capable md-Kun-num-bo 1. one who is 
not able, impotent, incompetent. — sd- 
re-ld Mum-bo almighty Ex. 6. 3. 2. un- 
able, ill, unwell, pregnant a -Mm adj. 
possible, practicable. 

Ru s. mountain, k'u a-dum T. ri dkar-po P. 

*Riin vb. T. 'Kun-pa to groan; is also 
used in sense of "to be unwilling, to be 
reluctant, to be disenclined, to grumble" 
hu Kun-bam he is unwilling. 

Run, Rum see M. 

Rur, Mr-Id adv. sulky, gloomy, morose; 
K.-ld gyu a sulky disposition; — a-mlem 
Mr-Id mat vb. to display a sulky face. 

*Rur uncooked: Mr-so mur-so cooked 
and raw uncooked meat. 

*Ru T. Icur s. bread, a loaf or cake 
of bread; M. 143. kd-cer Mu; kd-hrot Uu 
hd-hru M; — kyo-td-i Ku barley-bread 
J. 31. 

*Ru-lu T. Kul-lu s. 1. the down of the 
yak; 2. cloth made from do. 

Ru-lu s. a spec, of parasite vermin; a 
spec, of body louse. 

*Ruk T. Mg s. a bag; tsam-Kuk T. 
rtsam-Jcug a bag for holding flour. 

*Run T. Kun, Mm 1. mine, pit; piin- 
jen Mn an iron mine; son Icun a copper 
mine; 2. T. k'uns rise, beginning, origin, 
root, stock; a-do Uun sd-ha nyi-ba or ho 
Mn sd-ba nan-bo-go where did your race 
originally come from. — Mn kd-ti-bo of 
the same origin. — Mn gdn i. q. aya 
a-bdn-ka or -nun from the beginning. — 
a-do rin Mn su tun-ddk go or ho Mn su 
tun-dok what is your original or primary 
object. — a-do Mn-su nyi-wun-d; ho Mn 
su mo go what is your pedigree. — Mn 
m-nun jok-kuh-go from what origin is 
the dispute. — kd-sii, bo-sd Mn md-nyin-ne 
my father is of low origin. — Mn Mn 
luii- ten-nun rin ancient revelation; — 
Mil-nun md — ne or Mn-do-nun md — ne 

never, Mii-nun md-U-ne I have never 

Comp. Mn-cen T. Euns-can s. original, 
having a beginning, high degree, opp. 
Mn met T. IL med or Mn md-nyin-num-bo 
low, mean. — Mn-nyim-bo of high and 
ancient family. — Mil nyi-wiul-sd md-ro 
a man of good family; K'. nyi-wim-sd mlo 
an ancient relic; £ n.-w.-sd pe-tom a well 
authenticated history; — Mn tan original 
meaning; — Mn pe an ancient proverb; 
— Mn rirl ancient tradition. 

Ruii see ti-Mn. 

*Re, Rye T. ke, Eye 1. profit, gain, 
2. cheap, abundant, much over much 
ke-ld cheaply, abundantly, advantageous- 
ly; Ue-ld top 1. to get cheap, 2. to ob- 
tain abundance; — ke-ld byi to give 
cheaply, to give liberally, to overpay; — 
Ke-ld zo to eat a great deal; — ke md- 
nyin-num-bo dear, not cheap; — I'e gum 
it is profitable, it is cheap. 

a-Ke s. plenty, a great deal a-ke tap 
vb. to get much for money. 

*Re T. niMs-pa (prudent) vb. to be 
wise, prudent, to be discret, to be 
judicious, to be careful, to be cautious 
giin-nd-ka ke to be perfect, wise in all 
things; riil Ke-ld dUn vb. to speak sagely; 
ciyok ke-ld mat vb. to act prudently 
judicious. — pum tin giin-nd-ka ke Cfod 
is perfect in all respects. 

a-Ke s. perfection. 

*Re T. Krai s. a tax; money; ke-bo s. 
a person who pays tax, a landholder; 
Ke gyom-bo a tax-gatherer; Ke nyin an 
ancient tax-tennant, ke cik vb. to pay tax. 

*Re T. gral s. a seat, a bench, a sitt- 
ing place; *Ke-go T. gral-mgo s. the front 
seats; ke-go-ka ran nan in the fr. row 
the elders sit. — *Ke-juk T. gral-mzug s. 
the backseats; Ke-juk-ka on nan in the 
back row the youth sit. Ke-d6n s. a row 
of seats; ke don klak-ld nan vb. to sit in 
circular room; Ke don ryan-ld nan vb. to 
sit in rows of lines. 

Ke-bo s. the sitter, the dweller; li-sd 
Ke-bo the sitter in house, the dweller in h. 


Re, Re-mo— *Ror 

Rd— Rya, Ryd 

Ice zon s. a meeting, an assembly, a 
multitude of sitters. 

Re, Re-mo s. Ehododendron; the white 
Rh.; Ke-mo kun Hooker 2, 150 '■'■kema ke 
choong" Rh. cinnabarinum; — Ke-gok an- 
other spec, of Rh. 

Rek vb. to be chapped, to have hole 
in (as pot); fyu Mek-ndn the pot has a 
hole; see Myen. 

Ren Tb. to grow, to spring up un- 
cultivated, to be wild (plant); Icen-ld lin 
vb. to spring up wild. 

Rer vb. to be skilful, to be expert, to 
be dexterious, to be apt; s. i. q. K. Idt 
dexterity, skilfulness, expertness M. 100; 
Ker nyim-ho skilful; Ker-ld adv. adroitly, 
aptly M. 75. 

Ro an exclam. of anger, contempt. 

*Ro T. 'Mos s. use, advantage, benefit, 
good, utility, service, value M. 100; vb. 
to be useful M. 108; Ko nyim-ho useful 
M. 100; Ko md-nyin-ne it is of no use; 
Ko md-nyin-num-bo useless, unserviceable; 
md-Uo-nwi-sd tarn a worthless article 
M. 100. 

*Ro-tf T. Ko-ti s. a kettle, a tea-kettle. 

Ro-§a s. (Yakthumba W.) money given 
by pi-ho at time of contracting marriage : 
L. sek-yan. 

Rok adv.: kd-Jiok-ld dirty, soiled. 

Rop; Hop Mop headlessly, carelessly; 
Icop Hop non vb. to go along in a care- 
less manner. 

*Ror T. skor-ba; 'Mor-ba: I. vb. 1. to 
go round, to wander round, to encircle; 
— 2. in L. tr. to admit, to grant access; 
a-lem Kor let him come this way, Mm 
md-Kor-nun do not admit him. — Uor-bo 
s. a wanderer, an encircler, M.-bo mun s. 
the encompassing evil spirit; lyan Ic.-bo 
mun the evil spirit of the place. 

II. s. 1. the turning round; 2. the 
transmigration; 3. closeness, proximity 
parivdra; M-sd Kor-ka near him. 

Comp. *llor-de T. 'Kor- das ("to escape 
from Sansara") in L. s. care, providence, 
prudence, forethought; Kor-de mat vb. to 
be prudent, to make provision; Eor-de 

mat-bo a provident person; Uor-de-nun 
zuk vb. to act with prudence. — *Kor-lo 
T. 'Uor-lo s. a wheel used by lamas in 
prayer; Kor-lo un to turn wh.; to revolve 

Rd 1. see Ka 1. 

Rd T. mKoQ-ba). *M6 nyo T. nye{-bar) 
mKo-(]}d) vb. to desire greatly, to be 
greedy after, to covet; Ko nyo ndn to be 
covetous, to long for, to be greedy. 

Rd-mo s. a false charge; K6-mo zdk vb. 
to be charged falsely; K. mo ka to charge 

Rd-mo s. rice which adheres to pot 
after boiling zo K6-mo. 

Rdk vb. to hawk, to hem, to cough up. 

Rdk adv. : kd-Kok-ld adv. sound of heavy 
blows kd-Kdk-ld buk vb. to beat with 
sounding blows. 

*Rdk T. Kag s. business, charge, duty; 
responsibility; importance, consequence; 
a-yu su K6k nyi-sdn-go or nyi-wun-d what 
business is it of yours; — Mk bu vb. to 
undertake any matter, to be responsible 
for, to be accountable for, to take charge 
of. — Kdk ka or bydt vb. to entrust with, 
to charge with, implies also to suffer 
the consequences as a-bo-niin zuk-kun 
re a-kiip-ka Kok ka the son suffers for 
the acts of the father. — Kok-ka lyd vb. 
to undertake anything, to take the re- 
sponsibility, to stand security; — go a-do 
ciyok zuk-so un Kok md-lyd-nd-so I will 
take your work, but will not take the 
responsibility; — num-sd Kok lyd vb. to 
stand security. — a-do Kok-ka nyi it is 
your charge, you are responsible. 

Rdii vb. to cough with hollow sound, 
to bark in h. s. (dog). 

Rya, Ryd vb. it. 1. to arrive at, to reach; 
gor-lyan sd-fa Kyd-so when will we reach 
our resting place M. 146. — Kyd-hron 
vb. id. Ex. hd-yu hryop-lik rin rum-dun- 
ka Kyd-hron their cry came up unto God 
Ex. 2. 23. — 2. tr. Un-Kyd to indu'ce, to 
guide; hu-nun a-yum a-fdn tydn-nd-ka 
ldn-Kyd-80 he will guide you into all 
truth J. 16. 13. 

kyan— *Ryet 

Ryan for kyan vb. to be very cold, to be 
frigid; Uyan ntin to be very cold. 

Ryan vb. to be unanimous, to accord 
with; to be unmodified, pure, tiik-mo /,'. 
an unmitigated thief. 

Ryap, adv. Kyap-pd Uyoip-fa with a 
smattering, a faint idea or perception; 
Kyaf-fd Kyap-pd yd vb. to have a smatter- 
ing of; to know a little of, Uyap-pd Kyap- 
pd 16m to walk as in the dark. 

Ryam, adv. sd-Hyam still, quiet sd-lryam 
mat-td be still, sd-Kyam nan-nd sit still. 

*Ryi T. Kyi s. a dog L. kd-ju; Kyi luk 
s. the sheep of the plains, long-tailed like 
a dog; Kyi-kan T. Kyi-gan a dog-kennel. 

Ryi-gat for hi-gdt s. contempt. 

Ryu vb. to be absent in mind, to be 

Ryu Ryu (speaking to baby when wash- 
ing) let me wash you. 

*Ryum T. Kyim s. a house; bdk-Kyum 
a h. for travellers ; td-lyan Kyiitn the signs 
of the zodiac. 

*Ryu T. dkyus s. falsity, fabrication; 
Kyu non to become what is not; to be 
dead. — Kyu mat vb. to falsify; to see 
imperfectly; son Kyu mat vb. to give 
false weight; rin Kyu mat vb. to equi- 
vocate, to prevaricate. — Kyu, a-mik Kyu 
i. q. a-mik lydk false vision, imperfect 
sight; a-mik Kyu bam vb. he has im- 
perfect visions. 

*Ryu T. 'Ku vb. to emulate, to be zealous 
of, to contend for. 

*Ryek T. 'Kyag 1. vb. to be frozen, 
2. s. ice Kyek-ba it freezes, Kyek dom or 
Kyek-ktin dom to be frost-bound; un Kyek 
dSm da the water is frozen; Kyek-Mn mak 
to be f. to death; Kyek su (non) the ice 
has melted. 

Ryen vb. to be chapped, to be gapped, 
Kyen-non; Kyeh-bo chapped. 

*Ryet T. Kyad s. difference Kyet md- 
nyin-ne it is of no consequence; Kyet md- 
nyin-nd mat vb. to make no distinction. 
M-do Kyet nyi gdn kd-sH-ka md-dot-ne if 
it makes any difference to him, it 's of no 
consequence to me. — a-rat rin-sd pat 

''Ryen— *Rydm 


rin Kyet nyi there is a difference between 
the Tibetan and Bhutiya languages. — 
Kyet nyi-pa there is a difference. — riii 
Kyet bam i. q. nya Kyet bam, nya t&m 
Kyet-Ut/t li to be quarrelsome. 

Kyet-ka used in sense of: in order, to 
the end, purpose; dr-sd Kyet-ka to this 
end; gUn-nd ko-sd?i-sd Kyet-ka in order 
that all may understand. 

*Ryen T. mKyen-pa hon. vb. to know; 
M. 133. ri/m-nv,n sd-re-ld zu-luh Kyen 
Clod is omniscient. — san-gye-la Kyen-no 
T. sans-rgyas-la mKyen-no Buddha knows 
P. — la-ma Kyen-no T. bla-ma mMyen-no 
exclam. implying grief, wonder, amaze- 
ment etc.: the priest knows M. 90. 

Ryep see hyej). 

Ryep, Kyep-ld adv. sharp, cutting K-.-ld 
tyok vb. to give a sharp, cutting stroke. 

Ryo vb. to be peevish, to be irritable 
(child), to be fretful. 

*Ryo T. Kyogs (a bier) s. a large cook- 
ing vessel, a boiler; Kyo fyii s. a vessel 
also applied to one, in which the dead 
body of king is preserved in salt; urn 
for the dead. 

*Ryo-mo: L. pd-n6l s. a present made 
to an equal, Kyo-mo byi. 

Ryon s. a large basket for holding things. 

Ryd vb. to be overcooked so as to have 
consistency boiled out, as rice or flour 
not meat; zo Kyo non the rice has be- 
come soft and overcooked. 

*Rydp T. Kyab all, everywhere, suffi- 
cient, enough, Kyop-ld sufficiently M. 76. 
K.-ld fop vb. to obtain sufficient; K.-ld 
kid it vb. to send to every one or every- 
where; Kynp byi vb. to give enough. 

*Rydm T. 'Kyams-pa vb. to wander, to 
roam, to ramble ; kd-ju md-ro li-ka Kydm- 
non the dog has wandered into the man's 
house, to stray, to err, to deviate; Kyom- 
non to have wandered, to have strayed, 
to have lost one's way, to have erred; 
a-lid K. n. the mind has wandered, to be 
absent, to have erred. 

Kyom-bo or Kyom-bam-bo a wanderer, a 
beggar. — rin Kyom a rumour 




gdn— gdt 

ga the third letter of the L. alphabet 
T. =ri thje English hard g. 

ga, gd, ta-gS s. the chin, td-gd cor the 
hollow division in chin; td-gd a-nvt or 
a-tot s. a double chin; td-gd-mm ial-ld- 
sd rih s. foolish language; td-gd bap bap 
vyen to chatter (teeth from cold). 

ga give for might, power, strength, 
to oppose, to resist, to contend with, to 
repel, to be hostile, to attack, to assail; 
gd-bam to assail at, kd-ju gd-bam the dog 
shows fight, gd md-td-ne not to dare 
to oppose; sd-lok gd md-td-ne I cannot 
contend with a rhinoceros. — so-hydn gd 
md-td-ne I cannot stand (or contend) with 
the cold. — gd-ldt s. hostility, contention, 
antagonism, aggression, assault. 

gdl-ld (for gd-la) adv. hasty manner, 
running, flowing; un gdl-ld gdl-ld yu 
water to come rolling down; dyok gdl-ld 
gdl-ld zuk to do work while moving or 
running about. 

*g^-cd T. sgo-lcags lit. iron of door: a 
lock; gd-c6-sd a-lut s. the effects inward 
of lock; gd-c6 kyop vb. to lock; gd-co-sd 
cle-mik the lock and key. 

ga-do for kd-do I, myself, gd-do ydn 
viat vb. to be egotistic. 

ga-ram s. an evil spirit, lya/i gd-ram s. 
the evil sp. of a place. 

gak vb. to be fat, applied to insects, 
swollen out; vyan-bu gdk-bam the maggot 
is fat. 

a-gdk adj. fat (said of fleas, ticks). 

gdk, gdk-ld fun vb. to burn partially 
or superficially; nyot gdk-ld dop the field 
is but partially burnt. 

kd- gdk-ld adv. half burnt state of 

gan vb. to be very weak; gdn gad 16m 

vb. to be scarcely able to walk from 

weakness; gdn-nd gun-nd li or jiydn vb. 

to feel very weak. 

gdn gdn weak, impotent, debilitated, 

feeble, infirm; gdn gah lorn to walk in- 
firmly; gdn gdii nydn to feel languid 
and weak. 

kun-gdn-ld adv. weakly, kun-gdn-ld tet 
nan capability of setting up. 

gdii see sd-gdn. 

gan see gdn. 

gah cfr. T. gan M. 86, 91. affixed forms 
the conditional "if" as a-re zo gdn mak-so 
if you eat this, you will die; its correlat. 
"also" is represented by the emphat. 
particle Id or by the word gUn. ho mak 
gun go Id (or gun) mak-so if you die, I 
shall die also. — when, then after; neg. 
md-gdn-nd gdA. except, unless M. 86. 
a-ldti nye biik gdn kd-ti bu- (or nyi-) so 
when it presently strikes, it will be 
10 o'clock. — from fcun gdn from the 
beginning; dr-nUn pyi-ld gdn from this 
time, hence-forward. — in order or that 
it may su mat gdn ryu-te what is the 
best to be done (or that it may be done). 
— though go gan-ld gdn a-fin sd-re li 
nydn gat though I am old, still whatever 
my lord says, that will I obey. — hii mak 
gdn md-L'u-ne litly. if or tho' he would 
die, he could not: there is no fear of his 
dying. — indeed, truly a-re gdn, um-pa 
this is indeed nice; a-re gdn yut-si this 
is indeed wonderful. — ought a-tet pyi 
non liti a-ba fi gdn it is so late he ought 
to have arrived. 

gdii-ld tho', but, even, yet, however, 
notwithstanding, nevertheless, sd-tet zoii 
gdn-ld however great (or good) he may 
be. see to gdn-ld; yo-gdn-ld. gdn-ld or 
gdn-nd either, or; ho-niin sd-re gat-tvn-re 
gai'i-nd a-re gaii-nd o-re dom-md select 
whichever you please either this or that. 

gdt (ace. W. "-giit" Parb. giddha Skt. 
grdhra) a vultur, spec. Cultures, Gyps 
fulvescens R. 204. '■'■gut a-nok" Otogyps 
calvus, '■'giit pa-nom^^ or king of the 
vultures, Vultur mouachus W. 

gdt— gap 

gap— gal 


gat vb. (see gaf) to be hot, to be 
ardent as fire: mi gdt-bam; so-rin ydt-pa 
the sunshine is ardent; — to be ardent, 
fiery as spirits, pepper ci gat giim the 
chi is fiery; pi-ril gat gum the pepper 
is hot; — to be fervid, passionate; 
)iiu-rd gat gat re ze-mi dyak re zait a 
passionate man like a flash of powder; 
— on gdt-sd md-ro gat giim the horse is 
fiery and the man is passionate. — to 
be zealous, enthusiastic, a-kup-nun 
a-mo a-bo tun-dok-ka gut gun ryu if tlie 
child is ardent and zealous in the service 
of its parents it is good. 

gdt-tun s. heat, ardour, passion, en- 
thusiasm. — gdt-bo zealous, ardent. — 
gdt-ld adv. ardently, passionately. 

a-gdt 1. s. zeal, ardour J.; a bad 
temper applied to man or beast; 2. adj. 
fiery, ardent (as spirit or temper): md- 
ro a-gdt a bad-tempered man; iam-cdn 
a-gdt a bad-tempered animal; a-gdt rih 
fiery, violent language; rapid (as water); 
raging (as fire or wind); brittle as wood, 
glass, applied also to iron, which breaks 
easily from natural badness not from 
being too highly tempered: piin-jei'i a-gdt. 

a-gdt sd-ayak mik-mar Tuesday. 

gdn vb. 1. to preponderate, to over- 
balance, to be out of the perpendicular, 
gdn hrdn vb. to rise upwards, 2. to in- 
cline backwards as when drinking out 
of vessel, towards any direction (son) 
gdn hrofi (the scale of balance) to rise 
upwards; un gdn-liin tdn to lean back- 
wards when drinking water. 

gdn gdn adv. up and down. 

caus. gydn vb. to lean on with hand, 
to cling to, to grasp; to be troublesome, 
clinging to (as a child). — gydn- ly an s. 
anything to cling to, a catch. — gydn-bo 
adj. troublesome. 

a-gydn s. clinging, a-gydn Lyau the 
object clung to. 

gap head hanging down or rather face 
downwards, vb. to bow J. 48. a-tyak gap 
to bow the head Ex. 4. 31. gdp-U/A Urn 
(da) vb. to walk (lie) with face down- 

wards gdp-ld (or lun) nan vb. to sit with 
f. d.; gdp-lun pyok-tsa vb. to prostrate one- 
self in salutation, to make low obeisance. 
gcip vb. to drink long draughts (breath- 
ing the white thro' the nose), to gulp; 
gdp-hnl fun to drink long draughts. — 
gap gdp drinking a great deal, long 
draughts; uh gdp gdp fan, ci g. g. f. 

a-gdp adj. drinking by drawing up the 
water like animals. 

*gam T. sgom-pa see govi s. reflection, 
meditation, "gdm-bo or gum-pu T. sgom- 
pa s. a monastery, a convent; M. 83. 
sam-ya-sd gdm-pu the c. of Sam-ye P. — 
gdm-bo-ka von vb. to enter monastery, 
to become a monk; gdm-bo jeh vb. to 
found a monastery; — gdm-bo-sd ku-jo s. 
an abbot; gdm-bo-sd pQn-lok s. a monk; 
gdm-bo-sd tsiin-mo s. a nun; gdm-bo-sd 
tsiin-mo yuk-iiuin a vestal nun; gdm-bo-sd 
tsiin-mo kii-jo s. an abbess or g. b. sd 
ts. mo je-tsun id. 

gar vb. to raise (a little), to lift up or 
open or separate in a small degree, to 
open a little; — gdr gar 1. raising or 
opening a little, 2. flapping as wings; 
a-bon gdr-gdr mat dp vb. to open the 
mouth a little; gdr gdr hrdn vb. to raise 
a little (as carpet etc.), to raise head 
from pillow; gdr gdr mat vb. to flap (as 
wings). — sd-gdr adv. partly open, sd-gdr 
mat vb. to open a little as arm hand 
box anything, to open a little a jar. 

gar vb. t. to force, to urge, to impel; 
dyok-ka gdr vb. to urge on to work; 
md-zu-ka gdr vb. to do violence to. — 
gdr-Mn with rigour Ex. — gdr-ldt s. co- 
ercion, compulsion. 

gdr s. name of a spec, of small tick 

gal-la see under gd. 

gal T. yal-ba vb. to vanish, to disappear 
M. 66. — gdl-ld adv. disappearingly; gui- 
ld kap vb. to be completely covered so 
as to disappear; gdl-ld zo fat vb. to eat 
the whole; gdl-ld hyul vb. to swallow 

sd-gdl-U adv. vanishing, disappearing, 


ga— gat 

gat— gan 

sd-ffdl-ld n&h vb. to yanish, to dis- 

ga vb. to be with iieg. md-ne cfr. go, 
go, gum; M. 53; md-ga-ne or md-gan-ne 
it is not. 

ga i. q. mun-ga s. turmeric. 

*ga T. dgcl (see also go) s. joy, love, 
desire, mirth, gladness. — ga-ddt s. any- 
thing desirable or desire itself; name of a 
jewel; ga-so s. T. dgd-so joy, gladness, 
happiness; ga-so md-nyi-ne there is no 
joy; ga-so kydp vb. to rejoice. 

ga-dan s. bars placed across a gateway, 
a barred gate; ga-ddn kt/p s. a natural 
child, a bastard Tbr. 

ga-zdr s. name of plant and flower. 

*ga-S(Jn T. mgar-sa s. a smith's shop, 
a smithy. 

*gak T. dgag-pa vb. to stop, to pre- 
vent see gok. 

gak, adv. gak-kd gak-kd or gak gak bo 
s. adj. worn out (as old man unable to 
stand or of things worn out). 

gan, kuh-gah-la adv. open as mouth in 
sleep or death, open-mouthed, agape as 
jar or door etc. k. g.-ld da vb. to be 
with mouth open. — gan-non i. q. ro gan 
dan to be dead Tbr. 

gat (cfr. T. dgos) vb. to desire, to wish 
for, to want, to like, to be agreeable to, 
to love, to be pleased with, to require, 
to be necessary, to be essential to, to 
have occasion for, gat-nyi it is necessary 
P. kd-do kd-ta non gat-tun-ka ft it has 
come to this, that I must go alone. P. — 
a-lut fek re zdu sak-ddk gat-tun md-nyin-ne 
there could have been no necessity for 
this heartbreaking grief. — gat-md-o it 
is expedient, necessary. — gat-Mn desir- 
able, needful, requisite, gat-sdn rul s. 
a necessary word. — gat-ha gatrha when- 
ever wanted. — gat-ho s. a. desirer or 
what is approved of the thing wished 
for. — gat-mil or gat-mu-bo desirable, 
gat md-mu-num-bo not desirable. — gat- 
tun s. desire, wish, necessity, need, oc- 
casion for; gat-tun md-nyin-ne there is 
no occasion for, it is not needful; byin 

gat-tun-re diin-nd say what necessity 
there was to give. — md-gat-ne not to 
want, not to desire, not to like, go a-dom 
md-gat-ne I do not want you, I do not 
like you. gat to-tsdt s. time of need. — 
gat cok vb. to desire, to wish for, to 
regard, to esteem; to be necessary; gat 
cok-sd mlo a desirable thing, a requisite. 

a-gat s. desire, wish, request; sd-re 
a-gat ddin-md or sd-re a-gat re dom-md 
take which you like. 

gat 1. s. a duty, a rate, a percentage, 
dasturi, taken from merchant at time of 
purchase, also a tax laid upon merchant 
by king; perquisite of purchaser; gat 
tsun vb. to lay duty on goods. 2. vb. 
to take custom. 

gan see ga. 

gan adv. if, then, in that case, there 
upon, after that, gan a-do ndk-kd go 
a- lorn zuk gd/i mu-ryu-nd-so then do you 
see, if I do this, it will not be good. 

*gan, gyan, gyan, gen, gyen T.'gan(-po) 
see fcok s. a burden, hence business, trade, 
profession, charge, office; ku-sii dyok-ka 
a-do-sd gyan md-nyin-ne it is no business 
of yours. — liu num-sim-nyo kHp go-ren 
hum a-sem mat-sd gyen-ld byi-fat and 
hath given him authority to execute 
judgement also, because he is the son 
of man. J. 5. 26. — gydn kdt vb. to be 
appointed to an office. — gydn pap vb. 
to deprive of office. — a-bo a-mo gyen 
md-ld-ne i. q. bo mo lyan tsam md-ld-ne 
cannot supply the place of father and 
mother, gydn Id-bo s. an efficient officer. 
— gan bu vb. to hold an office, to be 
in charge of business, gan bun-bo s. 
officer Ex. 

*gan T. rgan vb. 1. to be old, aged 
as man, animal; gan-non has become 
old; 2. great in rank or age. — gan-bo 
s. an elder, a great man J., old (man 
or beast), hti gan-bo iiun-mn he has 
become old or a great man. — a-gan 

1. adj. old (as man, animals or things); 

2. s. a great man. 

gan, gan-nd gan-nd adv. penetrating, 

gan— *gar 

(so) g. g. zok vb. (rain) to leak inwards, 
(tson) g. g. zdk (arrows) to take effect. 
gan: kun-gan adv. ever, always. 
gan-fdii see gan, gydn s. pride, selfwill, 
vanity; gan-ton nyim-bo or g. f. viat-bo or 
g. f. yam-ho s. a proud person; g. t. viat 
to be proud. 

"gap l.'gebsQ-pa etc.) vb. to cover; tii- 
fon gap vb. to turn trough upside down. 
gajj-lu adv. spread out, covered over, 
overspread; gap-Id da to lie overspread; 
fdt-ka tdn gap-Id nan ham the rock covers 
the ground. 

Der. tun- gap s. 1. a pit-fall, a trap 
made by covering over mouth of hole; 
ayam tun-gap a pit-fall; tuii-gap-mo s. a 
bear from being caught in trap -hole? 
Tbr. 2. a notch made on the opposite 
side of tree, on which you wish it to 
fall or break, see nyop. — tvr-gap-ld adv. 
overspreading, overhanging. 
gam affix to tyol q. v. 
*gam T. sgavi hon. s. trunk, box. 
gam not quite dry; gam md-sdn-ne it 
is not quite dry. 

gam: ki/m-gam-bo incorr. f. kum-ham-bo. 
gar vb. to be severe, to be stringent, 
to be rough, to be austere hryum-ka gar 
vb. to suffer severe punishment; ayok 
dvk-ka gar to have exceedingly hard work; 
sok-ka gar to be the trouble of life. — 
gur-rd gar-rd adv. throwing oneself in 
passion, gur-rd gar-rd mat or tydvi vb. 
to throw oneself at as in rage. 

gar (see also to') adj. curved, crooked 
at one end, bent; vb. to be curved etc. 
— gar-gar i. q. gar\ gar-gar-ho 1. one 
crooked, 2. a person with large posteriors 
kd-gdr-ld adv. crooked, curved at end. 
gar-nek s. glans penis. — td-gar, tuk- 
gar, tvn-gar s. a large basket closely 

*gar T. mgar\ gar-tson or gar-son s. a 
smithy, smith's workshop. 

*gar T. sgar s. a camp, an encamp- 
ment of soldiers; gar-min s. a parole, a 
watchword; gar-non a guard. 



gal vb. n. 1. to break as stick also as 
leg etc.; hd-yu a-hrdt-pd/i gal-luit tsun 
bii non-huH-ka dyo-di-sdn-nun jii-lat-mum 
■sii. the Jews besought Pilate that their 
legs might be broken J. 19, 31. gal-non 
it is broken; — gal-bo broken, gal-ydm-bo 
or gal-sum-bo brittle, frangible. — gal-ld 
adv. broken, with sak "desire broken" to 
be weared with. — kd-gal-ld id. — 2. to 
fall see glo etc. gal-ld adv. downright, 
completely fallen; gal-ld pok completely 
fallen (with force); kun g.-ld pok the tree 
uprooted has fallen; md-ro gal-ld til-non 
the man has fallen downright (violently). 
gydl cans, to break, to cause to break. 
lul a-hrdt-pda vid-gydl-ne they broke not 
his legs. J. 19. 33. sak kd-gydl-ld dis- 
gust, annoyance. 

Der. tun- gydl (see gal 2.) s. a painted 
stake for digging or dibbling with. 

gal expletive to tyol: tyol gal help, com- 
panionship shd. be gam^ see P. Pol. 25. 
gf vb. 1. to be out of the perpen- 
dicular, to slope, to be bent down, to 
be inclined, kun gi-fian or bam the tree 
is sloping; to be aslant (as when pour- 
ing out from a vessel); gi-luh Idk vb. to 
incline vessel while pouring out. — a-nyor 
md-gi-nd nydn to listen attentively (not 
turning ear away). — a-mlem gi to avert 
one's face as when evil-disposed. — 2. in- 
direct, indirection; — difference, dis- 
tance, inequality; tsoh-nun mdk-ka gi- 
non the arrow has not gone quite direct 
for the target; — sd-tet gi-nyi-wun-d what 
distance is it, how fare is it; — hu-sd 
gi-nyi-wun-d what difference is there ; ■ — 
ciip-sd gi md-nmn-ne did not quite over- 
take him within a short distance of do- 
ing so; ciip-sd gi md-zdk-ne did not quite 
hit. — 3. to be inclined towards (men- 
tally or physically) having a penchant 
towards used in a bad sense Id-yo (-leni) 
gi inclined to evil. — 4. s. a bribe, sub- 
ornation; gi byi vb. to give a bribe, to 
bribe a person to evil; gi byin-bo s. a 
briber, a tempter, a suborner; — gi zo 
vb. I. to take a bribe; 2. to perform 



evil; gi zom-bo s. one who takes a bribe; 
a perfidious, evil person, a traitor. — 
5. to be ungrateful, to be false, faith- 
less, perfidious, to betray hii. a-lut gi- 
bo gum 1. whose heart is inclined to- 
wards anything, 2. he is a false-hearted 
(treacherous) fellow; — gi zdn s. an un- 
grateful person. — gi-ld adv. obliquely, 
divergingly; dishonestly, basely M. 74. — 
gil id. gU dam vb. to tie crosswise so 
as to enable thing to be carried; kun 
gil-liin darn to tie poles to tree in order 
to carry it; 7n6n gil-hal dam to tie pig 
by the forelegs together so as to enable 
it to be carried on pole. 

gf s. so-gi the conglomerating of the 
atmosphere, dew. 

gi, a-gi s. the tender shoots of plants; 
ear of corn. 

*gi-ku T. gi-sga s. the peg of the p^oVi q.v. 

*gf-C(5 also gi-c6 T. rgyu-ca s. wealth, 
property, personal proj)erty and effects. J. 

*gf-no T. rgyan and bsnol s. 1. emulation, 
rivalry, 2. envy, covetousness gi-no sak- 
cin-re sun-miit-ka ful-re zdn gum com- 
petition is like riding on the winds 
(gives swings to work). — g:-7io mat vb. 
1. to emulate, 2. to be envious. — kvm- 
dun-sd gi-co gi-no md-mat-tiin do not 
covet the goods of others. — gi-no md- 
yd-nd gdn md-mya-ne without emulation 
there is no diligence. 

gi-pur-buii and gi-po-mi seems to be 
merely expletive M. 

gf-bii s. doglouse; tick, Ixodes ricinus; 
fdt gi-ba, s. the soldier-insect. 

gin, tun-giii s. the os fibula. 

gin T. sgyin{-ba) "to be stretched out" 
n. pr. of part of a hill n. of Darjiling. 

gin s. a leathern belt, a girdle, a strap, 
kom-bo gin a 1. belt. 

gfp, ta-gfp, tuii-gfp s. (cfr. T. %gyiu) a bag, 
a knapsack, a sack; tim-gip zop vb. to 
twist neck of bag. 

gf! see under gi. 

gu vb. to have end suspended down- 
wards, to project downwards as roof, to 
hang down as bamboo, to impend; po- 

gii gu— *gun-ran 

yak gum-bam the end of the b. projects 

gu gu s. Turtur meena ace. W. R. 207. 

guk: hd-guk-ld adv. suffering, enduring 
(pain or trouble) affliction, kd-giik-ld nyi 
to suffer, to be afflicted, to be distressed. 

gut see ti'in-zoii. 

*gun T. rgun (a grape) see kim. giin- 
rum s. T. rgun-brum grapes, g. U/l T. rg.- 
Ui) s. a vine, g -tse T. rg.-fy'as s. a vine- 
yard g.-can T. rg.-ca/l and g.-kyein T. rg.- 
skyems s. hon. wine. 

*gun T. dgun: gun-so s. cold weather, 

gun T. kmi adj. all, every, total, each, 
whole; gun-nd all, every, altogether, 
totaly; giin-nd sdn-Mn-sd td-dyii kiip 
a female possessing all endowment. — 
giin-nd li-sd md-nyin-ne the is no use 
of enumerating all, et cetera. — g&n-nd- 
sd a-ryum the best of all. — g&n-7id-sd 
noh-ka a- cum the least of all. — giin- 
nd-sd nd/i-ka a-jdn the worst of all. — 
gun-nd-sd a-tim the greatest of all. — 
giin-nd lin-ld rin every one says. — giin- 
nd-ba a-flik mak among all some died. 
— gij.n-nd kd-ta-ka li-ba when you ex- 
press it generally. — i. q. sdfi, pi. affix 
(cfr. T. t'ams-cad, Newari sakal, sakal in 
Bangali when it follows the noun), kur- 
fak kiir-biim giin-nd i. q. kur-fak k. b. sdn 
the ministers P. 

gi/n-len, gun-nd len superlat.-particle 
liii, gUn-len ryu he is the best; giin-nd- 
len yam-Id mat-bam-bo making himself 
the least. — gun jam all altogether, gim 
jam byom-lun in all, taken altogether; 
giin jam li-sd md-nyin-ne et cetera. 

correl. of gd/'r. also, ho mak gdn go 
gun mak-80 if you die, I shall die also, 
see giim. 

*gun-ran T. mgon-drin s. patronage, 
favour of patron or lord, giin-rdn dok-bo 
lord of grace; giin-rdn-sd a-tin . . . thro' 
tlie grace of Lord so and so (way of com- 
mencing letter) gun-ran mat vb. to exalt, 
assist, favour, ho kd-sH a-tet giin-rdn mat- 
hht re you have thus been gracious to me. 

gup— gun 

gun— *ge 


gup see gap. 

gum see ga, go, go vb. 1. am, art, is, 
are, go gvm I am; hu gum ]ie is; 2. to 
become M-sii yu gum-md-o become my 
wife; sd-ron-ren a-do dal-ld pa-no gum 
from to-day thou art become like unto 
a king. 

gum i. q. giin also: ho non-so gd/i go 
gum n&fi-so if you go, I will go also. 

gur s. a supercilious look, a haughty 
glance; mik giir ndk a h. look of contempt. 

gur redupl. of gar. 

gul: giil-ld giil-ld or kd-gul-ld adv. worn 
by friction; also: indestructible, unyield- 
ing; md-ro kd-gul-ld an indefatigable 
person; bankd-gid-ld ayem-ba 16k md-yd-ne 
the knife is excellent (indestructible), it 
is not at all injured. 

gu, a-gu s. old female of most animals 
M. 26; hik gu a grown-up cow, some- 
times in familiar 1. applied to human 
beings, as num-prum gu an old woman. 

*gu-Mn (ace. M. fr. T. dku-lto) also gu-so 
fan vh. to be able, to manage, to be 
equal to, to have resources, means: only 
in negat. s. o-7'e a-ki/p hu-do bo mo jut 
gu md-fdn-ne that child is not able to 
support his parents; 16m gu md-fdn-ne 
not to be able to walk. — gu md-fdn- 
niim-bo lyan a person without resources; 
(tan seems to be fa and increm. n before 
nd of md-nd q. v.). 

*guk T. 'gug{-pa) vb. to bend. 

*gut T. 'gud(-pa) vb. to decay, to de- 
cline, gut n6n decayed, declined, de- 

gut explet. to not; n6t gut s. a stage, 
a journey. 

gun, a-gun adj. empty, suk-dilm-re a-td 
a-gun gum the earth was without form 
and void G. without, not having k6m 
a-gun without money, naked, in ab- 
sence of kd-sii gun-ka in my absence; 
uninhabited; not burdened as a horse; 
gun zuk vb. to empty; — gun n6n to 
have become destitute, to be emptied; 
gun-n6n-bo adj. empty, destitute, forlorn. 
— gun-ldt s. nakedness, destitution. 

gun, a-gun s. a road. 

gun-da s. the butt-end of a gun. 

gum, a-gum s. a number, a quantity; 
a troup, herd, flock; kd-sii bik gum mak- 
n6n a number of my cows have died. 

gur vb. 1. to pass away, to elapse, to 
be spent, said of time; 2. to delay, to 
procrastinate sd-uyak sd-tet gur-sdn-d 
how many days will elapse; sd-dyak md- 
gur-ne without delay tnd-gur-nd mat-hh) 
or m,d- gur-nun no-o go without delay. 
gur, a-gur s. delay, dilatoriness, slowness, 
a-gur dyok mat vb. to be dilatory at work. 

gur-cok s. delay, procrastination, gur- 
atk ky6p vb. to occasion delay. 

*gur-mo T. mgur-ma s. a sacred song, 
a hymn; gur-mo fen vb. to chant. 

*gur-tse T. mgur-rtse s. a small vessel 
with spout used on sacred occasions. 

gul, a-gul s. the part apportioned for 
the house; a good situation, a site; li- 
gul iidk vb. to determine the site of a 
house, whether it be good or bad, per- 
formed by mun. — a dish of, a share of, 
a portion of zo gul; kd-sum gul hlydk bo 
give me a dish of vegetables and meat; 
ram tem-bre gul s. a portion set in offer- 
ing to the deity as a prayer for happiness 
and wellfare as asked at end of marriage 

'"ge T. 'gegs(-pa) vb. to hinder, to stop, 
see also gok. 

"'ge T. dged (-pa to be diffused) vb. to 
be passed, as day, sd-dyak ge-n6n\ go fi- 
ren Id-vo kat ge-n6n since I arrived, a 
month has passed. 

*ge T. dge s. merit, virtue. *ge-co/'/ 
T. dge-sbyon s. a priest, a monk; ge-con 
cen-po T. dge-sbyon cen-po the great high 
priest, a title of Qakya. — ''ge-dun-po T. 
dge- dun-pa s. the priests, the clergy, the 
high-priest at Lha-sa. — ''ge-tml T. dge- 
rts'ul s. a novitiate, a catechumen. — 
*ge-lon, ge-ld/t T. dge-slon s. a subordinate 
priest, a monk. 

*ge-w6 T. dge-ba s. merits, a meritorious 
action performed for the remission of sin 
or for benefit in another world, virtue, 


gen— go 

''go— *go-lpn 

good morals; righteousness, sanctity. — 
ffe-w6 nyim-bo a person who does much 
for another world; ge-wo klon vb. to per- 
form a meritorious action. — ge-wo tyak 
who thinks or performs actions for bene- 
fit in another world. — ge-w6 rtip-lel 
to have performed sufficient to receive 
benefit in another world, to have attain- 
ed to a high degree of sanctity. — ge-wo 
yd i.q. ge-wo fyak. — ge-wo lorn zuk vb. to 
do merit for another world. 

gen office etc. see gan. 

gen s. a dome, a cupola gen-tsen s. a 

gel i. q. gal to break. 

go the first personal pronoun I, see kd; 
go kd-do I myself; — go-nun li-wiin-ka 
nydn-nd-o listen to what I say; — go-sd 
of me; with, from, of me; ray, mine. — 
go gmn ydn mat vb. to boast, to be 
egotistical. See also gd. 

go vb. (cfi'. ga, go, giim) to be: without 
regard to person, hit go it is he; go-pa, 
go-po it is, certainly, truly, verily; neg.: 
go vid-go-ne it is not I, go md-go-nd gdn 
if I had not been there, if it was not 
for me. yo md-go-nd gdn if it were not 
so; a-lom md-go-ne this will not do. 

go-ba sometimes; — go-bi somewhere, 
where ever; go-bi md-non-ne (I am) going 
nowhere; — go-run T. yan-run affixed 
has the sense of whatever, ever-soever 
notwithstanding, yet, however; to go-run 
whoever, whosoever; m go-i'un whatever; 
sd-t'a go-run 1. whenever, 2. either, or. 
M. 44. 86. ho sd-tet dyok zuk go-run go 
a-dom buk-80 however much you work 
I will beat you; 1o a-lom U go-run I'ap- 
c6n li whoever says so, lied; sd-tet don 
go-run md-fop-nd-h however much you 
seek for it, you will not find it; — go-run 
repeated it signifies either — or as mon 
go-run bik go-run either the pig or the 
cow; — go-run-ld whatever; to go-run 
klon send any one. — go-Id is also like- 
wise whether or mak go-Id zu go-Id 
md-ndn-nd-so whether I die or live, 
I will not go. 

go go 1. some, sometimes; 2. one- 
self, by oneself, alone; 3. entirely, 

*go T. mgo hon. i. q. u 1. head; — 
2. summit, height; — the highest; 3. first 
place; — 4. beginning; yuk-go the capital 
or ornamental flourish at commencement 
of books, writings etc. 

'"go-cen i. q. u-cen; — *go t'om T. mgo 
'torn vb. to be in perplexity, to be in 
doubt, to be embarrassed, to be bewilder- 
ed. — *go-pdn T. mgo-dpon s. a headman, 
a chief, a superintendent. — '^ go met i.q. 

*go T. sgo(-mo) in comp. gate "go- 
do A T. sgo-sdan s. 1. a gate, gateway, 
2. a bolt, a bar for door; *go-sum T. sgo- 
gsum s. "the three doors"; in incantations 
three figures are made from dough by 
priest and placed on the altar in shape 
of heads viz. of a pig, a tiger and a cow, 
which is symbolical of sin, the body and 
the mind, go-sum klon vb. to cause evil 
spirit to enter the go-sum from body of 

go-cen incorr. for gom-cen s. a hermit. 

go-jok incorr. for gom-jok. 

go dam (lit. "I bind" M.) s. a button, 
go dam cet vb. to button. 

go-ddm s. choice, selection, also go-dom; 
go-ddm-lun lyd take whatever you like; 
go-ddm mat vb. to select. 

go-mf s. a binding, a fillet go-mi gryom 
vb. to bind with fillet. 

go-yo s. sores, ulcers; go-yo pld ulcers 
to break out. 

go-run see go. 

go-rum adv. in pieces go-rum cdk vb. 
to break into pieces, to crush. 

go-rdm T. sgor-ba (to thicken etc.) s. 
goor, the inspissated juice of sugarcane. 

go-liii n. pr. of place see i-lam. 

go-lok 1. adj. contrary, opposite, ob- 
verse; go-lok gum is contrary; 2. s. anti- 
thesis a-re-nun o-re-sd go-lok gum this is 
the reverse of that. 

'go-loii, go-lun incorr. i. q. ge-lon, ge- 
Idn P. 

go-vd— gok-bo 

*gon — gon 


go-v4 circuitous, round about, htl I6m 
go-vd ndn he went a round about way. 

*gok T. gogQ-po) vb. to be old, to be 
worn out, to be become useless (as any- 
thing), to be ruined (as house), to be 
dilapidated, to be wrecked (as ship); K 
gok a deserted house. — gok-bo useless, 
old, ruined. 

gok 1. vb. to be dirty, to be dusty. 
2. s. dirt, dust; gok-bo id. — pd-gok-ld 
or kd-gok-ld adv. dirty (colour), not pure 
(as cloth or any thing white), turbid (as 
water), dun (colour). — kd- gok-bo adj. 
whitely brown, dun, sallow (colour); 
tarbid, milky, not clear (as water), dasty 
(appearance) or white with snow, frost, 
mould etc. 

"gok, gdk T. "gag, 'gegs vb. to knock 
against, to be caught in (as in bush), to 
come in contact with, to be an obstacle, 
an impediment; a stumbling block; — 
to be caught in as in noose or snare, 
to be tied, laced, constricted. — gok ndn 
to have knocked against, to be impeded, 
to be entangled, to be encumbered, to 
be barricaded, to be offended; — to be 
tied, laced, looped; a-yu a-re-ka gok-kun-d 
doth this offend you J. 6. 61. 2. gok 
"narrow and difficult" s. n. pr. of an old 
military post between the great and little 
Rungit and Ramam rivers W. 72. 

gok-bo s. 1. an obstacle, an impediment, 
a stumbling block, 2. a noose, a loop. 

Deriv. a- gok s. an obstacle, an im- 
pediment, anything in the way; a-gok 
a-tydt s. an obstacle; — mlo a-gok s. a 
thing not lasting, old and broken like 
a basket. 

gyok cans, of gok, gok to cause be- 
wilderment; mun-nun gyok-kiin-d rihn- 
nun gydk-kiin-d has God or a demon 
caused this bewilderment; — lyan-nim 
gyok-lun bram being bewildered with the 
country he los this way. — in pass. s. mi- 
len gydk to be bewildered at appearance 
of fire from the eyes, as children when 
in the dark. — gydk-ld adv. perplexingly. 

gok-bo s. a spec, of wild leek. Allium. 

*g0h T. gon-ma s. the upper, superior, 
hon. prefix *gou ku jo T. gon sku gzogs 
your majesty, your highness. 

''gon T. gon I. s. value, price, the 
price fixed or asked, value, cost, rate; 
gon kydp vb. 1. to fix the price, 2. to 
bargain; II. vb. to value, a-re a-far sd- 
tet ho sd-tet gon-mm-go what is the price 
of this, at what do you value it M. 

a-gon i. q. goii I. s. a-gon a-tim, gon 
a-tim, gon cen a high price. — a-gon 
a-cvm a low p. — a-gon Kak-ld ndn the 
p. is rising; a-gon man-Id bi vb. to lower 
the p.; a-gon ti-ld bi vb. to raise the p.; 
a-gon nuii-nan the right price. 

*gon T. sgoh{-ba) 1. vb. to form into a 
ball (as mud, flour) to bring together, to 
lump, to conglomerate; da-bryo pot gon 
to make balls for pellet-bow. goh-luh da 
vb. to lie doubled up. — gon dam vb. to 
tie hands and feet, to tie body into a 
ball. • — a-fiiii gon vb. to roll up a corpse 
into a lump, so as to be enabled to stuff 
it into a basket. — 2. L. to bring to- 
gether, to collect, to accumulate; kom 
gon fo to heap up riches. 

*gon T. dgons(-pa) hon. 1. vb. to think, 
to remember, kd-siim gon remember me 
L. sak-ciii; 2. s. the thought, remem- 
brance, applied to king; plan, purpose, 
intention, a-lut-sd gon nyi-wun-pdn dot- 
lun li to tell all the thoughts of the heart. 
— gon.zuk vb. to plan, to purpose. 

*gon-bo T. dgons-pa s; permission, leave 
or absence; gon-bo M vb. to ask for fur- 

*goh T. /Jow s. in L. evil thought, 
malice, kum-dun-ka gon bu vb. to bear 
malice against another; gon bun-bo ma- 
licious. — "^gon hre or gon-bo hre T. /.'o/i- 
Icro s. hon. anger, wrath, vengeance of 
God or great man; n/m-sd goh hre; pd- 
no-sd gon hre; gon hre also vb. hon. to 
be angry, to be wrathful; gon md-hre-mm 
be not angry with me. 

gon pok vb. to humiliate, to humble, 
to abase; s. humiliation. 

gon, ind-gon-ne see go. 



gon— gor 

gor— gd 

gon, a-gon s. the fin of a fish no gon. 

gon-rdn see gun-ran. 

gon rum rfk s. a spec, of creeper; g. r. 
•pot s. a spec, of currant. 

gop for gap vb. to be spread out. 

gop hollow below; large hollow im- 
pression; kd gop hand slightly bent with 
knuckles upwards; — vb. to make a 1. h. 
impression; etc. vyen-ka po-nun gop-lun 
dam vb. to bind doorway with split 
bamboo hollowside downwards or in- 
wards. — ffop-pd gop-pd hryak vb. to 
leave large footprints. 

tun-gop-mo Tbr. a bear, ace. M. "prob- 
ably from the noise it makes" 

gorn vb. to hug, to nestle. 

cans, gyom vb. to gather together, to 
collect, to assemble, to muster P. gyom 
t'o id. J. vn pat-bo sd dii-bo sd-kryom-ld 
sak-ryut sdn-ka du-bo-nun 16 lyo-lun fok 
rem tm mdk-sd vid-nym-nuii-ka gyom t'o 
and he that reapeth receiveth wages, and 
gathereth fruit unto life eternal: that both 
he that soweth and he that reapeth may 
rejoice together J. 4. 36. gyom-Uk id. Ex., 
see gyam, a-gyam. 

gom T. sgom^-pa) vb. to be used to, to 
be accustomed to. 

gom T. bsgom (see gam) s. devotion, 
religion, meditation, contemplation, re- 
flection, devout austerity; vb. to meditate, 
to perform devotion, to worship; gom cen 

1. deep devotion, 2. a hermit, devotee, 
a saint, n. pr. of a bird "the hermit" 
Gyps tenuirostris W. in R. 204. g. c. mat 
vb. to practise ascetism. 

gom-tbm i. q. go-tom. 

gom-jok T. sgam-jog s. order, rule, 
regularity; g.-j. md-nyin-nm irregularity, 
disorder, derangement, confusion. 

gor T. 'gar(-ba) 1. vb. to tarry, to delay, 

2. to be passed, to be spent (as time) 
pronounced gur. — gar-rd gor-rd adv. 
delay, shilly-shally. 

gor vb. to watch, to guard, to protect, 
to look after; to head as shepherd his 

gor-bo a protector, a leader. 

gor vb. to take bull as cow; gor to-twt 
the rutting-season. 

*gor (see kor) vb. to environ, to encircle, 
to enclose; gor-lun dam vb. to tie any- 
thing round; pol sun gor bu nan to sur- 
round with magic circle. 

gor-fdk i. q. r'ior-tdk s. no, na. 

go see gd., go, gihn vb. to be, employed 
in the second person interr. M. 52. 141. 
ho to go who are you; ho m mat-tun go 
what are you doing. 

*gd T. sga s. saddle, see on-go. go sd 
s6p a saddle and briddle; gd-kep T. sga- 
I'ebs s. saddle-cloth; gd-yop s. a stirrup; 
gd-ri s. a saddle-girth; — go kyop vb. to 
put on saddle, to saddle; go fyol or ftyon 
to take off s. ; g6 bu to bear s. 

gd T. dgd(^ba) vb. 1. to rejoice, to be 
pleased, to be glad, to be merry, cheer- 
ful, joyful, to be delighted P. — 2. vb. 
to like, to be affectous for, to love, ho 
md-go-min-ka in case of your not liking. 
— a-do sd-re go re m,at-td whatever you 
please that do. — Negat. md-go-ne 1. to 
be displeased with, to be unhappy, to 
be distressed, 2. not to like, not to love, 
to hate; md-go-nun-sd cin an unpleasant 

go-bo s. a friend, a lover; go-bo-sdii 
hu 7nak-n6n-ne yo hryop a-tsom ak he 
being died his friends wept and tore 
their hair. — go-Id adv. 1. cheerfully, 
happily, merrily, joyfully, gladly; 2. affec- 
tionately, fondly, kindly, lovingly; go-Id 
mat vb. to make cheerful, to render, 
happy. — go-Id det approaching the age 
of puberty Tbr. — go md go; go md go- 
sd very dear beloved, darling; go md 
go-sd md-ro a very dear person. — go- 
wun s. cheerfulness, gladness, happiness, 
gaiety, pleasure; affection, attachment, 
love; a-lut-ka go-wun pld or nun (joy) 
to spring up in the heart. — go-ldt s. 

Deriv. a-go and a-go a-nyi s. joy, 
pleasure, love, charity. — td-go i. q. a-go 
s. pleasure, desire, will; td-g6 kd gdn if 
it please you. 

g6k— gdh-tok 

gdp— (gdl) ta-gdl 


Comp. *ffd kro (T. -grogs) s. a sweet- 
heart, a lover; go go kro kro pleasure, 
gaieties, festivities; *gd cok adj. I. fit to 
love, beautiful, comely, lovely; 2. desir- 
able, vb. to be lovely etc., to be desirable; 
go cok-kiin-sd lyaii a lovely place, g. c. 
k.-sd tcl-dyu a comely woman; g. c. k.-sd 
mlo a desirable thing. — ^go-den T. dga- 
Idan 1. joyful, happy, 2. paradise, the 
abode of the gods, Skt. Tushita. — *^o'- 
dom T. dgd-dam s. choice, selection; kd- 
do kd-su go-dom-mun by my own choice; 
go-d&iii mat vb. to choose, to select; also 

gdk vb. 1. to come off in flakes, to 
scurf; 2. to scald rice etc. in order to 
get off husk zo gdk; 3. to have mange. 

kd-gok-ld adv. scabby, scurfy (state of 
skin) also halfburnt state. 

a-gok s. the mange in dogs, the itch 
adj. scalded; a-gok tsdt contagious; see 
also pd-gok-bii. 

*gdk T.'gag s. a door, an outerdoor; vyeii 
T. sgo-gag; — gok-bo s. a sort of porter at 
gate, a chaukidar; T. 'gag-pa see gok. 

gdn vb. to open in fissures, to open 
out, to gape as ground or wood in dry 
weather; to be apart, to warp, to be 
divided, to be asunder. 

gon-ld adv. co gon-ld pi vb. to write 
a book with lines wide apart zo gon-ld 
pok vb. to dibble wide apart. 

Der. tiir-gon i. q. fur-din s. a pit, a 
deep mine. 

gdn i. q. sd-gon within, inside li sd-gd/i 
within the house: li-sd sd-gd/i P.; the 
socket of eye: viik gdn hu see mik. 

gdn, a-gdn s. spur; hik gdn a cocks 
spur; the claw of a crab. 

*gdn for T. sgan{-pa) vb. to be fulfilled, 
to be completed; nam gdn the year to 
be ended; applied by L.'s to the last 
day of the moon. 

*gdn T. Man s. house, temple: hla-gon 
T. hla-Kan a temple; J. gdn-cdk or cok 
T. Kan-rcog s. a steeple, a spire. 

gdn-tok s. n. pr. of place in Sikhim, 
gdn-tok-bo s. the inhabitant of G. 

gdp partially dry as anything damp 
before fire see sum-siim-ld sow; gdp tet 
son or gdp-ld son to be partially dried. 

gdp-pd gdp-pd adv. applied to rio to 
thirst, to have unquencheable thirst, gdp- 
pd gdp-pd fun vb. to gulp down. 

gdp: gdp-ld adv. aside, apart; gdp-ld to 
vb. to place apart. 

gdp see nydp; Deriv. a-gdj) s. the node 
or point whence sprouts issue from the 
stem. — td-gop s. 1. a slice cut out of 
the lower side of tree in cutting ; t. g. 
dyap vb. to cut notch; td-gdp mat cek 
vb. to cut the slice out of the side of 
the tree in the direction in which it is 
to fall. 2. the hollow behind knee ku 
td-gdp; td-gdp tsan-tsan mat gdn I'et nyi 
if the t. vibrate, it is a sign of strength. 
tun-gdp or t'oA-gdp s. the os tibia. 

gdm, a-gdm s. a series, a concatinatiou, 
a chain, continuity, a train, a span of 
thumb and middle-finger kd-gdm; a stride 
a-dyan gdm a step ; fo gdm "double teeth"' 
the grinders; a cluster; kur-don gom a 
cluster of plantains. 

gdr vb. 1. to rise partially, to raise 
up a little, to curl up, to warp ; — gdr-rd 
gdr-rd rising up a little. — 2. to be rest- 
less, agitated; — kd-gdr-ld restless, sitting 
down and getting up; kd-gdr-ld nan vb. 
to be r., sitting down and getting up; 
kd-gdr-ld luk or gdr-rd gdr-rd luk vb. to 
rise up and down (a little). — 3. to 
assail, to attack M. — 4. s. a kick: tun- 
gor or fon-gdr; gdr or tun-gdr dydk to 
kick backwards. 

gdr vb. to rest M. 146; gdr-lyan a rest- 
ing place ibd. 

gdl vb. to roll down, to roll away, to 
turn over; ace. W. 64 fallen or upset 
see gal, glo. 

Deriv. piifi-gdl a piece of wood used 
to fling at things (as to bring fruit from 
trees); pun-gol tyok to fling p. 

(gdl) ta-gdl s. the gizzard of fowls. 

(gdl) ta-gdl adj. poor, destitute as child- 
ren Tbr. ; td-gdl tHk-dim or td-gdl tiik-dydm 
or on td-gdl s. Tbr. poor orphans. 


gyd— gyan 

gyan— *gya 

gya vb. 1. to be cautious of, to be care- 
ful of, gyd-lun fo to place by with care, 
to preserve carefully, gyd-Ui/i ayok zuk 
to -work carefully. — 2. to rest from 
labour, to refrain from work: a-M gyd 
7nd-zu gyd, on ace. of any superstitious 
cause as signs, omens or portents or 
when propitiating evil spirits, mun zuk- 
ba ma-ro dit md-kon-nun a-dyan sur md- 
zn gyd-0 when propitiating evil spirit let 
no one approach, set a check to their 
foot -steps and cease from labour, see 

gyan s. stream of water; gydn-hd gydn- 
iid advly. hanging down, dangling down 
(as rope etc.); streaming down (as water 
etc.); g.-nd nan to hang pendulous. 

gydt (see gyoi) vb. 1. to be disinclined 
to' do anything; to be averse; to be un- 
willing. 2. T. 'god{-pa) to repent, to be 
sorrowful for sin, see gyot. 

gyan T. rgyan I. 1. an ornament, an 
embellishment; gydn kyop or mat vb. to 
ornament, to adorn, to embellish. — the 
lining of clothes; gydn kyop vb. to line 


a- gyan or a- gyan a- so a 

miracle, a wonder, a supernatural event, 
marvel, thaumaturgy, used also in sense 
of eventuality e. c. dek fak-luii mak ron- 
sen'a-re a-gydn su yd-Uin frd7n-ydm-o 
fate being satisfied death claims its own, 
knowing this eventuality beware; in P. 
supernatural knowledge T. rig Skt. vidyd 
a-gydn a-so lyo-liin T. rig-dsin Skt. vi- 
dyddhara. — a-gydn dot vb. to perform 
a miracle; — a-gydn nyim-bo possessed 
with supernatural power; — a-gydn nyim- 
Idt s. miraculous power, inspiration; — 
a-gydn-nun mat-bo by means of divine 
power; — a-gydn-sd mon mydr a super- 
natural dream. — lyan td-se gydn-mit the 
glorious, marvelous goddess of Ta-se. 

n. 1. a stake at play etc., 2. lot etc.; 
gydn Kyu to contend for stakes, gydn 
Kyu-lun kd-su a-bryan pld having cast 
lots it fell to my name. — gydn-po T. 
rgyan-po s. a chessboard; g. p. kfi vb. to 
play at chess, 

gyan T. 'granQ-pa) vb. to vie with, to 
contest, to contend for, to emulate; to 
assume, to arrogate, to aifect, to pretend 
to; a-bo a-mo gydn md-ld-ne no one can 
supply the place of parents (lit. do the 
office of do.). 

gyan see gan. 

gydn see gdn. 

*gydn T. rgyun (continuity), gydn-nd 
gydn-nd advly. so gydn-nd gydn-nd yu 
vb. to rain in torrents vi gydn-nd gydn- 
nd pld blood to issue in a stream; in a 
long pendent (as creeper etc.) hanging 
or branch of weeping willow. 

gyam vb. 1. to turn aside (as bullet), 
to ward off (as blow). — 2. to remain, 
to be quiet, to be at rest, to be still, to 
be at peace; gydm mat-bam vb. to re- 
main, where one is; to be quiet, gydvi 
mat-td-o remain quiet. 2. s. tranquility, 
rest, repose, peace, see gya. 

gydm, a-gydm adj. entire, whole, com- 
plete, gydm mat-t'o vb. to leave entire; 
md gal-lun gydm-fo do not break it, keep 
it entire. 

gyar vb. (old L.) to be apprehensive 
of; to shrink from; to be afraid of. 

gyar s. a bracelet; gydr cdk vb. to put 
on b.; gydr 6t vb. to take off b. 

gyar, gydr-ko see kydr- see also nok. 

gyar-kuh s. n. of tree. 

gyal see gal. 

gydl (to vanish), gydl-ld or kydl-ld tap 
vb. to put out of sight, to hide, to con- 
ceal; kydl-ld noh vb. to go out of sight 
to disappear. — a-gydl adj. safe. 

*gya T. rgya s. extent, width *gya- 
kram or gya-krdm T. rgya-gram s. 1. a 
cross, 2. a silver coin (in value about 
sixpence); — gya-kram fam-blydk a spec, 
butterfly. — *gya-gar T. rgya-gar s. India; 
gya-gar do7--ji-den T. rgya-gar rdo-rje-gdan 
Yajrasana (Gaya) P. — *gya-cun or gya- 
cun-mo T. rgya-can a variegated, striped 
woolen cloth of narrow width. — *9y<^-ji 
T. rgya-gzi s. a revenue, ground-rent 
i. q. kdm fop lyan a tributary kingdom. 
— *'gya-n6k or gya-nak T. rgya-nag s. 


China M. 88. — *gya-pdn T. rgya-dpon s. 
an revenue -collector or tax-gatherer. 
*gija-'pi, gija-bi T. rgya-pibs s. a ridge of 
roof, also a room built under ridge of 
roof: li gya-bi. — *gya pi-lin T. rgya jn- 
glin s. British India. — "gya-mi T. rgya- 
mi a Chinaman. — "gya-mo T. rgya-mo 
(a Chinese woman) in L. an inhabitant 
of China. — "gya-tsa T. rgya-tm s. sal 
ammoniac, chloride of ammonium. — *gya 
Uo T. rgya-tsos s. the lac-dye; gya (ts'o) 
bik s. the lac-insect, Coccus lacca. — *gya.- 
ti'o or *gyam-t)<o T. rgya-mtso s. the sea, 
the ocean M. 82. g. ts.-sd nvm-hon the 
waves of the s. ; g. ti.-sd bu-gdk the foam 
of s.; g. ts.-sd a- jura the spray of s.; 
g. ts.-sd a-kii'i the sea-shore; g. ts. su vb. 
(the sea) to roar. — *gya-ri T. rgya-ri s. 
meat, a piece of meat. — *gya-lih T. rgya- 
glin s. a flageolet. — ^'gya-hri T. rgya-Kri 
s. a chair, a couch. 

*gya T. rgya s. a seal, a mark; *gya-t6 
T. rgya-tags s. a seal, a mark, a stamp. 

*gya or gyd T. brgya num. one hundred. 
gyo-bo-re the hundreth; gyd-bo-re nam 
kd-kydk seven hundred years. — gya-kon 
s. a chandelier with hundred lamps. 

gya or gya bf s. a spec, of basil (as 

gya-bu s. a scale of weight. 

gya-re kun s. name of tree, on which 
the lac-insect feeds. 

gya z6 muk s. name of plant, spec, of 

gya-se kuii s. name of tree, Erythrina 
arborescens; gya-se rip the flower of Ery- 
thrina arborescens. 

gya-sih s. a spec, of Aralia, A. pseudo- 

gya-pu T. sgid-bu lit. "a support of 
bricks", s. stones erected round a fire 
for placing pots on to boil. 

*gyah T. rgyan s. far distance; gyan- 
ser s. a telescope. 

gyan see gan. 

gyap vb. to be numerous, to be plenti- 
ful, un a-yu bat gyap-lixh stik-dum lyan- 
ka sur tet gyap-pd and you be ye fruitful. 

'gyap— *gyal 


and multiply, bring forth abundantly in 
the earth and multiply therein G. to 
be abundant; to be dear. 

a-gyap adj. numerous, much, many; 
dear, a-gyap a-man-ka o tet nyi there 
is neither much nor little. 

gyap adv. much. — gyap ran gyap gdn 
at most, about; gyap rdn gyap gdil /'«, 
kat nyi at most there were twenty. — 
gyap-fyin adv. many times. — gyap-co s. 
most, the majority. — gyap - mo many, 
most. — gyap-ldt s. abundance, numbers, 
multitude. — gyap-pd i. q. gyap adv. — 
len gyap-pd more often than P. 

"*gyap T. rgyab s. the back; gyap kyo 
mat vb. to protect the b.; gyap gi aydk 
vb. to sit back to back; gyap gi dydk 
non vb. to die Tbr. ; gyap gi mat vb. to 

gyam vb. to be turned upside down, 
to be topsy turvy; gyam da-nyi to be 
lying with face downwards as man or 
thing opp. to glyok da-nyi\ a-mlem gyam 
gyam non to have face downwards, to be 
ashamed, to be confounded; co gyam-ld 
fo the book is placed on its wrong side. 

gyam dydn vb. to overthrow, to sub- 
vert J. 

gyam see under gya. 

*gyain-tut T. skyabs-nd'ud s. a silkband 
worn round head supporting the hair. 

gyam ndk s. a small field for sowing 
small grain; gyam ndk btik vb. to clear 
a small field. 

gyar, a-gyar s. overthrow. M. 

*gyal and gye T. rgyal I. gye T. rgyal- 
(ba) vb. to win, to gain a victory, to con- 
quer, to vanquish, to overcome. — *gye-bo 
or '^gye-pu 1. T. rgyal-ba s. a conqueror, 
a victor, a winner. — 2. T. rgyal-po s. a 
king, a monarch L. pd-no also *gyal-po 
and gye-pu P. — "gyal-mo T. rgyal-mo s. 
a queen; ''gyal-t^:op T. rgyal-tsap s. a vice- 
roy; *gyal-se T. rgyal-sras 1. a prince; 
2. a saint; ''gye-bo />'a ndk T. rgyal-po ka 
nag s. Adamia cyanea, used as purgative. 
— a-gye or a-gye a-tu s. victory; a-gye 
rill s. the news of victory; a-gye nyim-bo 


gyit— gyiim 

gyum— *gyur 

s. a conqueror. — II. s. *gye in comp. 
gyal 1. a victory; "2. the stakes contended 
for, a prize; compensation for adultery, 
fine of adultery "gysh" (misprint.) apud 
Campbell, Journ. Etlmol. Soc. of Lond. I, 
No. 2; H. H. Risley, Tribes and Castes 
of Bengal, Calc. 1892 2, 7. gye-coii s. a 
feast given by a winner opp. pam-cdA s. 
a feast given by person who looses. — 
*gyal-tidn T. rgyal-mtsan s. a trophy, a 
sign of victory, a flag of honour. — ^'gyaX- 
wo T. rgyal-ba s. majesty, royalty; gyal- 
wo rin-po-ce his supreme majesty, his 
royal highness. 

*gyit ace. M. fr. T. rgyud (or skyed-paf) 
vb. to succeed, to follow; gyit-liin di 
vb. to follow in succession. — s. a-gyit 
succession, race, generation, pedigree, 
stock, breed G. a-gyit-tiiti non or a-gyit 
mok non to become extinct. — Uim-gyit 
s. ancestors. 

*gyuk T. rgyug (a running) vb. to 
gallop, to run fast, to scamper off, to 
flee. — a-gyuk s. running fast, a gallop; 
a-gyuk-hdm-ka non to go all the way at 
a gallop. 

gyun, a-gyiih s. a waterfall: uh-gyun. 

gyut, a-gyiit s. a small bulbous root, 
applied chiefly to sun-kri and nyin. 

gyun vb. obsc. to become rigid tik 
gyun; to be lewd, lustful. 

gyiip vb. to be finished, to be ended; 
to be exhausted; zo ayek gywp-non the 
harvest is ended; rd-ku rd-son gyup-non 
the provisions are exhausted. 

gyup vb. to be stiff i. q. but, to be be- 
numbed from cold or remaining in one 
position: kd-sii dyan gyiip-non. 

*gyup T. sgyid-bu s. a support for 
cooking-pan over fire; *ca-gynp T. Ica- 
sgyid s. an iron support for do.; see also 

gyum (see gyd) vb. 1. to take care, to 
be cautious, to be vigilant, watchful, to 
be prudent; gyinn-iiid imp. Ex. — gyum- 
Um part, cautious, guardful. gyim-lu/l 
zuk vb. to make with care. 
gyum-ld adv. carefully, cautiously. 

2. to take aim at any thing, to take 
good aim. 

gyum-bo or gymn-ydm-bo s. adj. 1. a 
cautious person; a prudent p. 2. one 
who can take a good aim, a good shot. 
— gyum-ldt s. caution, carefulness, circum- 
spection, prudence, vigilance. 

gyum incorr. i. q. gydm entire. 

gyur; gyur-rd gyur-rd advly. shrinking 
as from shame; uk-lun gyiir-rd gyur-rd li 
vb. to feel a shrinking from shame. 

*gyur T. 'gyur see ko-gyiir. 

*gyu T. rgyu s. 1. matter, substance, 
material; a-re su-sd gyu nyi-wiin-d what 
is the substance of, which this is com-- 
posed, what is this made of. — M-sd 
rin-sd gyu the purport of his speach. — 
substance, nervus rerum, money, wealth; 
kd-su a- klip man-po gyu md-nyin-ne ex- 
cept my child I have nothing (no proper- 
ty); gyu inaty\). to merchandise; gyu sok 
vb. to accumulate riches, wealth; 2. pre- 
paration, arrangements. 

*gyu T. rgyud s. character, disposition; 
hu sak-lyak-sd gyu go-pa he has an irri- 
table disposition; a-do gyu sd-lo go what 
is your condition, what is the state of 
your affairs; how are you. 

*gyu T. rgyus s. notice, intelligence, 
knowledge; hti gyu-nyim-bo gum he is 
an able, gifted person; hu gyu md-nyin-ne 
he has not the faculty or ability. — 
history, story, tale, narrative, lesson, a-do 
gyu hlap-pd-o learn your lesson; fam-sd 
gyu pi vb. to write a treatise on a sub- 
ject. — gyu-ydt s. wisdom, knowledge. 

*gyu T. dkyus see pi-gyu. 

*gyu T. sgyu s. illusion, deception, 
jugglery; mik gyu an optical illusion. 

*gyu T. rgyus s. a gathering together, 
a collection of. 

gyu vb. to change for the worse, to 
deteriorate, to degenerate, to be reduced 
as from sickness (for gyur)\ see ce-mo gyu. 

gyut see gyiit. 

gyup see tuk-cin gyup. 

*gyur (see gyu) T. 'gyur-ba vb. to be 
changed, to change, to alter, to translate, 

gyul— gyek 

gyek ka-ndk— gydh 


to transmute, to transform, to vary, to 
modify; sometimes to alter for the better 
"to improve" ^ja cit gyur or gyu to im- 
prove the size of a bulbous root by cutt- 
ing it; to alter for the worse; to de- 
generate or change for the ■worse. — to 
multiply as in arithmetic. — to represent, 
to relate as story, to detail. 

gyul vb. to be oval, ovalshaped (as 
cup, weights of net) a-re ka-yd gyul bam; 
sun-li pot gyul; — ui'i gyul a pool (oval- 
shaped) of water. 

*gye see *gyal- 

*gye T. rgyas adj. large, great, ex- 
tensive, ample, much; gye-ko T. rgyas-sgo 
a large door, a gate. — gye gye adv. much, 
very much, so as to excite wonder; gye 
gye ayi1m-ba there is too much; sd-ro/i 
ci gye gye fdn-fat he has to-day drunk 
an extraordinary quantity of beer. 

*gye T. dgye s. a reclining position; 
gye-U s. an hour of the day correspond- 
ing nearly to our 4 o'clock in the after- 

*gye T. dgyes(-pa) 1. s. joy, mirth, gaity, 
2. vb. to be happy, joyful, to be gay; 
sum gye id. 

*gye T. yyem? or rgyalf see under 
gydl; s. compensation or damages for 
adultery; gye M vb. to pay damages for 

gyek in P. (Mscpt.) gek T. skye-ba vb. 
to bring forth, to give birth to; vb. n. 
to be born, to be generated, to be creat- 
ed (life); go gyek-su-o may I be born; 
a-do md-gyek-nd-ba when you were not 
born; nvm-sim-nyo md-gyek-nd-ba before 
the birth of man. P.; go-niin a-dom gyek 
I gave you birth; gyek-kiin-sd mak vb. to 
die in labour; gyek tet-ka mak vb. to die 
in birth; gyek-ren tsu-lM beginning from 
birth; gyek-ren md-mak-nd tet from birth 
to death; gyek byi or gyek to vb. to bring 
forth, to bread P. — gyek-ldt s. birth. — 
kd-ta zon gyek-bo unigenitus Chr. 

a-gyek s. a birth; a-gyek du s. labour- 
pains; a-gyek-lyan s. a birthplace; a-gyek- 
ren md-U-num-bo blind from birth; a-gyek 

sd-nyi s. a birth-day; a-gyek a-mak md- 
fyak-niim-bo a thoughtless person (lit. one 
who thinks neither of birth or deatli). 

gyek ka-ndk i. q. gye-bo kd-n6k. 

gyek muk s. a plant. 

gyeii see tiiii-gyen; sUn-ban gyeri,-kun. 

gyen see gan, see also v6ii\ see also 
gydn, a-gydn. 

gyen-tsen s. a tower G. see gen. 

a-gyer s. the bark of an arrow. 

a-gyel adj. 1. single, not in clusters. — 
2. tough, hard. 

gyo s. a machine of offence, used in 
war by forming a spring made by forcing 
a tree backwards; when released it casts 
heavy stones placed thereon; gyo dydn 
vb. to cast stone by gyo. 

*gyo T. rgyo s. copulation; ^gyo zdn 
T. rgyo Ijan a T. word of abuse, a 

gyot see not, gydt. 

*gyot T. 'gyod{-pa') vb. to repent, to be 

gyom see gmn. 

a-gyom adj.: ri/'i a-gyom s. a general 
expression, what has become proverbial. 

gyor vb. to bring or drive back as 
animal, that has strayed; gyor bu-no drive 
it back hence, bik a-lem gyor bH di drive 
back the cow in this direction. 

gyd vb. to break friendship; to quarrel; 
to quarrel so as to separate and not to 
speak; md-rd-sd gyo vb. to quarrel with 

*gyd T. rgyags (-pa) adj. expansive, 
fully-developped, stout, po gyo a fully- 
developped man. 

gyd, gyd-m vb. to be finished, to be 
expended, to be exhausted; a-zom gy6 
non the food is expended, gyom jjlyok 
dydn to cut off J. 18. 10. 

*gyd see gya. 

gydk see gok. 

gydn s. saliva, gyod bon-nd bdn s. a 
running of saliva; gyd/i cil saliva to flow. 

gydn vb. to mutter over, as priest his 
prayers, to intone, to recite; no gym to 
pronounce magic words; ma-nyi gy&n to 


gyoii— gra 

gran— gri't grft 

cliaunt the mmn: om mani pe-me hun. 
adj. sonorous. 

gydn 1. in comp. a sausage; kai' gyon 
id.; nak gyon a black s. — 2. used some- 
times for grcin to stuff.* 

gydii adj. s. far; distance; tson gyon an 
arrow d. 

gydn vb. to bother, to joke, to jest or 
play with in a troublesome manner; ka- 
sum yan mu-gyon-nun do not bother 
me so. 

*gydp fr. T. rgyab byed-pa vb. to support, 
to second, to back, to side with, to take 
the part of, to uphold, to maintain, to 
defend: Lepcha tiin-ddk; — gyop-bo a 
supporter, a defender, a vindicator, a 
champion of. See also gya-p. 

gydp: hh gyop a valley. 

gydp: tun-gyop weak on legs; t.-g. pe 
vb. to walk straddly with legs bent and 

gydtn see gyd. 

gydm s. the right in opp. to vim the 
left; gydm kd the right hand; gydm kdn- 
ka to the right; gydm-ka id. 

gydr vb. 1. to glow as fire; mi^gydr s. 
a live coal. 2. to glaze, to glitter, to 
be shining, brilliant. — gy&r-bo brilliant, 
bright, glittering; — gydr-ldt s. glow, 
effulgency, brilliancy. 

gydl a-gydl s. long cylindrical shape; 
a-ti gydl a long-shaped egg; pi-ru gydl 
a piece of coral. 

grak vb. to open out, to render passable 
(as road thro' jungle). 

gran see gryen and grdn. 

grat see pd-grdt-bo. 

grdm 1. vb. to hasten, to speed, grdm- 
Id soon Ex. quickly P. gram gram quick- 
ly, hastily, speedily; gram gram mat vb. 
to make haste; gram gram li to speak 
fast; gram no-o go quickly. 2. s. speed, 
haste, quickness. 

a-gram adj. quick, speed; early as 
potatoes. — kd-grdm-bo adj. quick. 

grim see sd-grdm. 

gra vb. to sit on edge (of teeth) as 
anything sour fo gra. 

gran vb. to be able to walk (child); 
a-kup ik-ca gran md-lain-ne the child 
cannot walk yet; uyeit bdn grait-ndn the 
infant has commenced to walk. 
gran see pa-gran. 

grap-pa grap-pd onom. crunching, crisp 
as toast, parched grain. 

gram vb. to break, to crack, gram-bo 
adj. broken; gram ydm-bo adj. brittle, 
frangible. — gram-md gram-md li i. q. 
md-zH kfim-gram,-m.d (la) li. gram-md 
gram-md grik sound as of things break- 
ing and crushing. 

gryam cans, of gram, to cause to break, 
reduj^l. kum,-gram nydn lydt vb. to 
break in pieces; k.-gr. ndn lydt to fall 
and break to pieces. — kiim-gramr-ld or 
kHm- gryam-ld adv. broken in pieces. 
md-zii kum-gram-ld li to feel as if body 
was broken in pieces. 

a-gri s. a dry twig of tree; a^gri kd- 
ta-bo kd-ta-ka t'am nyi prov. birds of a 
feather flock together. 

grf s. a highstockaded fort W. 71, a 
palace pd-no-sd gri; a fine city: gri kyun; 
gri ca-ri s. the walls or battlements round 

grf gri-m vb. to string bow; sd-U(grim) 
gri; a-grim s. a string of bow; a-grim-ka 
sit vb. to place the arrow. 

grik s. noise, sound of anything; Idrii- 
miin-sd grik the sound of foot-steps. 
t'am-grik s. a noise. 
a-grik s. 1. a sound, 2. a report, a-grik 
a-cnm a low s. ; a-grik a-tim a loud s.; 
a-grik dor a hollow s.; a-grik kyei'i a 
shrill s. 

grfk vb. to fructify, fruit to form from 
the flower, to swell out applied to young 
fruit; grik nan vb. id. 

a-grik s. a small fruit not quite ripe. 
td-grik s. young childhood from about 
two to five years; applied also to beasts; 
oh td-grik a child from about two to 
five years; small tender budding (fruit) 
fam-pdt td-grik. 

grft grft (see grik) onom. a grating 

grfp— gron 

groft — grdn 


grfp vb. to confine, to cage (as bird 
or animal), to put into paddock (as 
sheep etc.), to stall (as horse); — grip 
fo vb. to place into confinement (animal). 

grim vb. to crunch; grim -Id tsuk vb. 
to crunch with teeth; grim-Id tsuk grik 
s. the noise of crunching M. 

gruii vb. to be grooved; a-grun s. a 
groove or long concave mark. 

gruk, gvk, gok vb. to be dusty. 

gruk see pd-gruk-bii. 

gruk: pd-gruk, po-gruk, a- gruk dry 

gruh also krun a cupshaped concavity; 
to be hollow as bone, tree etc.; — a-grun 
adj. hollow. 

gruii: mik grun tears. 

grun vb. to watch, to protect as hen 
her chickens, hik hu-do a-kup grun, cat 
a mouse, dog a bone; to guard, to shield. 
— grun-bo a guardian, a protector, ka-ju 
grun-bo a watch dog. 

a-grun s. protection, a-grun mat vb. to 

grek see krek vb. to be dried up. 

gret 1. vb. to be hooked or crooked 
(thorns); 2. s. the sharp crooked thorns 
of cane ru-sd ju-gret; a-lut-ka ju-gret-sd 
huk-md-o they will be hooked from the 
middle (or interior) by a sharp crook P.; 
see pd-gret-bu. 

gren: tun-gren s. a hoof. 

grem vb. to crack as nut see grim, grom. 
grem-ld tsuk vb. to crack nut with teeth. 

a-grem and gryam (see grip') s. a cage 
for beasts. 

gro vb. (old L.) to be stiff (as from 
cold); a-grot adj. hard, said of yams. 

grok, a-grok adj. very aged (man or 

groii vb. to place in a resting position 
as ladder; to make a 1. or support of 
any kind, to form a scaffold; kun gron 
{-Un hrdn) to place a tree in a reclining 
position against anything (as house) (and 
to mount on the top). — un gron-lUn pld 
to form a bridge of stepping-stones or by 
any support so as to reach opposite side. 

td-gron or tun-gron s. a ladder; tun- 
gron fdk s. the spoke or step in ladder; 
md-ro krdk si-ba tun-gron fok-ka hron-re 
zon when a man rises in grade he is 
like a man mounting a ladder. 

gron expletive to vyen probl. in ex- 
tension of the meaning of above word 
as means of access. 

gron strong, powerful (voice) nyUm gron. 

*gron tnuh or gr.-m. pd-no s. the demon 
of death, fr. T. 'gron(^-ba) hon. to die. 

grop vb. 1. to cover with hands, as 
face to cover with hand, as when catch- 
ing fly etc.; to pounce upon as cat on 
mouse with paws. 

2. to hide, to shelter, to shroud, grop 
I6n vb. to take under protection, to shelter. 

grop tsam 1. to seize upon, to pounce 
upon; 2. to shelter, to protect, to hide. 

grom vb. to be split, to be cracked as 
glass, vessel etc.; po pd-tek grom-non the 
bamboo-vessel is cracked. — grom grom 
munching or crunching noise of m.; bik 
pe fa-ba grom grom t'a vb. e. c. the cow 
when eating makes a munching sound. 

grol i. q. krol vb. to get foot into hole 
when walking. 

grdk: pd-grok-ld adv. slightly apart. 

grdn and gran vb. to cry out or to 
make noise simultaneously; fo gron-bam 
the birds are singing together. — grSn- 
nd gron hry&p to cry all at once; gron-nd 
gron-nd simultaneous noise. 

grdn, pd-groh or puk-gron s. length from 
tips of fingers to tips of fingers when 
both arms are stretched out; see tiin- 

grdt i. q. grot, gro to be hard, stony. 

grdn vb. to hope, to trust, to be desi- 
rous of; un-no-re zdn gron to hope with 
extreme desire. 

a- grdn s. hope, expectation; a- gron 
blin-non to be disappointed; a-gron pa- 
td nun-non to be disappointed; a-gron 
mdk-ndn to lose hope; a-gron zdk or fdp 
to have hope realized. 

gron-mii adj. plausible; grdn-mii-sd rin 
plausible language. — grdn-bo adj. hope- 



gi-dn— gryuk 

ful, expectant; grdn cen hopeful; gron 
met hopeless. 

grdn md-nyin-ne there is no hope, to 
be hopeless; grtin md-nyin-num-bo hope- 
less. — grdn lyan ground for hope. — 
gron byi Tb. to giye hope. 

grdn (a distance); grdn tet ndn to go 
some distance or gone for a short period. 
— grdn dok-ld for a considerable time. 

grdp expresses an indef. quantity of 
matter, space or time neither much nor 
little, considerable; nam grof P.; grop fa 
he has eaten a considerable quantity; 
grdp yd he knows a good deal; grdp 
md-yd-ne he knows but little, grdp tet 
for a considerable time or distance. — 
grdp pyet about half. — grdp md-rum a 
considerable distance. — grdp a-tdl tole- 
rably near. 

gryi vb. to be thin; gryd-ld, kd-gryd-ld 
thin, skinny, emaciated. 

grydn: grydn grydn weak, staggering. 

grydt-ta grydt-td or grydt-td grydt-td 
advly. trailing along, a long trail; grydt- 
td grydt-td hrya vb. to trail along ground. 

gry^t-ta i. q. gryot-td. 

gry^n Tb. to have longing as for meat. 

grydp ■ pa grydp - fd advly. reeling, 

gryam vb. to press down. 

gryan see gryen. 

gryaii: kun-gryan-ld advly. slender as 

gryap vb. to be thick as jungle, to be 
thorny, applied to the yellow raspberry 
kd-sum gryap. 

gryam see gram. 

gryam vb. to obstruct, to block up a 
road; gryam to vb. to place obstacles; 
Idm gryam to block up road. 

gryam, a-gryam, a-grem and tun-gryam s. 
a basket for fowls or beasts, hik gryam 
a birdcage. 

gryuk vb. to be naked, to be bare as 
ground; md-rd gryuk bam the person is 

td-gryuk, tun-gryuk, kd-gryuk adj. naked 
(as person) G. J., bare (as country); td- 

gryun— grydn 

gryuk-ld mat vb. to render naked or 

gryuii vb. to lean forwards, gr.-lun I6m 
(nan) to walk (sit) leaning f. 

gryun, tuk-cek gryun bam to sit uneasely. 

gryup vb. to make wall or fence of 
branches or bushwood. 

gryul i. q. gyul, pd-gryul-bo oval. 

gryeii, gren, grdn vb. to fill up, to stuff 
into, tvn-grydn gryen to stuff basket full. 
-^ pd-gryen i. q. po-gryen a large bamboo 
used for waterholders. 

gryo, gryo-m "bent down" "lying for- 
wards". — kd-gryo-bo adj. bent down, 
weak, infirm as old man; kiim-gryom-bo 
id. kiim-gryom-ld in crouched position. 

td-gryom, tuk-gryom lying forwards in 
oppos. to tuk-tydl backwards. — td-gryom 
kdn da vb. to lie on one's face, with 
face downwards. — td-gryom gap-pd til- 
non vb. to fall flat on face. — td-gryom 
sul-ld brdm vb. to fall and rub face 
against ground. 

gryom vb. t. to pile up branches of 
trees or jungle, to barricade; s. a pile, 
a barrier of do. 

gryop-pa see grydp-pd. 

gryd see kdl-pdt gryd. 

grydn said of the branches of trees, 
after the tree has been cut down and 
branches not cut of; kun grydn nyi-da 
vb. to spread out, to creep as branches 
of trees etc., when in a recumbent po- 
sition, or earth-creepers to branch out 
(shoots of a bulbous root); applied to 
the "shoots from the roots of ginger, also 
the root itself: hin-gryon. 

grydn gryon applied to a side-long 
gait, straddling sort of pace; gryon grydn 
16m vb. to walk in a straddling manner 
as crabs. — grydn twm vb. to spread as 
creeper on ground. 

kun-gryon s. the spread out bones, 
skeleton, kiin-grydn dok cim to be as 
thin as a skeleton. 

tun-gryon s. 1. a spec, of spider Later- 
bricola-tribe i.o^. mun-tun-grydn that does 
not spin any web. 2. a large basket 

a-grydn— gla 

glart— glet 


widely saddled, carried on back; t.-g. sop 
vb. to line t.-g. as with leaves. 

pon grydn s. a grass-creeper i. opp. to 
fon mut high tall grass. 

a-grydn s. 1. a grating of iron or wood 
kun gryon a wooden grating. — 2. a kind 
of sweetmeat. 

grydt-ta gryot-td hoarse, harsh, grating 
(as voice); gryot-td gryot-td li vb. to speak 
in a grating sound. 

grydn-na or gryon-ld adv. harsh, guttural 
as voice; gryon-nd gryon-nd 16m said of 
the rattling sound made by td-gri-bii 
while moving; a-nyum gryon-nd gry6n-nd 
li vb. to speak hoarsely as from cold. 

grydp vb. to make walls of house; cfr. 
grydm. an-to-sd grydp to make walls 
with boards, dum-sd grydp id. of cloth, 
Idn-sd grydp id. of stone. 

tim-gryop s. the wall of house. 

grydm vb. 1. to bind round as string 
round handle of ban; to encircle, entwine, 
to be surrounded by; grydm-lun turn, vb. 
to creep round as creeper round tree. — 
pum-byon gryom tuk di the clouds rise 
and overcast the horizon; 2. to be har- 
rassed, dunned (by creditor). 

a-gryom s. ligature: a binding of cane, 
as that which keeps the ban in sheath. 

grydm i. q. sd-gryom s. a field prepared 
for cultivation, before the felled trees are 
burnt, nyot grydm, nydt sd-gryom. 

gla vb. to make appearance, to appear 
as sun, crops etc. — gld gld pld to con- 
stantly be coming in sight, see gli, glo. 

gldfi redupl. kun-gldn-ld plain, un- 
adorned as person, bare without leaves 
as tree. 

gidt: gldt-ld adv. suddenly, quickly. 

gl&m-la adv. heavy, a-mik gldm-ld mat 
vb. eyes to grow heavy as when sleep- 
ing; dyok gldm-ld mat vb. to do work 
heavily, slowly. 

gla vb. to move so as to suddenly 
make appearance and be again lost to 
sight; Ink tiik-tok gla-ld pld a hen to 
move its head and show its neck up and 
down thro' the hole in head of basket 

as when struggling to get out. — hik 
un-ka glo-lun gla gla mat a hen having 
fallen in the water to struggle appearing 
above and disappearing below. — a-li 
gla gla mat vb. to put out tongue and 
draw it back again backwards and for- 
wards. See also gld. 

glam-ld adv. suddenly, instantaneously, 
said of death only; glam-ld mak vb. to 
die suddenly, said of man, beast, fire, 
plants. — glum-glam adv. suddenly, glwm- 
glam mak vb. to die suddenly (animal 
life, fire, plants), glum-gldm sdt vb. to 
kill outright. 

glaii vb. 1. to become hard (vegetables), 
2. applied also to speach riii li yan md- 
nydn-nd bam ri glan gum it is very hard, 
that tho' I speak, he will not listen. 

glat: cfr. gla. glat glut Idm vb. to walk 
with breast thrown out; glat glat-sd md- 
rd a man above his work. 

glan vb. to be steep as ascent. 

glam: diim glam a single dress. 

gli vb. to be pure, holy; gli-ld adv. 
distinctly, evidently, gli-ld U vb. to see 
distinctly; gli-ld hrydp vb. to cry aloud. 
— sd-gli-ld adv. evidently etc., widely, 
vyen sd-gli-ld dk fo vb. to open door 

tun-gli s. purity, righteousness, holiness ; 
tiin-gli tun-ts'dn s. id., tun-gli tUn-tsdn mat 
vb. to be righteous etc.; tiin-gli tUn-.tidn 
riim Idn-bo one who walks in the way 
of God; — tiin-gli or niin-gU rik a. name 
of a plant. — ttm-gli hin s. a spec, of 
wild ginger. 

a-gli s. 1. the haft of ban etc.; 2. the 
root of tree; 3. a tube, barrel of gun. 

a-glin adj. solid as wood. 

glu s. name of 12 th month correspond- 
ing nearly with our October, glu-nydm 
M. 141. 

glu incorr. for glo, nyo-ka glu vb. to 
go to hell LGrS. 

gleii vb. to be accurate, to be skilled; 
adj. dexterous, skilful; md-glen-nd awk- 

glet and glyet complete, perfect. — 


glet— glydt 

fia— *na, fti, no 

miin glet a thorough proficient Mun, a 
perfect M., a high-priest; glet-ld, glyet-ld, 
pd-glet-ld, pwr-glet-ld adv. thoroughly, 
clearly, completely, & glyet-ld yd to 
know the book thoroughly; rm glyet-ld yd 
to know the language thoroughly. 

glet incorr. f. glyet see under gb. 

a-glen adj. straight, direct; simple (as 
matter); a-glen non ih. to go straight 
or without stopping; lorn a-glen a straight 
road; li kun a-glen a house made alone 
of wood. 

glo Tb. to fall, as man unintentionally 
or thing to fall "W. 60. kd-cer mon fdt- 
ka glo-lun md-mak-nd gdn . . . except a 
corn of wheat fall into the ground and 
die J. 12, 24 

glyet Tb. to let fall. 

glydt vb. to fall upon, to attack, to let 
down; to throw down P. p. glydt-fat. to 
overcome as the temper of another. — 
fyak glyot mun s. evil spirit of fate or 

glo, glyo, ka-glyo-la cfr. gli, clear as 
weather; full open; gh-ld adv. fully 
openly; vyen glo-ld or glyo-ld or kd-glyo- 
Id ok to open the door to its full; rin 
glo-ld li vb. to speak fully; glo-ld si vb. 
to see plainly. — td-lyan kd-glyo-ld sat 
the sky to be quite clear. 

gidk adj. smooth, as surface of well 
beaten road, or as the surface of a bald 
head Idm, gldk; a-fyak gl6k. kd-gl6k-ld 

adv. bald as head, bare, destitute of trees 
as country. 

gidt vb. to be stiff, fixed; hence also 
to light, to fix a light, a candle; fixed 
light see mi gl6t; sd-hor gldt a fixed star. 
— to be fixed, stiff as limb, to be rigid; 
mi-krap gldt to be sound, dead-asleep. 

glyan vb. to be upset, turned over, to 
be uplifted and overthrown; glydn nydn 
to throw off as from basket lying on 
ground or from mat etc. 

glydt vb. to let fall, to suspend, to let 
hang down; kyak glydt to let k. down 

glydm vb. to be quiet, to be at rest; 
glydm mat nan vb. to sit quiet. 

glyak upwards; turned upwards; glyak 
ndk vb. to look up; glyak to vb. to 
place up. — ban kin glyak cuneid on 
top (knife). 

glyan, a-glyaii s. the back-bone or line 
along the back; the principal fibres of 
leaf; a long cane; rail of bridge; a spur 
of mountain; line of ancestors; course 
of river, of time; adj. current. 

glyo see glo. 

glydk vb. to lie with face upwards; 
glyok da-nyi opposed to gyam da-nyi; 
md-ro glyok da-nyi; Kyo glydk da-nyi. — 
glydk nan vb. to sit with head looking 

glydh bent backwards; baji glydn. 

glydt see glo. 


na the fourth letter of the L. alphabet 
T. C, a nasoguttural sound like the nge in 
singer; which may be represented by n. 

■na M. Gr. corr. : n-d see -d when affix- 
ed to a root ending in the final kdn or 

na- redupl. of roots beginning with w, 
nd-nur-ld see nur; see also kd-. 

*nd T. sna see under no. 

*rid T. mna see na. 

*n4 T. sno(^ba) s. blessing. 

*ha, nd, no 'T.nes-(^pa) certain, really, 
truly. — *nd-so T. nes-so it is the truth, 
verily, truly. — nd nun vb. to become 
substantial, true ; — nd md-dun-ne not to 
tell plainly, distinctly; — nd-ld adv. truly. 

*nS— ft^k 




evidently, well; nd-ld fyak vb. to know 
well; nd-ld si vb. to see clearly. 

Oomp. *nd-dok T. nes-bdag s. possessing 
truth, a true person; nd-dok-sd ts'ut s. a 
truthful evidence. — *nd-fok or no-tok 
T. nes-fog s. authentic, real, pure truth; 
no-tok rin true language; nd-tok do the 
very truth; nd-tok tsum the fact to be 
verified by meeting. — *no-sdt T. nes-gsod 
i. q. mik mydm at random, without regard 
to truth; s. flattery; dissimulation no-sdt 
hy&p vb. to flatter, to dissimulate; no-sdt 
kydp-ho s. a hypocrite. 

*ni T. dnos s. reality; substance, wealth; 
nd nyim-bo s. adj. possessing substance 
as wealthy person, thing etc. substantial; 
nd md-nyin-num-bo unsubstantial as person 
cloud, thing, without possession, poor, 

nak: ndk-kd ndk-kd straight along; 
n.-kd n.-kd lorn. 

n&k 1. vb. to see, to look, to behold; 
go-nun Mm ndk-sdn-ka ndn-so I shall go 
to see (to visit) him; — to mlem-ka ndk-te 
to whom can we look to, on whom can 
we rely. — ndk-kd look, behold; ndk-kd 
a-re mat Ku gdn see if you can do this, 
it is also used in the sense of fie! tush 
upon! as a-re zdn-sd dyok-re ndk-kd look 
on such work, fie on it; — to regard, to 
respect, to rely on, to attend, to guard, 
to watch, to observe, to care for; hii do 
a-bo-ka md-ndk-ne he did not mind or 
had no regard for his father; hu-nun 
tuk-vil zdk-kun-ka ndk md-nyin-ne he does 
not care about being placed in chains; 
— to be vigilant, to be cautious; gyum- 
lun ndk-kd le let us . . . be guardful of . . . 
ndk-lun li vb. to speak with consideration; 
ndk-sd ro-sd md-nyin-nd ndn vb. to go 
along headlessly and fearlessly. — to con- 
cern, to notice, to mark, to note; to 
examine, to try, to attempt. 

ndk-lun s. seeing, beholding, trying, 
considering. — ndk-bo s. a person who 
looks after, as luk ndk-bo s. a shepherd; 
a spectator, observer, a custodian, a 
guard. — ndk lat-bo s. a visitor, one 

who comes to see; an examiner, in- 
spector, investigator. 

2. s. attention, regard etc. 

Comp. ndk dydm md-yd-ne (he) does 
not reflect or deliberate, has no con- 
sideration. — ndk-lyan view, spectacle, 
ground of regard; gun-nd-sd ndk-lyan 
the object of universal attention, regard. 

ndk expletive to hryop or emphatic as 
hryop-ndk-gdn-ld md-pon-ne he wept and 
cried (continuously) but without relief. 
a-ndk explet. to a-hryop a-nye. 

ndt vb. to chop, to hack; kun ndt to 
cut, to chop wood; see nut, not. 

*ndn-krun T. mnon and drun'^ s. an able 
pleader, powerful advocator. 

*hdn-Se T. snon-ses s. fore-knowledge; 
ndn-se rin s. prophesy; n.-s. dun to pro- 
phesy; n.-s. diin-bo or nyim-bo s. a prophet. 

ndm vb. to nod as head in token of 
assent or when drowsy etc.; to wave, to 
nod as leaf, branch. 

ham vb. to bend together, to fold; 
ndm-ld gal to bend and break. 

*har T. nar s. a stem, a trunk of tree; 
ndr fik vb. to tie an animal to trunk 
of tree. 

lial vb. to draw the legs together as 
when lying down (animals); bik ndl-lun da. 

ndl vb. 1. to cut; 2. to screen (as fire); 
ndl-ld tsuk vb. to bite off. kun bdn ndl 
dydn to cut tree down at the roots. 

td-ndl s. a fender, a screen mi td-ndl. 

-na M. corr. -n-a see a, sign of voc. if 
the proceeding subst. ends in kdn or 
nyin-do, e kvp-s6n-na o children P. 

na a threatening expression, as a-dom 
md-bak-nd gdn na if I don't only lick 
you; go a-dom go na I'll give it to you; 
I'll do for you. 

*ha T. mnd possessing; existing being; 
na-wok T. mnd-og a subject, vassal, re- 
tainer, attache, subject, tenant. 

*ha s. T. o'na a drum, *na dun T. rna 
rdun-ba vb. to beat d. ; ''na-'Sun T. rna- 
cun s. a little d.; *na-cen T. nia-cen s. 
a great d.; *na-cuk T. rha-dbyug s. a 


'rta— rtan 

*rtan-ben — *ftani 

*na T. nal(-ba) s. fatigue, weariness; 
*na-soT. gso(-ba) s. the resting after fatigue, 
used in sense of to rest; na-som lyan s. 
the resting-place. — na-ka so na-md sit 
down to rest a little. 

*ha or nd or ndk T. snags Skt. dhd- 
rani, mantra, tantra s. a charm, a spell, 
magic; n6-j6n or no top vb. to practise 
enchantment; nd zun charms and spells, 
incantations; no zun mat vh. to perform 
incantations; no zun mat-bo or *n6k-po 
a magician, a sorcerer, a necromancer. 
T. snags-pa. 

lia-dd s. spec, of Amomum, a-dum, a-hir 
see tun-bram. 

hak Tb. to cut in a sawing manner; 
tuk-tok nak vb. to cut throat; sok-U-sd 
nak to saw; kuii nak to saw wood. 

a-nak s. 1. sawing; cutting in a saw- 
ing manner with a blunt instrument. 
2. obsc. glans penis. 

hak see nek; nuk-kd nak s. a young 
fat pig. 

nan vb. to move, to set in motion. 

*nah or ndh T. dnan{^ba) vb. to be 
frightened, to be dumbfounded, to be 
terrified, to be speechless as from sur- 
prise, fright, bashfulness; to be insensible, 
to be cataleptic; bon ndn a person, who 
can speak only a little. 

non-ldt s. terror, dismay, horror, affright. 

*han-to or hdh-to T. dnan-skrag s. an 
unexpected appearance of person; coming 
unexpectedly; terrifying; nan-to-ka lat 
vb. to come suddenly, unexpectedly. 

nat vb. to have strength (as spirit, tea), 
to be efficacious, to have force as spirit, 
speach etc. ; also to be ready to eat, said 
of rice when after boiling the water is 
poured away; zo nat-ndn the rice is ready; 
ci md-nat-ne the ci has no strength; c6 
I'lat-bam the tea is drawn, is strong. 

a-nat s. the spirit, substance, essence, 
the point; the meaning of anything. 

lian vb. I, 1. to sit, to sit down; 2. to 
be situated, to lie situated; hon. ju. 
nan-nd o sit, be seated; mi-zut nan-nd 
sit beside the fire. — 3. to live, to dwell, 

to remain; nan-bo i. q. bam-bo a. an in- 
habitant. — 4. aux. v., forms the pres. 
durativum (see also bam) Newari cona 
go pi-nan or go pi-bam I am writing. 

n. s. a seat, a residence; pun-di-sd 
nan-ka ndk-no-o go and look in the 
dwelling of the princess P. — nan zwm 
vb. to assemble together; s. an assembly, 
a committee. 

Comp. nan-kdl s. a block for sitting 
on; — nan-dam s. 1. a canopy over seat; 
2. just above the height of a person 
sitting; — nan-ldp s. a carpet to sit on, 
a cushion; nan-ldp lap vb. to spread a 
carpet; nan-ldp rit or tsun vb. to take 
up c. nan-ldp rdt to take up a carpet. 
— nan-lyan s. a place for sitting, a seat, 
a dwelling place, a residence; nan-set s. 
a seat, a dwelling. 

Deriv. a-nan said of tree, that is there 
naturally not transplanted. Cans, nydn q.v. 
*nan-cen T. rnan-cen contempt, slight: 
the Lepcha's use it in the sense spite 
or wilfully; nan-cen-nUn mat vb. to do 
a thing purposely or spitefully. 
*nan-se see ndn-se. 

hap undiverted; decisively, positively. 
nap-fd nap-pd or nap-Id adv. nap-pd 
nap-pd non or nap -Id ndn vb. to go 
straight on without diverting elsewhere. 
nap-Id mik krap da or nap-Id da nyi to 
lie sound asleep; — nap-Id dyok mat vb. 
to do work with application; — nap-Id 
tydt to cut properly as desired or accord- 
ing to pattern without diverting. 

ham vb. to be close, to be near; a-bon 
nam keep your mouth close, be quiet, 
shut up ; nam-ld i. q. nam-tet close, closely. 
ham vb. to forbid, to prohibit, to inter- 
dict, to stop. 

ham kuh s. n. of a tree, nam p6t s. 
the sweet lime. 

*ham T. rnam, rnam^-pa vb. to breathe; 
to long for; *nam-ce, nam-ci 1. vb. to 
long for, to be covetous; a-zom^ka nam-ce 
to be greedy stingy of food; — kom-ka 
nam-ce to be covetous of money. — 2. s. 

*nam— nut 

nun — rto 


*nam T. mam [-pa], *nam-p6 T. rnam- 
pa 1. s. brightness, splendour, magni- 
ficence; 2. \h. to be bright, to be magni- 
ficent; nam-po cfe great splendour; nam- 
po-wun-sd dum dydm to be dressed 

nar vb. to slice, to shear, to cut asunder, 
to divide, to hew, to mow. kd-cer nar 
vb. to cut wheat, pdii nar vb. to mow 
grass; — bi nar vb. to slice vegetables; 
— kd-su ban-ka sum-bryan tsdt gdn nar 
glo-so if a fly should settle on my knife 
it would fall down cut asunder. 

*nar T. nar s. vigour, zeal, nar Kyen 
mat-td-o be zealous. 

*hap T. snar see under no. 

rial vb. old L. to be short and thick, 
dumpy; nal-ld nal-ld adv. short and thick 

s. a-nal 1. the head end, a short stick, 
a short end of yam or other vegetable; 
huk a-nal kat the head-end after root is 
cut off; a-nal a- fan s. a piece of dtto.; 
a-nal a-ydl-re the whole vegetable. 
2. applied to a great-great-grandmother 
see tek. 

Deriv. num-nal, num-nal-mo dry fire- 
wood Tbr. san. 

Comp. nal-bu nal-son i. q. mur-nyo-bu 

-nun: -n-iin see -un postp. of the neg. 
imp. when affixed to a verb ending in 
the final n. 

nu vb. to become thread-bare dum nu 
fat; to be worn-out by friction; ban nu- 
ndn the knife has become worn-out; 
applied also to mind sak nu to be 

liuk redupl. of nak q. v. 

-nun 1. postp. i. q. -pa q. v. 2. -n-iin 
postp. of the p. pres. when affixed to a 
vb. ending in n, see -un. 

nur vb. to groan; nur-rd nur-rd groan- 
ing under heavy burden; nur-rd nwr-ru 
bii-ndn to go along groaning under heavy 

rtu, a-nu adj. old see no. 

hut see not and ndt. 

nun vb. to become, to be; hu pyuk-bo 
nun non he has become rich; forms verba 
acquisitiva M. 94. to occur, to happen, 
to befall; nun-Id nun to have become or 
have occurred; a-lom nun-n&n it so came 
to pass, it in this wise occurred. — md- 
nun-ne in s. of useless; md-nun-ne nun- 
non has become useless. 

lium see nrom, a-num s. the smell of 
burning flesh. 

num: tur-num explet. of tur-klak a 
complete circle. 

nur, nd-nur-ld adv. short and thick, 
large, puffy, dumpy; tuk-tok nd-nur-ld 
a thick-set neck. 

kd-nur-bo adj. large, thick, fat, puffed 
out; mon-kup kd-nur-bo a fat young pig. 
— kur-don kd-nur-ho a thick plantain. 

*nur T.swMr(-Ja) vb. to snore; mik-krap- 
ba md-nur-nun when asleep do not snore. 

*hul L. k&m; *nul-cu L. kom un. 

*ne T. riias see u-ne. 

nek onom. squeaking as pig; nek-ld lik 
vb. to squeak as pig, see nak, nok. 

*nen T. nanQ-pd) bad, evil, le nen T. las 
nan bad act, fault; fu nen T. mfu nan 
sorcery, enchantment. 

liel, a-hel s. 1. repetition, a-nel zuk vb. 
to renew, to rebuild, rin a-nel li vb. to 
repeat. 2. the gums of teeth fo-nel, the 
crown of head: a-tyak a-nel. 

no s. fish a-mlem md-nyin-num-bo Tbr. 
T. nya\ no fak vb. to dry fish over fire; 
no tsam vb. to catch fish; no tsam-bo s. 
a fisherman M. 99. no kur-hop s. the 
gills of fish; — no gon s. the fin; — no 
con s. a fish-bone; — no-ji; no-bu; no-bri; 
no-blik; no-blyok; no-fi; no-fo various 
specc. fish. — no td-ryon s. a net for 
holding fish; no tdn s. the milt; no ti s. 
the roe of fish; — no tur-hyum s. a spec, 
of fish i. q. no pd-no q. cfr. no nol; no 
ptin-zar; no-mdt and no-mat s. specc. of 
fish; no mut fam-blydk a spec, butterfly, 
moth n. m. t.-bl. dum a spec. moth. — no 
mun s. name of fish; sun-ru no mun very 
large spec; sun-ru no mun ayal id. — 
no tsdl spec, of fish. — no tsdl a-kun i. q. 


rto— *no 

no tso kuii — *nd 

tsdl a-kun. — no tsdl tsdm flot Asparagus 
racemosus. — no-tso s. the spawn; no-tso 
dyen or fat vb. to spawn. — no tsdn ban 
td-klap s. a spec, of fish. — no-zdr s. id., 
the "kubhai". — no-zur s. a spec, of f. — 
no z6n zom-ho s. a fish of prey; no-yel s. 
spec, of f. — no-yii s. a spec, fish, Clupea 
cultrata. — no-yen name of fish. — no-ri s. 
id., "pottiah" a spec. Barbus. — no-lam sa 
a spec. fish. — no-h id., mahsir; — no- 
lyu i. q. no pun-zar. — no-lyen s. a spec, 
of f. — no hyam s. a fish-hole. — no vik 
name of small spec, of f. — no vin the 
blubber i.q. fyor; — no vor s. a fish-hook; 
no vol' ham a fishing-rod; no vor hi s. a 
f.-line. — no sun-li s. a fish-net. — no U 
s. the scales of f. — no stm-pydr s. tail 
of fish. 

no yb. to be old M. 96. — a-no adj. old 
(as wood); unfinished (as work); what is 
left over (as food); a-no fo-ld fo-ld dila- 
torily; iir-nun tnat-ha a-no nan-ndn from 
this cause this has become old. — td-not 
s. white hair (as old man) M. 16. td-not 
nun-non hair to become grey, to have 
become old; t.-n. mun the evil spirit of 
old age from his representation as an 
old man. 

lid, ndt vb. to boil P. to cook by boil- 
ing zo no\ zo not lel-lun gd-d is the rice 
boiled; not-ho adj. boiled. — also: to be 
quite ripe buk prok-kd no or buk bu tet 
no the buk is bursting ripe. 

lie vb. to be thirsty un no; go un-no 
bam I am thirsty. 

Der. not s. thirst not-ddk; go krit not- 
ddk gwm I am hungry and thirsty. 

*no T. nes see under nd. 

*no T. mo(^-ba) s. a blessing, a bene- 
diction; no-tydn s. a present made to 
priest in order to obtain blessing. 

*no T. no s. the face, countenance; 
mi-no s. T. mi-no the face, features. 

Comp. *no-tso T. no-tsa s. blush, blush- 
ing, shame, modesty; no-tao mat vb. to 
be modest; no-tso md-yd-ne to be im- 
pudent. — *no-8e T. no-ges s. 1. knowledge, 
acquaintanceship; 2. an acquaintance. 

no tso kun name of tree, see under no. 

nok s. a small vessel for mixing flour 
and water before baking or frying; ku 
nok a small bread-trough. 

liok see nek. nok-kd nok-ka onom. the 
grunting of pig too'w nok-kd nok-kd lik 
the pigs grunt. 

not see no. 

liot or hut vb. to saw, to cut in a saw- 
ing manner; go-nun kd-dosu a-kd not-pa 
I have cut my own hand; — hu-nun a-k&h 
kd-sH-ka nyi-ld a-pdt md-pot-numr-bo gim- 
nd nut-dydn J. 15. 2 every branch in me 
that beareth no fruit he taketh away. 

not, not-td not-td adv. well burnt; mt- 
td not-td dop vb. to be completely or 
clearly burnt up (as jungle, field etc.). 

* non-pa see nom-pa. 

*non-Se see ndn-se. 

hop, nop-pd nap-pd adv. slowly, tardily, 
lazily, nop-pd nop-pd I6m vb. to walk 

*noni T. noms(-pa) vb. to be satisfied 
not wishing more; nom-ld fdn vb. to 
drink to satiety. 

hom, hdm cfr. T. snyems vb. to be 
proud of, to boast. 

hom, nd-nom, nim-nom s. a spec, of grain. 

hor see imder no. 

■hd, -n-6 postp. -6 when affixed to roots 
ending in n see -6, -a. 

*hd and hd T. sna adv. early, be- 
times, soon; ek to-tsdt no fi the harvest 
is early; — nydt-ka pat no ndn to sow a 
field before the season. 

Comp. *nd-td T. sna-ltas s. an omen, 
a portent, a foretoken, a prognostic. 

nd-ld adv. early; too soon; ndl-ld id. 
un dun hrok-sd sd-ayak kat-ka M. ndl-ld 
luk-kdl nap-ka c6k lyan fi-lun the first 
day of the week cometh M. early when 
it was yet dark. J. 20. 1. — nol early, 
soon, betimes M. 70. so-son-ka kd-sum 
nol si-kdn awaken me early in the morn- 
ing. — go ndl-non-h I shall go soon. 

*nar, nor T. snar, sna-ru; *nar-yon 
T. snar -yon adv. formerly, from the 

"fid— ndn 

ndp— ndl 


*nor-t6k T. snar-tag s. si)eed, haste 
in work; adv. quickly nor-tdk mat vb. 
to do work actively; — nor-fok (su'm-)bo 
adj. industrious; — nor-fok non vb. to go 

*nd see wa T. snags. 

*nd T. dno s. edge, border, ho no 
edging of coat. 

*nd vb. T. rna(^-ba) to cut, to mow; 
pd/i HO to mow grass, see nar. 

ndk vb. to be callous; to be indifferent, 
to be obdurate; U li-wun mat-ren ndk-ndn 
by constant reproof he has become re- 
gardless; a-nyor ndk to hear but not 
attend to. 

lidk vb. to grind zo ndk (rice), to rub 
as bamboo etc., to card (cotton): ki ndk^ 
to get fire, to rub anything; iidk-ld ndn 
to rub against, to reel against as arrow. 

ndk-ldt s. grinding, friction, attrition 
ndk-ldt md-dyap-ne (you have) not grind 
it fine. 

*ndk see na. 

*ndn see nan. 

ndn vb. to be stedfast, to be fixed, 
to be firm, to be solid, to be fast; ndn- 
Id nan vb. to be firmly fixed as post, 
chair, not to shake; kru ndn-ld nan the 
ship is weather-bound (as in a calm). 
diivi-po ndii-ld tsdk the post is firmly fixed. 

lidt see no. 

ndt vb. to be disinclined, to have dis- 
inclination, repugnance; mu-ndn-nd sun 
ndt vb. to have disinclination to go, see 
plan, jit, -pam; — dyok z'iik-kh'i ndt vb. 
to have disinclination to work; ndn-mn- 
ka ndt to refuse to go. 

a-iidt s. repugnance. 

ndn cfr. T. 'Iivn(-pa) vb. 1 . to grudge, to 
desire to keep even to the preventing 
of another person giving a thing; ndn- 
luii bi to give begrudgingly, to covet, to 
preserve, to spare, to have an itching to 
keep. — hu-nun hii-yum dyfi mu-kdn-nui) 
ndn he prevented their fighting and me- 
diated between them. — hii-nun kdm jer 
t'am-cdn fo no kun Idn. sd-re giin-nd ndn- 
liin t'dm gat lie wishes to preserve silver 

aud gold, beasts, birds, fish, trees and 
stones, in short every thing. — 2. to pro- 
tect, to guard, to mediate, to enshrine. 
hik-mdt-tun a-kitp ndn the hen protects 
her young. — hii-nun hu-yu-sd le-nen ndn 
he shielded their faults. — 3. to withhold, 
to refuse anything. 

ndn-ldt s. a desire for preservation. 
ndn- bo s. a preserver, a protector, a 
mediator; palladium. 

ridp vb. to express blood from a sore, 
to bleed, to suck blood from sore. 

ndp, a-ndp s. sister-in-law, wife or 
widow of elder brother; ndp sok or lyo to 
wed the widow of elder brother; (to wed 
the nydm q. v., being considered incest). 
*ndm T. rnam see nom. 
ndm, ndm-md ndm-md advly. one after 
another, continually; n.-md n.-md Idm to 
follow one after another; n.-md n.-md 
uyok mat to work in a continuous manner. 
lidr s. a suggestion, a hint, ndr byi vb. 
to suggest, to hint, to prompt, see tiin-bdr. 
*ndr T. /iar{-ba hardness, vigour) season- 
ing, pungency, zest. 

ndr Idk vb. 1. to temper iron, to make 
steel; pvn-jen ndr Idk (dm-bo or ndr Idk 
piin-jen s. steel, p.-j. ndr md-ldk-num-bo 
soft malleable iron; 2. to season, to make 
strong (wood), to tone (as beer). 

ndr sdt vb. to spoil the temper, to 
soften steel. 

ri&r used also in sense of excessive, 
to be in a vigorous state, mi kru 
nur (rii))) great heat. — ci-mm ndr to be 
in a great state of liquor, to be ex- 
ceedingly drunk. — mik-ndr krap to be 
sound asleep. — bellowing, threateningly 
as bull when irritated -iidr kydp. 

Comp. *ndr-cdn T. nar-can adj. strong, 
vigorous, hard, sharp. 
hdl see *nd. 

ndl vb. to put aside, to put on one 
side, to push out of the way; a-re 16m- 
ka ndl-fo put this out of the way, take 
it off the road. 

ndl vb. to be ringed, to be encircled 
by a ring (as ornamented pillar). 



nrak— lirdm 

ca — caft 

a-nol adj. 1. ringed, surrounded by a 
ring as pillar; 2. obsc. penis viri. 

nrak vb. to grunt (as boar), also as 
buffaloe; nrah bam vb. to grunt as boar; 
see nruk, nek etc. 

nrap see nram\ nrap-pd nrap-pd i. q. 
grap-pd grap-pd advly. crisp, brittle from 
dryness; iirap-pd nrap-pd son. 

liram vb. to be dry as hair, grass, to 
be dried up; a-tsom liram-bam, see td- 
nram a tree-boletus. 

nrik vb. to grind, to crush under feet, 
to oppress, to extort, to tyrannize; nrik- 
lun zo yb. to eat the bread of extortion; 
nrik-lut s. extortion, oppression, tyranny. 

hrek vb. to be split, said of hair, when 
dry or from plaiting. 

nrel vb. to have again recourse to, to 
superadd; n.-lun li to say in addition; 

ii.-luh hyi to give in add. n.-lun sot to 
kill overagain. 

nru vb. to groan, said of beast bik mak- 
ba iiru the cow when dying groans; ddk- 
lun nru being sick it groaned. 

liruk vb. to give jerking grunts (as pig). 

nrom vb. to be destroyed, to be damag- 
ed, to be cast aside as useless; nrom-bo 
damaged, destroyed, useless. 

lirdk vb. to be dying, to be at the 
point of death, to be moribund ; nrok ndn 

nrdn vb. to have become overdry said 
of rice or grain when long kept; zo nrdn 
ndn the rice has become overdry. 

nrdm vb. to become singed, to be burnt 
(as bread), discoloured by fire (as paper); 
co-gu mi-nim nrom the paper is singed; 
}>u nrom ndn the bread is burnt. 

ca the fifth letter in the L. alphabet 
T. 5, may be represented by c, pro- 
nounced as ch in "church". 

*ca, ca T. skyo{-ba) vb. to do mischief 
(as children); to teaze, to annoy, to vex, 
to harrass, to trouble, to molest; cd-bo 
mat vb. to teaze, to do mischief. — cd- 
(ydm-)bo adj. mischievous, inclined to 

niin-cd s. trouble, annoyance; n.-cd 
mat vb. to trouble, to annoy; duk mdi-cd 
s. vexation. 

bk, a-cd s. a beard of corn; quill of 
porcupine, hedgehog etc.; kd-cer cd s. a 
beard of corn; sd-t'im cd s. a porcupine's 

cak (see tsdlt) vb. t. to set on, as fire; 
mi rek cdk vb. to set fire to jungle; to 
put on, as ornaments, bracelets; to set 
on, as dog, bull; to set on, as on a road 
directing a person, who is ignorant of the 
road or of driving of cattle 16m cdk; — 

to set apart; to exercise, to practise, to 
pursue, to put into practice, hrim cdk 
to regulate, to organize; — rom cdk to 
frighten; — to dedicate, to consecrate, 
to devote; riim zun mon cdk (to') to con- 
secrate a pig to the good spirit; — to 
practise penance. 

cak T. gcags (-pa) .vb. to put in the 
mind, to conceive, to comprehend ko-ka 
cdk byi vb. to remind, to teach, to cause 
to comprehend. 

cak-lf s. n. of a flower, see moii nyo 
muk\ ace. Hooker 2, 48, 50 "chokli-bi" 
a spec. Smilacina: cdk-U bi s. id., eaten 
as vegetable. 

can also coii 1. vb. t. to wrap up, to 
inwrap, to envelop, dum-ka cdn bii-bam P.; 
a-ts&m cdn to fold the hair round in a 
ball on the head; cdn-mm-bo s. a wrapper, 
an envelope. — can to i. q. cdn; cdn- 
tdm-bo s. a parcel, a package. 2. vb. n. 
to be folded, globular as cabbage, to be 



can— ca 


in folds as things twisted round into a 
ballshape as hair, cloth: can nan. 

can pret. to be put together, to be 
clustered together. 

a-can s. a bunch or cluster, a nosegay, 
a sheaf or bundle of corn. 

■•'C4n vb. t. T. skyon{-ba) to foster, to 
cherish; can ju vb. to domesticate, to 
tame wild animal. — a- can s. a wild 
animal caught and confined fo can, man 
can. — tavi-cdn s. the brute spec, a beast, 
birds and fishes included; tam-cdA zdn 
a foolish, beastlike, stupid p. tam-cdn 
len jdn more than a beast; — met. man; 
tam-cdn t'am-bik or fam-bik t'am-cdn ani- 
mals, creatures; man T.'gro-ba, sems-cdn, 
Skt. satva P. — fam-cdn tun-ka for the 
benefit of mankind P. — tam-cdn zdn a 
fellow -being. — fam-cdn (fam-') a-bu s. 
T. po-byun tsad male satva' s, men P.; 
fam-cdn (fam-) a-mot T. mo-byun tmd 
female satva's, -women P. 

cdn vb. n. to be parsimonious, to be 
selfish, niggardly, to begrudge. 

*cah vb. to be quick etc. see con. 

* can -hid T. Ican-h Skt. jatd s. the 
braided hair, that hangs behind; matted 
hair; cdn-hlo kyop vb. to braid hair appl. 
to great men; cdn-hlo flot vb. to braid 
hair appl. to common people. 

*cdt T. gcod (to cut) vb. to have a 
sharp pain in body, to ache td-bdk cdt; 
a-lut cdt s. the heart-burn. — a-mik <fdt- 
bam 1. to have pain in eye, 2. to be 
envious. — cdt so-bo s. one who brings 
pain or grief; messenger of ill news, a 
bird of ill omen. 

*can T. 'byon(-pa) vb. n. used by L.'s 
hon. for: to go, to walk, pa-no cdn the 
king goes; sd-ba cdn-nun-d where are 
you going. 

*can and cen T. spyan s. hon. the eye 
L. a-mik; pd-no can the eye of king; 
cdn-kro T. spyan-kro s. eyebrow L. mik- 
myon; can-cap T. spyan-cab s. tears L. 
mik-grun; cdn-sok T. spyan-gsog s. eye- 
lash L. mik-com. 

*cdn-re-zi, cen-re-zv T. spyan-ras-gzigs 

n. pr. Avalokite(jvara, 'wi-dam fu-je cem,- 
po cen-re-zu-la Icyen-no our tutelary god 
mahakarunika A. knows P., see also 
M. 90; T'oung-Pao 1896, 545. N. 1. 

can 1. see cen T. can. 2. see under cdri. 

cap vb. to bore a hole into wood or 
stone; mi cap vb. to light or kindle by 
boring one piece of wood into another 
see mi cap kun. — cdp set s. a borer, a 
gimlet, cap tsur i. q. mi cdp tsur. 

tuk-cdp, tun- cap s. circle, concentric 
circle, convolution, gyrations, a spinning 
top; — tuk-cdp-ka Idm vb. to fly in con- 
centric circle; mi tuk-cdp s. convolutions 
of fire; sun-mut tuk-cdp s. a whirlwind; 
un tuk-cdp s. a whirlpool. 

cdm vb. to go over upon, to cross over 
upon as over water by bridge, log, 

cam, a-cam s. fear, chiefly au affix to 
a-rom, un ndk-kd ram ram tyan-bo a-tim 
hu, pldn-ka yil tiik and, lo, an horror of 
great darkness fell upon him G. — See 

cdr s. the rising of the sun, the east: 

ca part, just, just past ca-grop-ba con- 
siderable time ago; — ca-nap-mo the 
evening just past, yesterday evening; — 
ca nd-han from the beginning, firstly, 
ca nd-han a-yum sd-re li-bo o-re gtim 
even the same that I said unto you from 
the beginning J. — ca-niin now a short 
while ago, ca-niin non-ndn-go he has gone 
a short while ago ; — ca-ba a short time 
ago about two or three hours; ca-ba 
lyan non (he) went out a little while ago. 
— ca-zdn as before. — ca luk (-kdl) the 
morning just past i. e. this morning. — 
ca so-nap last night, riim-nUn kd-sit dUk 
kd-do kd-sd a-kyon si-lun a-dom ca so- 
nap-ka Mn fat God has seen my affliction 
and the labour of my hands, and rebuk- 
ed thee yester-night. Ex. — ca a-ldn even 
now, just now; just past; ca a-ldn do-ba- 
niin pld he went out a short time ago. 

ca part, enough, sufficient, ca ca enough, 
hold, stop. 



''can— cap-lfn fo 

*ca T. Uags s. iron, applied often to 
things whether made of iron or not. — 
ca-gok s. T. Icags-kuk a clasp, a hook. — 
ca-gok s. a forked stick, prongs used as 
a support for things etc., a peg. — ca-gyiip 
s. T. Uags-sgyid-hu a sort of iron stand, 
triped for cooking -pots on the fire. — 
ca-fok s. T. Icags-fag an iron chain, ca- 
fok fik vb. to chain as dog. — ca-mok 
T. Uags-rmog s. a helmet, an iron h.; 
ca-ri T. Icags-ri s. wall round castle, 
town etc., fortress, fort; ca-ri da buk ah 
s. the embrasures of fortress. 

*ca T. hya s. a bird, fowl; ca Kyun 
T. bya Uyun s. the fabulous bird garuda, 
also a spec, of eagle. 

*ca-m(5n fo s. yellow-billed whistling 
thrush, Myiophonus Temminckii K. 212; 
Je. 500; ace. W. K. 218 also Merula 

*ca fr. T. 6j/cw(-pa) vb. to be ready, to 
prepared; ho noh-Mn ca-d are you ready 
to go; mlo ca-d are the things prepared. 

ca-kd see ce-ko. 

*ca-g6 fr. T. hya-dga (gift, present) s. 
causing pleasure, attendance upon; ca-go 
mat vb. to cause pleasure, to attend upon, 
to take care of, as sick man, cattle, things 
etc.; ca-go mat-bo s. a nurse or one, who 
attends upon or takes care of anything. 

*ca-Wl} T. Ica-ba s. a carrot. 

cak, a-cak s. the joints of fingers, kd- 
jom cak; (inner) joints of arm a-kd cak; 
joints of bamboo: po cak. 

cak vb. 1. to pinch with nails or fingers; 

2. to touch a person to attract attention; 

3. to issue tears mik grum cak; cak dek 
vb. to nip and break. 

cak-kd bo-kd adv. in confusion, con- 
fusedly; cak-kd bo-kd mat vb. to put 
things into confusion; c.-kd bo-kd li vb. 
to speak confusedly. 

cak in compos, lii-n-cak s. a sill. 

cak see pd-cak. 

cak cak onom. noise made when eating; 
zo-ba cak cak md-mat-tun when eating 
do not make a noise. 

*cak-krum s. T. cag-krum gristle, car- 

tilage. — cak-lem ace. W. ^^chak-lem!^ s. 
Chloropsis aurifrons and Ch. hardwickii 
R. 212/3 (specc. flower-pecker). 

*can T. byan s. the north, can-co T. 
by an pyogs s. the northern quarter; caii- 
kon s. id., adj. northern, towards the n. 
— can-nup s. T. byan-niib the n. west; — 
can-sar T. byan-sar s. the n. east. 

can, a-can s. the spine; a-cah gli-ld cit 
vb. to cut down the spine; — a-can kun- 
kon-ld s. a bent back as an old man's. 

caii glyah s. the spinal bone; can glyan 
sun-ddk s. the sp. marrow. — can tydp s. 
the lumbar vertebrae; — can dak s. lum- 
bago; — can man s. the loins. 

*can (T. spyan-pa practised, skilful). 
can-sin s. a board for writing on. 

caii vb. to ford, to wade in water or 
snow. — rah lyah a fording place. — can 
Ku-mm-bo adj. fordable. 

"^cah-Ku, can-ku, cah-gu T. npyah-ku, 
spyah-l'u, spyah-gu s. a wolf; see sd-tum. 
M. 119. cah-K'u bik s. a spec, of cole- 
opterous insect. 

can-cub-sem-pa T. byah-cvh-sems-dpa s. 
bodhisatva P. 

cat cat i. q. cot cot convulsively. 

cap vb. to succeed one after another, 
to multiply; rih cap vb. to be loquacious, 
to be garrulous; rih cap-ldt s. loquacity, 
garrulity, chattering, babbling; dyok cap 
work to succeed work, to w. incessantly 
num cap vb. to be importune incessantly 
for debt. 

cap vb. to roof a house, to thatch, to 
cover with roof. 

a-cap s. the roof of a house: It-cap. 
li-cap-ka upon the housetop T. rtse-mor P. 

cap vb. to make a noise when eating, 
affixed to krik means to smack, lit. for lip 
to come together again and again: krik 
cap; a-boh cap cap: grik-ld zo see cak cak. 

cap-mdn s. a small bird, i. q. ca-moh. 

cap-tsdr kun see mi-cdp. 

cap-lfii fo s. (ononi. fr. its cry) the green 
jay; Cissa sinensis (magpie) Je. 2, 312. 
dan cap-lih-fo R.210. hlo cap-lih Urocissa 
flavirostris ibd. 

cam— cf 



cam vb. to be uupropitious for sowing 
or j^lanting; cam gyd, cam nyo, cam nyot, 
cam sd, cam sG. are all used to express 
a time unpropitious for sowing and plant- 
ing, on ace. of snowfalling or storms, when 
it is adverse to cultivation. 

cam vb. to be in clusters, to be group- 
ed together as trees, to be thickly branch- 
ed, to be in heaps. 

a- cam adj. clustered, grouped, s. a 
group; a-cam a-^am advly. in patches 
or groups. 

cam vb. to close, to shut the eyes: 
mik cam; to be dead Tbr. 

''cam or cdm T. lcam(^-mo). lion, wife 
of king, pci-no cam. 

*cam-pa T. byams-pa n. pr. Maitreya. 
cam-pa gdn-po ' mgon-po M.-natha. 
cam-pa i. q. Hm-pa pot. 
cf I. (see ci III. IV) s. spirit, liquor, 
beer M. 143 espec. a kind of beer, ex- 
tracted from different species of grain 
as millet, rice, Indian corn etc.; the 
first of which they consider the best; 
the grain is sometimes merely allowed 
to ferment and- in that state is eaten; 
P. chi, marua; T. can Hooker I, 175; 
R.75, T'oung-Pao 1896, S.539ff., Jasohke 
s. V. can. — The L. chi is made from 
millet, maize, rice etc., the grain pre- 
pared and fermented then preserved in 
baskets secured from the air by layers 
of plantain -leaves and hung up in a 
smoky place; when used, a bamboo vessel 
pd-fyut is filled with the fermented grain, 
hot water poured over it and when drawn 
is sucked up thro' a reed pd-Mp. — ci sd 
man sd td-dyii tim-mii/i-sd a-hdn gum 
wine, meat and women are the chief of 
all delights. — ci t'dn sd-nyi s. a feast- 
day. — d nyi fi t'i the time for chi has 

ci kra (non) the old is flavourless. — 
ci kri-non (chi) to become sour. — ci not 
nyi to have flavour, strength. — ct ito or 
not vb. to prepare mon for chi, to boil 
grain before preparing the fermentation. 
— ci cuk vb. to take the liquid from the 

fermented graiu without adding water. — 
ci jii vb. to distill spirit. — ci tan-Uin m,ii 
md-yd-ne to be so drunk as not to know 
right hand from left. — ci fam-cd/i-nUn ci 
to drink like a beast. — ci dyak (chi) 
to have become completely destroyed in 
making. — ci clydt s. having a ])assion 
for chi; ci dydt-nyim-ho s. a wine-bibber. 

— ci-niiyi mat vb. to be intoxicated. — 
ci nor vb. to be raw, unfit for drinking, 
to be still in the saccharine fermentation. 

— (H fmt the first chi of the season, 
offered to rixm. — ci fak vb. to preserve 
chi in smoke, to smoke chi. — ci fat vb. 
to offer up chi to riim. — ci fyak (chi) 
ripe, fit to drink; i. q. ci pyak. — ri but 
s. yeast, ferment of chi; ci-sd a-Uit ri 
hat s. the ferment put to chi Tbr.; ci 
biit bor vb. to ferment chi. — ci bup vb. 
to be drunk; ci hup -bo s. a drunken 
person, a drunkard; ci bup-LA strong chi 
fit to make one intoxicated. — ci byep 
the fermented grains of maize. — ri mat- 
bo s. 1. a maker of chi, 2. a person fond 
of chi. — ci mok vb. to set chi to ferment. 

— ci dyam or dyam-ci s. chi given as a 
cordial to women and to the party after 
childbirth. — ci tsot pld to be red in the 
face from drink. — ci ts6k-fdm-bo strained 
chi from the grains. — a lu (chi) to rise 
to ferment. — ri lyan-ho s. a cupbearer 
M. 113. ci v6 nun-non the chi has be- 
come mouldy. — ri sou vb. to become 
sober after having been intoxicated; ci 
s6h-nixn-sd when the effects of chi have 
gone off. — ri sin vb. to be intoxicated; 
im kiin-can fdn-hcin ci hin-liin kur cuk-ka 
dmn 6t da and he drank of the wine, 
and was drunken; and he was uncovered 
within his tent. (1. ci iin-bo s. a drunken 
person, a drunkard. — ri sep whatever is 
eaten with chi; a relish with drink. — 
ci so vb. (chi) to be sour, stale. — ci 
sok-non s. to be exhausted (as the grains 
of chi). — ci Sor vb. to become flat, flavour- 
less. — ci a-tsum the first and best chi; 
(■'/ vm good flavoured chi; ci md-H-ne 
flavourless chi. — ci un gor-ld chi made 


cf— cf 


after the first extract {a-tsunt). ci un 
hlo-non the chi is drowned with water. 
Comp. ci kun s. a spec, of Eugenia 
i. q. td-glan kun it is used in augury; 
a slice of the bark is hewn off, when a 
person is about to take a journey etc. 
or see a friend; if the sap drops out he 
will obtain chi, if it does not, he will 
not. — ci td-fyep s. a ladle for chi. — ci 
tuk-nyer a waterproof basket for holding 
chi. — a tuk-sor a chi-strainer. — ci pd- 
t'yut s. a bamboo-vessel for holding chi, 
while being imbibed thro' pA-hip T. ceu. 
— (V pd-hip s. a tube (reed or pipe) for 
sucking up chi. — ci-frdh s. a vessel 
made of leaves for carrying the ferment- 
ed grains « byep. — ci-bu s. a vessel for 
holding chi; a load, a basket of chi. — 
ci za-den or za-din s. 1. a vessel for 
holding chi; 2. a still, a spirit-retort. — 
ci-rifi s. confused talk as the talk of 
drunken men. — ci rtin-tok s. a basket 
for holding- chi. — ci-ldk s. a vessel for 
holding chi, also a measure, holding 
about 8 seers; ci-ldk sam kom kat-sd 
a-far nyi-so the price of three ci-ldk of 
chi will be one rupee, ci-ldk nydt about 
10 o'clock Tbr. — ci sUn-gryen s. the ex- 
tracted grain exhausted of the chi. — 
ci sor s. a strainer for chi. — ci a-rok or 
(H-sd a-p6t s. the spirit of chi Tbr. 

pUn-ci cak mon or pun-ci kd-da s. a 
spec, millet. 

cf II. vb. to rub with feet, as in tread- 
ing corn or washing clothes, to tread out, 
to thresh; zo ci to tread rice (to separate 
the grain from the straw); — dUm ci-lUn 
con vb. to wash clothes treading them 
with feet. — brii, ci-bdn no sot vb. having 
trod the (poison out of the bru) to com- 
mence to kill the fish. — bik-niin kd-cer 
ci vb. to tread wheat by bullocks. 

cf III. a-cf adj. dried, smoked, pre- 
served by drying (by sun, fire, smoke) 
as flesh, fish; mdn-sd no ci-nun-non the 
flesh and fish are dried. — md-ro ci-nun- 
non the man has become dried up (applied 
to a thin, skinny person) Tbr. ■ — a-h"n't 

jdn non to be completely reduced by 
hardships Tbr. — &d-nun td-gl6t ci dan 
has become dried up like unto a lizard, 
applied metaphorically to a person, who 
has nothing to eat or drink or who is 
dried up like unto the skin of a lizard Tbr. 
cf IV. vb. to suppurate, mo ci-non the 
wound has suppurated. 

cf V. the spreading or being surround- 
ed by particles of as water, dust etc. — 
ci ci tstck vb. to swarm; vot-nun ci ci 
tsuk bees to swarm around and sting. — 
ci-ld fyot particles of water to be splashed 
about or to be envelopped in dust. 

pd-ci-ld, pHr-ci-ld advly. variegated, of 
various colours. 

ci see cil-ld and co-ci. 
cf, a-cf i. q. sak-ci s. affection. 
ci see tHr-ci. 
ci-nyi Hind, ctni s. sugar. 
cf-lf s. a time about 8 o'clock in the 
morning, when the sun has fully risen, 
sd-tsiik ci-li. 

ci-vo see tHk-ci-vo s. a gutter. 
*cf-Sd T. spya-sa s. in L. joint of meat. 
cfl< vb. t. to weigh, to measure, to esti- 
mate; son-ka cik vb. to weigh in scales; 
fri-ka cik to measure in a fri; lyai'i un 
cik vb. to survey land; cik-lun ndt vb. 
to measure, before you cut the mark; — 
un o-mer-sd cik-kHn-sd to sd-re-niin a-gyap 
gyom-bo-ka a-hl6k md-nyin-ne and when 
they did mete it with an omer, he that 
gathered much had nothing over Ex. — 
cik md-Mun-niim-bo immeasurable. — to 
pay money, to give back as in taliation, 
to pay, to give in return, ak-byi vb. to 
pay away, to give; cik-lyo vb. to receive, 
to accept; len cik vb. to restore, to repay; 
to refund, to return, to make restitution, 
to make restoration, to compensate, rin 
len cik vb. to retort, to retaliate, sot len 
cik vb. to kill in retaliation; to revenge 
by death; to give oilt as pli md-cik-ne 
not to deny; Kap-plim cik vb. to contra- 
dict, to deny. 

cik, ' a-cik s. 1. measure, weight; cik 
md-fak-ne to be deficient in weight or 

cik— cin 

cm — cm, a-cm 


measure; cik md-nau-ne uot proper weight; 
a-cik a-nan-ld mat vb. to give right 
measure, ak sen under weight, cik zon 
good weight, overweight; — 2. a little 
portion, a-cik-kd dya give a little. 

fam-cik-mo s. a measure, a weight, 
scales M. 

cik vb. to clasp in the centre of any- 
thing; pan cik kyom-lUn kryok vb. to seize 
one round the waist in wrestling and 
throw him down. 

cfk kun s. n. of tree, spec, of Bauhinia. 

cfk-t'am-blyak s. a spec, of butterfly. 

cm pret. and neg. cin, -cin- vb. 1. to 
think, to reflect, to consider, to imagine, 
to fancy, to suppose, to regard M-niin 
Mi kor-ka kum-yo mat cin he counted it 
to him for righteousness. G. 2. to have 
regard. — cin ndk yan md-zdk-ne tho' I 
think and examine I cannot make it out. 

— Mt'i-liin li vb. to speak with reflection. 

— md-rd-lem cin to think of another. — 
hu. kd-siim pun-jiim-ka cin he regards me 
as an enemy. — cin-nim s. thought, idea, 
faiicy, imagination, consideration, con- 
templation, opinion, view, sentiment. 

cin i. q. sak-cin s. 1. thought, reflection, 
consideration; 2. supposition, fancy, notion, 
opinion, cin mat vb. to think, to reflect, 
to consider, to imagine. — cin-lyan s. 
thought or the place of thoughts; go-ka 
a-kwp a-do-len kum-dun cin-lyarl md- 
nyin-ne I can rest my thoughts upon no 
one but you my son. P. 

a-cin s. a thing that one has regard 
for, a precious thing, a rarity mO. md-zu 
a-cin-ka bUk vb. to hurt the vital part 
a-cin-sd adj. precious, cin-sd mlo a very 
precious thing. 

*cm T. hyin s. magnificence, a blessing, 
a benediction, a consecration; cin-nyim-bo 
blessed; rUm-niin cin or riim-nitn cln-lop 
mat to receive blessings from God, see 
cin, cin-lop. 

*cin poss. fr. T. 'byin^-pa) vb. to drive 
out, to expel. 

cin see ce/i. 

cin s. u. of a tree, the wood of which 
is very hard; see cenf 

cm see pd-cin, pur-ciii, mi pd-cut s. soot. 

cm-ka-nyal see cin-pd-nel and sUn-ka-nyil. 

*cin-gf T. beans and gri s. a dagger, 
cin-gi tim-krok s. a sjiec. of fern. 

cm-pa-nel s. see sUn-ka-nyil. 

ciri-fin-nel acc.W. "cMng-fin-nyel" Rieva.^ 
caerulescens R. 204. 

cm-bo s. a miser M. 

ciii-sa nyi (ace. M. fr. T. 'ji?i-pa a neck 
and gnyis two) s. a spec, of crane or a 

eft 1. s. as much as the hand can grasp 
(palm downwards) (a-)kd cit s. a handful P. 

eft 2. vb. to split as wood, to divide, to 
separate; cit-ba jdm easy to split; ki cit 
thread before it is twisted; kun cit vb. 
to split tree. 

eft 3. 1. good, well, healthy, salu- 
brious, rich, fine, fertile, fruitful (as 
country), exuberant; bam-lyan cit-nyim- 
bo a salubrious, healthy place; fdt cit fer- 
tile soil, rich earth; mil cit s. a healthy 
state of body; 2. health md-ro-sd cit tsdk- 
sd/i-ka lyau non to go out for the purpose 
of inquiring after a person's health; cit 
nyim-bo ruddy and of good habit of body. 
3. semen md-zH-sd cit; 4. perspiration, 
sweat cit pld vb. to perspire, to sweat; 
5. oil a-li-sd cit the oil of the seed, a 
seed from which oil is made, Sesamum 
orientale T. <«'Z P. 6. vb. to squirt out, 
to eject forcibly un cit-bo s. a squirt. 

cin vb. to worry, to trouble, to harass, 
to weary, to aggravate, to bully, to beset, 
to oppress ; uyok-ka cin vb. to harass with 
work; a-zom-ka cin vb. to oppi'ess by 
depriving of food; nyot-ka cin vb. to 
be worried by a cultivation, that gives 
trouble by constant weeding. 

cin, a-cin s. a heap of rubbish; muk 
cin a collection of rubbish. 

cin, a-cin s. 1. uniting (as two ridges 
of hills or as veins in body); bUi-sd un- 
sd cin s. the junction of ridges and rivers; 
blu cin-ka zdk, a-so cin-ka zdk junction 


cfn— cfm 

cfm— cu 

of hills, juuction of veius, un kyun cin- 
ka zdk junction of rivers. — 2. meeting, 
union, affinity, alliance, close con- 
nexion, near relationship, coalition, com- 
bination, conspiracy, cin num-nu close 
relationship. — cin mat vb. to be closely 
connected, to coalesce, to combine, to 
unite, to conjoin; tem-bo pok-sdn-ka ma- 
Imi cin mat vb. to conspire, to overthrow 
the state. 

cfn see sak-cin; cin. 
*cfn T. hyin s.; cin dok T. byin-bdag s. 
1. a high-priest; a benefactor etc. 2. a 
title of respect to priests, cin-lop T. byin- 
rlab a. a benediction, a blessing; con- 
secration, rwm fat-tvn-sd cin-lop their 
offering having made a blessing obtained; 
cin-lop byi vb. to bless by laying hands 
upon; cin-lop fom-bo blessed, consecrated, 

cin, cin-cin, cin-nd cin-nd advly. winking 
(as eyes), twinkling (as star), sparkling, 
glittering, glistening, gleaming, coruscat- 
ing; cin-cin mat vb. to wink; to twinkle, 
to glitter; 7nik c.-c. mat vb. to wink eyes; 
sd-hor c.-nd c.-nd mat-bam the stars are 
twinkling; see also cir. 

cin-ci tak-ka ace. W. ''chin-chi tak-ka" 
s. Parus atriceps R. 210. 

cin-cin-ka ace. W. " chin- chin -ka'' s. 
Lophophanes dichrous R. 210. 

cin-ci-ok (-fo) ace. W. "chin-chi-ok" s. a 
spec, of bird, Hemixus macclellandiR. 213, 
ace. Je. 2, 79 Hypsipetes macclellandi, see 

cfm vb. to pour out from a larger vessel 
into a smaller; u/i pd-dam-nun pd-tHm-ka 
cim pour from the water-holder into 
the cup. 

tlik-cim s. 1. a cup tuk-arn tiin-gul; 
2. a measure containing about '/a lb. 

cfm vb. to be thin, to be lean (as 
person or meat), to be attenuated, to be 
emaciated, to be slight, meagre; cim non 
to become thin; — md-cim-nim-sd su 
nyi-te how can they help being thin. 

a-cim adj. lean (person, meat). — cim-bo 
adj. meagre: md-zu cim-bo J. 

cfm old L. vb. to be minus of a pair, 
to be without one (as arm, leg). 

cfm kye-'aydn s. a black fungus, that 
sprouts from trees (round). 

cim-cdp-fo s. rufous -bellied bulbul, 
Hypsipetes viridis. Je. 2, 79: ''chinchiok- 
pho" Hypsipetes macclellandi. ace. W. 
"■chin-chi-ok" }lemixna macclellandiR. 213. 
see cdn-cop-fo. 

cfm t'am-blyak s. a spec, of butterfly, 
cim-ba s. the caterpillar of above. 

cfm -pa pdt s. a spec, of tree -fungus, 
Agaricus (edible). 

cim-pa-fo s. the rufous piculet, Sasia 
ochracea, ace. W. dan cim-pa Q'^dang 
chim-ba") Hemicheldon ferruginea R.216; 
ace. Je. 458 "dang-chim-pa pho" fl. fuli- 

cim-fo s. n. of bird rufous piculet, Sasia 
ochracea Je. 301; R. 207; dan cim-fo 
speckled piculet, Vivia innominata; uii 
cim-fo the water Sasia, Alcedo benga- 
lensis R. 206. 

cir vb. to abuse, to malign, to defame, 
to calumniate, to scandalize, to stig- 
matize; cir-4'iin-sd rin s. scandal, vitu- 
peration, defamation. 

cir vb. cfr. cin to sparkle, to radiate, 
to shine, to glitter, to gleam, to glisten; 
cir-rd cir-rd adv. sparkling; cir-rd cir-ru 
om-bam (it) is shining brightly (as glass, 
crystal etc.). 

cfl vb. to slabber, to drivel, to slaver, 
to be salivated, also a pain which is said 
to affect the head; gyon cil to have runn- 
ing of saliva, to slabber. 

cil kun s. a shrub; cil pot s. the fruit 
eaten by L.'s when roasted in fire; sd-ka 
cil fyak the eating the leaves of the cil 
is said to occasion a pain in the head 
of the barking deer, which makes it 
utter its cry; hence the above saying. 

tHk-cil id. q. fyak-cil. 

cil, ril-ld adv. down there, (below) 
there; co cil-Id down there (a consider- 
able distance); pil cil here and there; 
see ciil. 

cu vb. to be small, to be little, to 

cu cu— cun 

cun— cu 


diminish M. 31. cu-ld adv. smally, 
minutely M. 76. cu-ldt s. diminutiveness. 
Deriv. cum, a -cum or cum-bo adj. 
small, little, minute; a-cum-bo, cum- 
bo-re a little one, rum-nun 6m-bo a-tim 
nydt om-bo a-tim-rem sd-nyim-ka tyem-bo 
tsam-Mii-sd 6m-bo a-ciim-rem so-nap-ka 
tyem-bo tsam-sdn-ka zuk-fat God made 
two great lights: the greater 1. to rule 
the day, and the lesser 1. to rule the 
night. Gr.; a-cum-ka U vb. to despise; 
cum-ldt s., a-liit cum-ldt s. anguish of 
spirit Ex. — mi cum sparks. — cum-md 
cum-md adv. small, minute; so c.-md c- 
WM yu vb. to drizzle. 

sd-cu adv. apparently slight small; sd- 
cu mun-m,en-ld fyo vb. to hear a faint 
sound; sd-cu-ld adv. diminutive; sd-cu-ld 
si vb. to appear small as thing at distance. 
Comp. cii-kup s. the small one, the 
little one M. 104. adj. very small; cu- 
kiip sdm k'yet-tun gdn mak-so there is but 
little source of hope, he will die; cu-kup 
ba-nun from tender age. — Mp (fr. cu 
kup) adv. a little M. 76 cup kd-sum bo 
give me a little; cup-kam a little; ciip-zon 
a very little; ciip-kam-zdn only a very 
little; — cu-krdk very small. 

cu cu onom. the call to pigs, cm cu md 
vb. to call pigs. 

cuk, a-cuk s. (see also tsUk) I. the middle, 
the interior, the heart, the core, the kernel 
as of nuts, the seed as of cotton; ki cuk 
seed of cotton. ■ — a-cuk hyek vb. to ex- 
tract the kernel. — (jx-)cuk-ka advly. 1. in 
the middle, in the midst, 2. among, 
amongst ciik-kd cuk-kd adv. amongst, one 
with another; c.-kd c.-kd ki vb. to con- 
tend one with a.; — cUk-niin out from 
go-niin a-duk mi-zdr-mo-sdn-nun mat-bo- 
sdn ciik-niin a-yum dot-so I will bring 
you out from under the burdens of the 
Egyptians. Ex. — 11. advly. i. q. (a)- 

cun vb. to lay by, to save, to put by, 
to economize; a-z6m cun-luii fo vb. to 
put by some food for afterwards; kom 
cicn-lun fo vb. to lay by money. 

cun T. 'jun(^-pa) vb. to break in, to sub- 
due, to render tame, to render tractable, 
to tame tyan-mo cun. 

cup adv. incessantly (as rain) so ciip yii, 
vb. to rain incessantly. 

cup vb. to restrain, dyit, jit or pyit cUp; 
ddk-nun jit cup non to have suppression 
of urine thro' illness. 

cup vb. to lose voice as from a cold 
or cough: Myen-nun a-nyum cup-non. 
cup and cum see cu. 
cum-fo i. q. cim-fo. 

cul adv. below, down below, see cu; 
cul-ld down, downwards; hH-do sd Jm mo 
k.-ka cul-ld non-Mn ... he went down to 
C. he and his mother ... J. 2, 12. cul- 
ld cul-ld adv. a great way below; cvl-ld 
cul nan-bo sitting successively lower; 
cul-ld-?no s. who lives below, an in- 
habitant of the valley. 

cu s. the snowy range, a high mountain 
on which snow always lies. W.65. Hooker 
2, 33; cu-sd un or cu un water from the 
melted snows. — cu-zdn like a snowy 
mountain, very high, very great. — cu-bi 
the snowy mountains, a-do a-bryan cu-bi 
nan-re zdn mat-td-o may your name be 
as celebrated as the snowy range. — cu 
mun bi mun s. the evil spirit of the 
snows, applied to mi gdt-mmi. — cu riim 
s. the god of the snows, cu rum fat vb. 
to render offerings to cu riim. 

niin-cu s. enchantment; niin-cu niin-bi 
s. a sort of e.; nun-cu niin-bi md-zdk-ne 
the e. has not taken effect. 

cu vb. (fr. I.'cu-baf) to flow out with 
force, to pour forth. 

cum or tuk-cum s. a channel, a bamboo 
or any other article for conveying water, 
a conduct, a spout; tHk-cum-ka cuk vb. 
to get the water from the spout; cum 
tuk-jek s. a water-gutter as on eaves of 
house. — bon cum "spouting from mouth", 
a common saying, an every-day-word. — 
cum with a-krik "mouth to water" a-krik 
cum as on seeing anything nice. 
cu, cun below, incorr. for cu q. v. 
cu see zo-cu. 



•■cu-pdn— cur 

cur— cek 

*cu-pdn T. bcu-dpon s. a ruler of ten Ex. 

cuk Tb. (cfr. cu) to draw water as fr. 
well. J. un cuk vb. to draw or fetch 
water; un c.-lyan s. a spring, a fountain; 
un c.-bo a water-carrier. 

*cuk T. bcug{-pd), 'jug(-pa) vb. to fix 
into; to put into; rdl cuk to fix rol for 
catching fish. 

cuk, tuk-cuk s. 1. a chirping as of .bird, 
tuk-cuk mat Tb. to chirp; 2. a kiss, a 
kissing noise; tuk-cuk mat vb. to kiss. 

cuii, cun cun see con. 

cun, a-cun s. 1. the chief point, principal, 
main, the essential (object), supreme, 
paramount; lyan a-cun s. the chief places; 
rin a-cun the chief points of a speach. — 
a-ciin rel-ld-ka under every head, a-cun 
rel-ld a-tydp li to (briefly) relate the 
heads. — 2. the most facile or straight 
road or course to a place; po-cun ayop- 
lun frol to cut the bamboo in easiest 
manner by notching it round. 

*cun-wd jf T. 'byun-ba bzi s. the four 

cuii-kuh s. n. of tree, Teucrium macro- 

cut vb. to boil as water, to make boil- 
ing, hot. M. 

cut vb. to sprout up, to rise up, cut 
hrdn id. 

cun see cu: cu. 

cup vb. n. to be hollow -cheeked, to 
have h. cheeks td-gryu cup bam. 

cum see under cu. 

cum perhaps only expletive as in the 
following cum pd-mdr nd-mor zo eat p. 
and n. rice see under pd-mdr, nd-m6r. 

cur s. the preparation of the young 
shoots of bamboo pd-ruk for eating by 
placing them under pressure and occasion- 
ing a fermentation by watering them 
pd-ruk cur mat; pd-ruk cur lyan the 
place for fermenting the pd-ruk. 

cur vb. to strike out into branches as 
tree kun cur etc., also applied to races, 
genealogy; to ramify, to branch out, md- 
rd-sd a-gyit a-kon cur gyap-ndn a persons 
genealogical tree to have branched out 

greatly. — sun-hlyo a-tyak sam cur-bam- 
mun Idn lead the way with a three- 
headed spear (T. Ka-tvarn rtse-gsum, Skt. 
trisula) P. 

a-cur s. twigs, antlers; a fork as of 
tree, a-cur a-kdn s. small suckers grow- 
ing from old tree. — pun-cur s. branches, 

cur see cor. 

cul see col. 

ce (cfr. T. ^e-na) affixed forms a pre- 
cative M. 92; kd-sum non-ce or byi-ce 
pray give it to flie; kd-yum mat de pray 
let us do it. — ce-nd id. ; zo &-nd pray eat. 

ce sometimes as an emphat. particle 
and in a bad s. (in the 2 d p.) thus ho 
kd-sum sdt-so ho do ndk-kd ce you will 
kill me, will you, look out for yourself 

— ce-nd affixed to words gives a signi- 
fication of certainty also of emphasis. 
dk ce-nd yes, certainly; go non-so ce-nd 
I shall certainly go; go dyok mat ce-nd 
I have done the work; go zo ce-nd I 
have eaten. 

*ce T. gce{^ba) 1. vb. to be careful of, 
to be anxious regarding, to be regardful 
of; to esteem, to have affection for, to 
value; go a-dyutrka md-non-ne md-zu ce 
I will not to battle, I have too much 
regard for my body. — ce U'o mat vb. to 
regard with great affection. — ce ce go 
go mat vb. to be very careful of, to have 
great regard for, to esteem highly. 

ce-bo adj. careful, anxious, prudent, 
affectionate, tender, loving, fond, beloved. 

— ce-wiin s. 1. care, regard, caution, 
circumspection; 2. love, affection, attach- 
ment, fondness, tenderness, kd-sii ce-wun- 
sd a-kup my beloved child. 

*ce-k6 T. gcags-k^a(?) s. affection. M. 

cie 2. s. pleasing, ornament, beauty, 
adornment, p'om ce zuk-fom-bo ornamental, 
adorned, beautified; fam ce-nyim-bo choice, 
esteemed, select articles. — lup-ce form 
of body M. 

*ce T. byes; ce lyan a foreign country. M. 

*ce-t6 see cet-to. 

cek vb. to hew down, cek-nyon id. a-re 

(cek) tiik-cek— cet 

cen — cem 


kun cek-kd hew down this tree; md-ro 
cek to cut down a man. 

(cek) tuk-cek s. the bottom of anything, 
the posteriors, backside, tuk-cek gryun 
nan vb. to sit uneasily, as when one has 
a boil on bottom; tuk-cek-ka T. 'og-nas 
from under, from below P. 

cen Tb. to be costive, to be bound, 
ay it cen. 

can s. a part, portion, cen to to place 
by a part. 

cen kun s. n. of tree, c. k. tun-gyal a 
dibble made of the wood. — ^en-pd-tin 
s. a memorandum, a remembrance, a 
stick cut as a memorandum: pieces of 
wood given to guests at funeral-meetings 
as charms to drive away evil spirits; 
pudendum virile Tbr. 

cen-pa nyel-fo see cin-. 

eel vb. 1. to fix, to hook, to button 
etc. a-hyak cet to buckle; go dam cet 
vb. to button; — to tie or fix together. 

2. s. a division in house; a section, 
partition; cet kyop (fo) to make divisions 
in houses; a sheaf of corn, zo-cet. 

pa-cet, pi/r-cet, pun-cet with 
s. the diaphragm, the peritoneum, the 
groin; pd-cet-la s. the groin; pd-cet-la 
sup vb. to have swelling of groin. 

cet, a-cet s. meat boiled or made into 
steaks without bone; man a-cet s. steaks. 
— cet cet or cet t'a said to a baby, eat 
(meat) dyen-bdn-ka man bi gdn cet ta 
gdn li. 

*cet T. byed{-pa) vb. to do, to perform, 
to make, do cet to make investigation; 
Id-yo cet to sin; dik-po cet to do evil. — 
*cet-to T. byed-do. 

*cet T. gcod(^-pd) vb. to cut, to divide, 
to stop (as road), to stop (the current 
of a river); to cross brol cet non see brol; 
to oppose, to interrupt, to hinder; mi cet 
to break off live coal from burning wood 
to leave off;, cet-dydn vb. to cut off; M 
sok-rem M lok sd-gdn-nvn cet-dydn-so that 
soul should be cut off from his people Gr. 

*cet T. 'byid{-pa) vb. to disappear M. 

cat see 'Set. 

cen see can under can. 

cen vb. to cut up into slices (said of 
meat) or to cut up the body of animal 
or man, to dissect; M kor-ka o-re gUn- 
nd-pdn lyo-bdn plon pldn-nd cen-lun a-vyel 
kat kat-sd a-nan-ka rik to tin fo-pdn md- 
cen-ne he took unto him all these, and 
divided them in the midst, and laid each 
piece one against an other; but the birds 
divided he not G. T. bsd-pa, bsas-pa P. 

cen-zdn s. a surgeon; a butcher. 

*cen T. can affix, adj. -termination; 
corresponding to our adj. -terminations 
-ful, -ly, -ous, -y, -like, -ish, non-cen 
T. snan-can full of light. 

cen vb. to shrink from fear see dH cen. 

cen adj. own, belonging to self; ^en-sd 
a-kup my own child; cen-sd mlo my own 
article: dear, precious. 

sd-cen adj. simple, natural, of one's 
own self, or one's own accord, hence 
independent; sd-cen ddk natural pain, 
sd-cen non vb. to go of one's own accord, 
as person, watch, clock etc.; — sd-cen 
mak vb. to die naturally; — sd-cen si vb. 
to see naturally, properly, having true 
sight, seeing things neither too large or 
too small. 

sd-cen-bo s. an independent person, one 
who can do anything of his own accord, 
not obliged to work. — sd-cen-ld adv. 

cen-ra kun s. the guava, see also sUn- 
ram, siin-ru. 

cap vb. n. to become dry, to shrink 
(as wood or anything thro' dryness), to 
become parched, sd-grek cep-nun hdk dak 
to hickup from throat being dry; kHm- 
tun cep-non the leather has become dried; 
to grow old, go Tnd-zv, cep-non-nun sd-lon 
sak-tsum nyi-sdn-d: after I am waxed old 
shall I have pleasure G. 

cem vb. t. to hem, to skirt, to follow 
along the edge or side of anything a-dek 
cem-lUn hrap hem the skirt; dum cem to 
hem cloth; nyot-'pun cem-Mn ndk to skirt 
the sides of a field and examine it. — 
sd-p6 pd-son cem to cross a stream on 


cer— CO 

co-zun — *coni 

a raft with the aid of a cane or rope 
affixed from one side to the other. — 
cem-lun 16m or ndn to go along catching 
hold of things (as children beginning to 
walk). — rin cem vb. to look at a question 
on every side. — to circumvent as game: 
man cem. 

cer s. a spec, of bean or pea cer tuk-byit. 

cer vb. 1. to be unwilling to anything 
or to shrink from; hd-yu pldn-ka ka-lun 
su-ld md-ban-nd-so su go yo gdn hd-yu 
cer-ren lik ye shall not diminish ought 
thereof; for they be idle Ex. — M-nun 
K: a-yu cer-bam he said: ye are idle Ex. 
cer-ld cer-ld dyok mat vb. to be unwilling 
to work. — cer-sd md-nyin-nd not to be 
unwilling. — so-ka- ndn cer to be unwill- 
ing to go out in the rain; a-z6m zo-sdn 
cer not to care to eat (as where the food 
is not good). — 2. to be sulky, sullen, 

cer-(bamybo s. adj. 1. one unwilling 
having aversion to, dyok cer-bo a shrinker 
of his work or who gets tired of his 
work. 2. a sulky person. 

cer-run s. 1. unwillingness, reluctance, 
disinclination, aversion, 2. dislike, re- 
pugnance, antipathy; 3. sulkiness. 

*cer-wa, *cer-w(5 T. 'byar-ba ov'byor-baf 
s. a cross-mark, a piece of wood given 
between two parties with a cut across 
as an emblem of agreement having been 
made, sd-dyak a-frdn I6t di-san-sd cer-w6 
ndk fo to give a cer-w6 as an agreement 
to return within a certain period; md- 
mydn-nd sdn-ka cer-wo kut fo or kydp vb. 
to make a cross-mark so as not to forget. 

eel vb. to play, to be idle, see cer. 

CO adv. there below, down there, co ci 
there below (more exact); co cu, co cu, 
CO cu-ld, co-cuUd low down, far below, 
CO cu cil-ld there below, down there a 
considerable distance; co-ba there far 
below; co-re that below; co-Ion in the 
direction below, downwards; co-lom like 
that below; co-su there below (not far); 
co-d that there below; co a-cun in this 
direction, down here; co-o i.q. do-ba M. 73. 

Comp. co-bdk, tun-cb-bdk, dyaii-co, dyan- 
co-bdk, fon-cb, fon-cb-bdk s. the lower part 
of leg, the calf of leg. 

co-zun also san-zun s. a hooked flesh- 
fork, a meat-hook for taking meat out 
of pot. 

cok vb. to brawl, to wrangle, to be 
contentious, quarrelsome, md-ro dy-ii cok- 
bam the people are quarreling; rin-cok 
contentious language; cok-lu s. brawling, 
wrangling, discord; j6k cok wrangling, 
contention; discordant sounds. 

con see can. 

COii-kun s. n. of tree. 

*con T. 'byons{-pa) vb. to be ready, 
to be completed, to be accomplished; 
don con it is finished, allright; con, con 
con expressions of salutations, also of 
thanks by holding up thumb: o con con. 

cot, a-cot s. aid, assistance, a temporary 
assistance, a-cot a-top byi vb. to give a 
present in charity or for support; kom- 
nun cot byi vb. to assist one with money; 
dyok-niin sd rin-nun cot tdp vb. to render 
assistance both by words and deeds. 

cop vb. to pick up with fingers or 
rather to place fingers as when picking 
up anything; a-kd cop-ka tsun id.; zo 
kd-cop katlkd-sum bo give me a fingers 
full of rice. 

com vb. 1. to be drawn together, to 
be compressed, to be crossed one over 
another, to be crumbled as cloth dum 
com-bam; — tuk-pdt com-lun nan said of 
an old man, whose head sinks lower 
than knees; — com-lm pun vb. to place 
in a heap crossed one over another as 
sticks. — 2. to be clustered; kun com- 
nan the trees lie clustered. — a-com s. 
a small bundle or sheaf of corn or of 
anything; — a-com a-com advly. in small 
bundles as sticks; cluster; kun com a 
small cluster of trees. 

*com T. bcomQ-pa) vb. to oppress, to 
grind down, to tyrannize over, to bully. 
com zo vb. to live on oppression or 
plunder; — com-bo s. an oppressor, a 
tyrant, com-ld adv. oppressively, tyran- 

cor— cdk 

"cdk— cdrt 


nically, com-ldt s. oppression, tyranny; 

* com- den de T. bcorri'ldan-das Skt. 
bhagavdn P. 

cor vb. n. to be wrinkled, to be creased, 
to be rumpled, as cloth, paper etc.; to 
be wrinkled as old man; to be shrivelled. 
— a-mlem-ka cor to be wrinkled in face; 
dum cor cloth to be creased. 

a-cor s. a crease in anything or wrinkles 
in the face, branches of stag's horn, a 
crotch or fork in tree. cfr. a-cur. 

col vb. t. to pour (water) as over the 
body with hands above head; uii md-zu 
(pldn)-ka col vb. to pour water over body; 
rip col vb. to water flowers. 

*c6 vb. T. mci(-ba) to enter the pre- 
sence of king or great man, kum-dun 
c6 hon.: dun-ka von M. 135. 

*cd T. ja s. tea, the tea-leaf co-kun 
a tea-tree; co-nydm c6-sen tea-leaves; the 
tea -leaves after having been used; c6 
ba-gok the tea-leaf pressed into cakes 
imported into Tibet and Central-Asia; 
and used by the Bhutiya's and Lepcha's 
and boiled and drunk with salt, with- 
out sugar or milk; co-pak-gdk id. T. 
pag-gu; co tdp vb. to make tea; c6 su 
vb. to bruise tea in pd-tek after being 

cdk s. a grave built in a circular form 
and the body placed in an erect position 
by the luk-sdm lun-dun mu L. tribes and 
in a reclining position by the mun-mu; 
m.-ka cdk md-nyin-nd ren ho-nun kd-yum 
Uiri-ti-wvn-d because there were no graves 
in E. hast thou taken us way Ex. — 
cok de s. a grave with a stone or post 
as a sign of the place. — cok-den s. a pit- 
grave in which the dead are buried in 
an erect position; — cok-to s. a flat tomb 
or grave; — cdk -bum s. a sepulchral 
monument, a pillar over grave; — Sk- 
Idn s. a tomb-stone smaller than cok-bum; 
— cdk bron-lyan or cdk bram-lyan a burial 
ground, a cemetery. — cok-bli s. an ob- 
long grave or tomb, in which the dead 
are buried in a reclining position. 

*cdk T. Icog s. a spire, a turret, gon 
cdk a steeple, a spire. 

cdk, a-cdk s. the flesh, the lean of 
meat with skin off; kd-su bd a-yu a-cdk- 
ka kyop-bo re bd mdk-sd md-nyin-num-bo 
nun-so my covenant shall be in your 
flesh for an everlasting covenant G. — man 
cdk s. flesh of meat, not the fat or bone; 
— fat cdk rich earth without stone; — 
a-cdk a-fun s. foreskin G. — a-cdk a-vi 
s. flesh and blood; a-cdk a-vi-sd a-kup 
my own child; — a-cdk zdn s. the female 
branch of a family. — a-fun lut a-cdk-ka 
ndn to become raw as a sore. 

*cdk s. T. Icag a whip, a lash, ta-cdk 
T. rta-lcag s. a horse- whip; — in comp. 
*ta-wo cdk fr. T. Ita-bu Icag to brawbeat, 
to hector. 

cdk vb. 1. to be effaced, to be ob- 
literated as foot-print by rain etc.: fon- 
pydl cdk-ndn; so-nun cdk to rain a little 
(sufficient to efface a footprint). 

2. to be settled as quarrel or any 
disputed matter, to be adjusted hrim cdk. 

pur-cdk-ld fr. 1.? grey colour. 

piir-cdk s. fr. 2.? trouble, annoyance. 

tuk-cdk 2.? passionate gesticulation; 
tuk-cdk mat vb. to display irritable feel- 
ing by dancing gesticulation, sak lyak-lun 
tuk-cdk mat vb. to dance with rage. 

*cdk-po T. jag-pa s. a robber, a bandit M. 

cdii, a-cdn, fam-cdn s. the ribs and sharp 
bones of fish and snakes: no cdn; see can. 

cdn vb. n. to be handsome; to be pretty; 
to be beautiful; hu-nun pe-hldk cdn-bam 
she (or he) is beautiful. 
' a-cdn adj. handsome m,d-ro-sd a-cdn a 
handsome man; pe-hldk a-cdn a comely 

cdn see can used with ap; a-kd ap cdn 
a handful; a-kd ka ap cdn to grasp in 

cdii pret. cdn, cfr. T. byan (-pa purified) 
vb. t. to wash, to cleanse, to purify, kd- 
sii fin a-nyi vyet-sd li-ka fydt-ndn-bdn 
a-nyi fon cdn-lun so-nap-ka bam- ma le 
behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray 
you, into your servant's house, and tarry 


''cdrt— c6t, a-c6t 

c6t— cdr 

all night, and wash your feet G. mil con 
vb. to bathe; — a-ri so-nun con the smell 
is washed away by rain; — go a-kd cdn-so 
I will wash my hands; c6n-bo s. 1. washed, 
2. a washerman dum c6n-bo. 

*cdn T. gcan(^-po quick in intelligence) 
see can, vb. to be quick, clever; to be 
active, swift, c6n-bo quick, sharp, swift; 
c6n-ld adv. quickly, o-fi c6n-ld ryen-nd 
su-go yo gdn hd o-fi md-vdn-nd tet go 
su-ld zuk md-Mn-ne haste thee, escape 
thither; for I cannot do anything till 
thou be come thither G. con lyvp-ld 
mat vb. to do anything quickly. 

cdn see can, can. 

cdn-cdp fo s. n. of bird; it is applied 
to one or two of specc. of bulbul, Alcurus 

* cdn -co sem-pa T. by an- cub sems-dpd 
Skt. Bodhisatva P. 

cdn la-fyep fo s. n. of birds: hoary- 
headed finch-thrush, Paradoxornis gularis ; 
red-headed finch-thrush P. ruficeps; red- 
headed tit-thrush Cheleuasicus ruficeps; 
white - headed strike - thrush Gampso- 
rhynchus rufulus M. Je. 2, 5, 14; ace. W. 
(E. 210) Suthora unicolor and Scaeo- 
rhynchus ruficeps (crow-tit). 

con td-fyep rik n. of a creeper, Thun- 
bergia coccinea. 

cdn fdn s. n. of hill east of Darjeeling, 
probably from T. byan-fan "the north 
plain" the n. e. of the hill being first 

*cdn-bo kuii T. Ican-ma s. the willow, 

*cdn see srfw, co?i-po ^oV s. a ceremony- 
in funeral rites when a drawing of the 
deceased is made summoning his spirit; 
con-ydn s. a funeral fee given to priest 
lit. a fee (given to p.) for purifying or 
absolving the dead. 

cdn-hdn s. a seasaw, lit. moving quickly 
up and down, con-hdn mat vb. to seesaw. 

cdt, a-cdt s. 1. the pulp of fruit (as of 
orange), 2. the ventricle of stomach, 
dyen cdt a. the placenta, secundines, see 
tyol, dyen tyol. 

cdt; c6t-td adv. altogether, in every 
direction prok-kd cdt-td bu vb. to be 
cracked in every direction. — cot-td cdt- 
td tydm to kick convulsively (in every 
direction as fowl etc. when dying). — 
cot cdt convulsively. 

cdn vb. t. to deprecate the approach of 
evil spirits, to drive away evil spirits 
mun cdn; rum-ka mun cdn-ka md vb. to 
pray to rum to ward off evil spirits. 

cdn see cdn. 

cdp vb. t. to suck and afterwards spit 
out the refuse (of tobacco) tam-ku cdp; 
cdp-dydn to suck and spit out; man 
tsdk-bd cdp when the meat was to tough, 
to eject it. 

cdp vb. to add to, to increase, to super- 
add, to make addition to, rhl cdp-lun U 
to add something to what was said be- 
fore; to enlarge, to extend, to magnify, 
to dilate. — c<^ byi vb. to give. 

a-c6p s. adj. more, in addition to what 
was before; a surplus, an increase; a-cdp 
ul vb. to ask for more (as above measure). 
a-cdp a-byit adv. more, excess, cdp-ld 
adv. in addition, over, above, in excess. 

cdm i. q. cam (1. to be clustered; 2. wife 
of king). 

cdm pret. com fat vb. t. to leave off, 
to leave, forsake, to quit, to abandon, 
to relinquish, to give up P. com fo, cdm 
dydn id. li-kyon-rem zuk-sdn cdin-fo they 
left off to build the city G. a-yu-re a-vo 
c&m-dydn the wife has forsaken her hus- 
band; — sak-ddk-ld com leave off griev- 
ing; — com dydt vb. to leave behind Ex. 

a-cdm s. the leavings; mu-tik cdm a 
small pearl. 

cdm, a-cdm s. 1. a comb of bee; 2. a 
small head of tree. 

cdm, a-cdm s. a stew. 

cdm see mik-cdm (the eyelash). 

cdr vb. cfr. T. skyur, cur Sch. 11. to 
be sour, to be acid, fam-pdt-re cdr-bam 
the fruit is sour. 

a-cdr adj. 1. sour, 2. harsh (as language) 
a-cdr ydn s. the sourness; a-cdr ydn ndn 
the sourness is gone. — fam-cdr s. any- 

cdr— cdl 



thing sour, acid, vinegar, pickle, f.-c. bi p««-6w forked (as stick) see also cor, cwr. 

8. any acid vegetable (rhubarb etc.). cdp incorr. f. c6r q. v. 

cdr spread out, forked; in comp. (hand) cdl vb. to be in .uproar, commotion, 

with fingers spread out, hd cor or a-kd to be noisy, to be turbulent, to be tu- 

cor hand with out-spread fingers; kd cdr multuous. — c^oUii s. uproar, row, noise, 

dyop^ to throw out hand (as in disgust tumult; c6l-ldt s. id.; tam-cdn-sd cdl-ldt; 

■ on-sdn-sd cdl-ldt. 

ca the sixth letter of L. alphabet: 
T. cB, pronounced like ch in church but 

*ca T. spyad fr. spyod-pa 1. vb. to do, 
to act, to perform in L. cd-lun zuk vb. 
to do according to one's own mind. — 
2. s. activity, way of acting, behaviour; 
order, regularity, intelligence, cd-nyim-bo 
s. an orderly, a sagacious person, md-ro 
cd md-nyin-num-bo s. a disorderly (sloven- 
ly, irregular) p. 
caii see under c6n. 

8ap onom. the sound of blows, a smash- 
ing sound; cdp-ld buk vb. to give sm. 

*cdt and cot T. cW, gcod{-pa) vb. t. to 
cut; fok cdt litly. "cutting all impedi- 
ment" advly. certainly, positively, tdk 
cot ho-nun kd-su rin nydn gdn but if you 
will give it, I pray thee, hear me G.; 
ts6 cat litly. "cut the root" vb. to com- 
prehend, to understand, to know posi- 

*cdt, ce, cet (see also co, cot) T. mcod 
{-pa) I. cdt, cet 1. s. a sacrifice, an offer- 
ing; 2. to offer, cdt pu (^. mcod 'bul) or 
cet-bo bu, cet kydp to, cet mat to, ce-bo 
cet vb. to offer offerings, to make pro- 
pitiatory offerings; bik cat cdt vb. to offer 
a cow for sacrifice. — ce-bo or cet-bo s. 
praise, adoration, ce-bo kydp vb. to praise 
God, — cat-ten, see io-ten. 

*ba T. iSa; also ce and cd. I. ca, cd s. 
part, portion; half, the one part of a 

pair; a pair, reciprocal adaption of 
one thing; Mom cd a pair of shoes; bik 
CO cows corresponding to eachother, fit 
to be paired. — even number in opp. 
to (a-fron) nyd an odd number, cd nyd 
or cd pu nyd pu odds and evens (a 
gambling game); also reciprocation of 
body, mind, idles: accordance, agree- 
ment, harmony, unison, conformability 
see cd L. vb. 

II. ce, cd s. news, intelligence, 
information; cd-gyu T. ca-rgyus s. a col- 
lection of news, an information; cd-gyu 
md-nyin num-bo s. one without inform- 
ation, cd-gyu yuk s. a newspaper; — pre- 
liminary ^indication; indications, tokens, 
signs, symptoms, prognostications: ce-td. 
— ce mat vb. to indicate, to signify so 
ryu-sdn-sd ce mat it promises to be fine 
(as weather); — qualities, property. 

III. ca, ce, CO T. ca and cas s. things, 
necessaries, utensils; provisions; tool, 
instrument, weapon; gi-cd T. rgyu-ca s. 
a collection of articles, goods, furniture; 
CO ce sacred utensils; mak-ce s. instru- 
ments of war, arms; rap-ce s. id.; lak-ca, 
lak-Se, lak-cd s. hand-utensils, tool; Idm- 
ce s. ■ travelling utensils, baggage. — ce 
mat vb. to prepare, to make ready, see 
under II; nd/i-sdn-sd ce mat to prepare 
to go. 

*ca and cd T. cags s. affection, in- 
clination, desire, lust; sdm cd the desires 
or passions of the heart; sak cd strong 

*ea— *6ak 

San— *efp 

passion; td-ayu-ka ca kyop vb. to lust 
after women; td-dyu-sd c6 tan vb. to 
commit fornication; vb. to love, pyu-mo 
CO vb. to beget; a-kup c6 vb. to conceive 
Ex. see c6. 

*6a see under cah 

*6a-ne T. 'ca(-6a) and gnas s. a dwell- 
ing place. 

iSa-bro s. a sort of dance; ca-bro mat 
vb. to dance do. 

*ca-lu T. ca-lugs s. custom, manner, 
habit, dum-sd ca-lu the fashion of dress. 

*£ak T. 'cag(-pa) broken cak-kd or sak- 
kd dek to break into pieces (as string). 

*cak T. cag s. grain, food (not grass) 
for horses ta cak; also cok. 

*cak T. pyag s. hon. the hand L. a-kd. 
also ca-, cok, con-, pyok; fd-no cok the 
hand of king; cok su-set-sd un pii serve 
up water for washing hands. 

cd-gyo, cok-gyo, cak-gyd T. p.-rgya s 
1. a handmark, a seal, a stamp; c.-g. 
kyop vb. to seal; 2. a bow, a salutation 
— cok-nor T. p.-nar hon. the wrist L. a-kd 
tydm. — cak cun T. p. cun small hand 
a small knife. — cak cen T. p. cen a large 
knife M. ; confus. with Pers. Mku. — 
cok-ten T. p.-rten s. a present or offering 
of civility or ceremony. — cdk-fep T.p\- 
mfeb s. the thumb L. a-kd dom. c6k-d6m 
id.; c.-dom kyop vb. to seal. — cok-piT. 
p.-pyis s. handkerchief L. td-ro. cak-bu, 
cok-bu, (2) ca-bum T. p.- bid 1. court, 
audience, 2. salutation; cok-bu n&h vb. 
to grant an audience; c.-bu mat vb. to 
pay respects, to salute; c.-bii-ka von vb. 
to have an audience, to enter court; c.-bu 
su vb. to seek an audience; cak-bu fo 
vb. to pay respects, to salute; ca-bum 
t6n vb. to pay respects, ace. M. to worship 
idol. — Mn- (or cdn-^ zdt T. p.-mdsod s. 
"a storehouse of the hand" a steward, 
an agent, prime minister of king. — cak 
tia, cok tsa, pyok tsa T. p. 'ts'al bowing 
in adoration, respect, veneration, pydk-tsa 
or cdk sal-Id mat to make obeisance, to 
prostrate oneself J. Ex. P. ; L. sa-wo top. 
c. tsal-lo T. p. "tsal-lo. — ^a-ri, cak-ri 

T. p.-bris 8. a letter L. yuk M. 135. — 
cok-sor T. p.-sor s. a finger L. kd-jdm. 

can : can can adv. suddenly, inexpected- 
ly, startling; (a-lui) c. c. ddk vb. (heart) 
to palpitate from sudden alarm. 

*can T. 'pyan(;-ba^ vb. to hang down; 
can fok T. 'pyan-fag s. a plumb-line. 

*can or cdn T. can L. ci q. cfr. kun- 
c6n or gun- con T. rgun-c. s. grape wine, 
wine; ne con T. nas-c. s. spirit made 
from barley. — c.-fun T. c.-tun s. an 
entertainment; c.-pdn s. T. c.-dpon s. a 
chief-butler; c6n-mo s. a server-out of 
ci; con-mo mat vb. to serve out ci. — 
con tson-bo s. a wine- or spirit-merchant. 

*cap or cdp T. cab hon. L. un; pa-no- 
sd cap s. 1. water for king, 2. kings 
urine, cap cu id. — can-cop or mik-cdp 
hon. L. mik-grun. — son-c. T. gsan-cah 
hon. s. urine; s. c. gon hon. an urinal 
privy. — se-c. T. zal-cab hon. spittle. 

*cam see kat-cam, dyo-cam fr.T. mtsams 
a boundary? , 

*cam and cdm T.' cam (-pa) see also c6 
vb. n. to agree, to be in concord, to be 
in harmony. 

cal see under col. 

*ei, ef T. ce(-ba) vb. 1. to be great, 
large; august, noble, adj. great etc. 2- to 
be urgent, emergent, to be weightly 
(matter), heavy (as load) ci gat-nyi-mi' 
sd fam a thing imperatively necessary; 
ci-wun-sd dyok urgent business; md-ci-ne 
it is not large; it is not important; it 
is of no consequence; md-ci-nun small, 
little, insignificant, unimportant, incon- 
siderable. 3. to be expensive, diffusive, 
to be dilated, to be deep. 4. to be 
sound (as sleep); ci-bo i. q. tim-bo q.v- — 
See under fu-je. 

*bf-ma-ka-ru T. bye-ma-ka-ra s, sugar M. 

*Sf-wa T. pyi-ba s. a marmot, Arctomys. 

Sin-te s. table, bank; k6m-dyuk-bo'Sdn- 
sd kom sa-dydn-lun ha-yu cin-te-pdnrfeilfi 
gyam-dydn and poured out the chaiigera' 
money, and overthrew the tables J, 

*fiin-se T. sbyin-sreg s. a burnt-offering. 

*bfp T. cibs hon. L. on, pd-no-sd cip 


*ce-bo — *cet 


a Tehicle, a horse for king; cip-ka cip 
hon. to mount horse or any vehicle. 
*cil see under *col. 

CU see piir-cu, sak-pur-cu. 

cu adT. below, see a-cu^ o-cu, co-cu\ 
see also cu (incorr.) and m. a-cun adj. s. 
low, the lower part or side; — cun kon 
advly. downwards, in the low direction; 
cun-bo-re s. the lower, cun bam-bo s. the 
people who live below; the inhabitants 
of the low country; a-cun md-ro s. the 
people of the plain, the Nepalese. 

gu s. ace. M. power, might. 

*cu incorr. for so T. zo s. curds. 

*fiu T. cu s. L. un q. v. cu-gdk T. c.- 
'gags s. strangury; ^u-fok T. c.-facf a. a 
watermill; cu-don T. c.-don s. a well; 
cu-ndt T. c.-snad s. a bucket; cu-mik 
T. cu-mig s. a fountain. — cu-tsdt T. cu- 
ts'od (a waterclock) s. an hour, a clock, 
a watch, a timepiece, c.-ts. a-ldn kam- 
pat buk-so the hour will strike soon; 
cu-tsdt kat one hour; c.-ts. k. buk-lel-fat 
it has struck one; 2.-fe'. sd-tet g6 (nyi- 
wun-d) what is the hour or what o'clock 
is it? t'.-fe'. nydt gum it is 2 o'clock; 
cu-tsdt fd-no gur-ndn five hours have 
passed. — cu-zom T. cu-bzom s. a water- 
tub, a vat; cu-lok s. vesicles, blister; cu- 
sin and cu-sun T. cu-srin s. a water- 
monster, makara P.; an alligator. 

£u-pf s. ace. M. sulphur. 

cuk-po kuii see suk-po k. 

*fiun (T.) adj. small, little. 

but s. breaking of wind without noise, 
pyit-cut mat to break wind. 

cun see under cu. 

*ce T. (fe see ci L. ti; fu-je ce it is 
your great magnanimity, it is your kind- 
ness, thank you. — ce-do T. ce-dod s. 
ambition, c.-d. mat vb. to be ambitious; 
— ce-t6p T. c.-tabs s. arrogance, c. t'. mat 
vb. to be arrogant. 

*ce T. pye s. flour, meal. 

*U T. ca, cas see ca. 

6e, ce ce exclam. of disgust. 

*ce-bo T. cad^pa see cet-po. 

*ce-bo see under cat. 

*ce-bo T. 'pyon-pa s. fornication, 
adultery; an adulterer, a fornicator; ce- 
bo mat vb. to commit adultery, applied 
to men only. — ce-mo T. 'pyon-ma s. 
1. a prostitute, a harlot; 2. prostitution; 
ce-mo Ma-nak a. a low whore; ce-mo Idt 
s. fornication, prostitution; ce-mo gyu vb. 
to go about playing the whore; ce-mo 
mat vb. to commit adultery. J. 

*cek T. 'ceg^-pa) vb. to split, to cleave. 

*cet I. s. offering, see under *cdt and *cot. 

*Set II. T. sed s. power, strength, force, 
vigour, authority, influence, power of 
mind, ability; cet-tun upon the strength 
of, on the consideration of, gi-co-sd cet- 
tun on the strength of his wealth, bon-sd 
cet-tiin on the strength of his power. 
sd-lu sd-li-sd ^et-tiin non to go depending 
on his bow and quiver. — cet-nyi vb. to 
be strong, cet-nyim-bo a str. person, 
strong, powerful, vigorous, mighty, potent, 
puissant; a-kd cet-nyim-bo-wun mat-lim 
pld-ndn they went out with an high hand 
Ex.; prov. cet nyi gdn ban let if you are 
strong, the knife is sharp, anglice : a bad 
workman always blames his tool; cet 
md-nyin-ne without strength, powerless. 
— md-cet-ne without power, carelessly. — 
sak-cin cet po-ld suitable to the strength 
of ability. — cet tan vb. to put forth 
strength; cet fap vb. to commit violence 
(as rape etc.), cet fap-lun td-ayu hlok 
to commit violence on a female; to show 
power, to use influence; cet dyum vb. to 
measure strength; cet dot vb. to put forth 
strength; cet mat-tun using strength, vio- 
lence; c. Tnat-tun td-dyu hlok to rape a 
woman; cet-zon vb. to be oppressive, rin 
li bo cet-zon to bully, to be overbearing; 
cet len zdn-nun-sd mlo a weight beyond 
one's strength. 

*8et ni. T. cad a. a contract, an agree- 
ment, a covenant; ?. mat to make a., to 
stipulate; yuk ^et s. a written contract, 
a bond, rin- cet s. a verbal agreement, 
a contract, an agreement P., r.-c. kydp vb. 
to contract, to promise, Id-vo kat-sd cet 
mat to make an appointment of one month. 






*cet IV. Tb. n. T. 'cad{-pa) to be left 
out as word or letter in writing tsok cet; 
to be omitted, to be wanting: bon cet: 
to leave speach unfinished, to mistake, 
to plunder; to cease (as rain: so cet); 
to intermit, to desist, to disappear: cet 
non. S.-sd td-uyu Urn cet-ndn it ceased 
to be with S. after the manner of women 
Gr., t. to stop, to omit min cet to omit a 
word as in writing; a-kup nyen cet Tb. 
to wean a child, to ablactate. 

md-cet-ne adv. without intermission, 
incessantly, constantly; rin md-cet-nd U 
vb. to talk incessantly. 

*i3et-fdt T. Jcyad-f s. the length M. 

*cet-bo s. T. cad-pa a fine, a punish- 
ment, cet-bo a-tim a heavy fine, cet- bo 
a-cum a slight fine; cet-bo cik vb. to pay 
a fine; cet-bo ka vb. to impose a fine; 
^et-bo lyo vb. to receive fine; cet-bo zdk 
vb. to be liable to fine, to be fined. 

cet-hra s. superciliousness, cet-hrd bam 
vb. to be supercilious, rin cet hrd super- 
cilious language. 

*cen-po, cen-bo T. cen-po see tim-bo s. U. 

*cep-bo T. ceb-po adj. great, superior, 
a-kijp ^eb-bo the eldest child. 

*cem T. cem in comp. lia-ccm T. a will, 
a testament, ka-cem T. bkd-cem hon. id. 

*C0 I. T. cos s. 1. dharma, religion, 
moral, doctrine; learning, co-lii. 
according to religion; — co-sd dok id.; — 
co-sd a-pot fop vb. to obtain the fruits 
of knowledge; — co-ka go to delight in 
religion; san-gye-sd co-ka md-go-ne to 
hate Buddha's law P.; — co-ka tap vb. 
to place (children) for instruction; — 
co-ka no-o go to meditate; — co-ka von 
to become a monk; — co cet bi vb. to 
explain; — co mat T. cos byed-pa to act 
or live religiously, righteously freq. P. — 
CO sdm cin to be devout, to be studious; 
CO sdm-din-bo s. adj. devout. — 2. book, 
literature; M. gives the following titles 
of L. books: kin-tsum-sd co; kydn-sd co; 
nd-gyon-sdn-sd co ("book of enchant- 
ment"); co-ten-sd co; td-se sdn-sd co Ta- 
she's history; t'u-klon-sdn-sd co; kre mik- 

kiin dun-sd co; ddk-da-bo-sd mat-sdn-sd co 
instructions for the curing of sick; dik-po 
Id-yo to-sdn-sd co the guide for cleansing 
of sins; du-ndt tsok-sdn-sd co book to 
prevent being hurt by disease; nam-ryu- 
Id zuk-bdn-sd co book showing how to 
ensure prosperous seasons; ne-yuk-sd co; 
po-mu nan-se-sd co; bi-ro-tsa-na-sd co a 
book of moral instructions; fydn mun 
tsok-sdn-sd co book to guard against 
enemies and evil spirits; md-rum nyi- 
sdn-sd CO book for lengthening the allott- 
ed period of life; mak-ba I6m fron-sdn- 
sd CO b. for showing after death the path 
wither to go; mun nan-sdn-sd co b. for 
holding in dominion evil spirits; mun 
ryak-Mn-sd co - b. for casting out evil 
spirits; tsu-pe-sd co; rum fat-sdn-sd co 
b. of instructions in offerings to God; 
lyan su-sd co; lyan a-kyet zuk-sdn-sd co 
b. for keeping a country in peace; sd-tap 
tsdk-sdn-sd co b. for preventing the pour- 
ing of hail; sdn-gye sdn-sd co b. of buddhist 
religion ; so tsok-sdn-sd co b. for prevent- 
ing the pouring of rain; sak-cin sdm 
kyet-sd co b. for showing how to have 
tranquillity of thought; ay on kuk-sdn-sd 
co; a-kup md-nyin-nd-ba nyi-ld zuk-sdn- 
sd CO instruction how to obtain children. 
— CO dap vb. to shut a b.; — co dot vb. 
to chant a b. fr. memory; — co mat vb. 
to learn a b., to learn, to study, see also 
under 1; — co hldk vb. to read a b.; — 
co-sd tsuk-du s. an abridgment of b. 
co-sd a-cun s. the chief point of b. ; — 
&-«a a-tydp s. the substance, the sense 
of b.; — co-sd a-hlyum s. a library; — 
'So-ka gom-jok md-nyin-ne there is no 
order in the b.; — co-ka nyi-da tet the 
contents of a b. — 3. sometimes used 
by L.'s in s. of courtesy, obligingness, 
politeness, urbanity; md-r6 co nyim-bo 
obliging person; co md-nyin-num-bo or 
rnd-ro co met-bo a disobliging p.; co zdn 
according to good manners. 

Comp. co-ko s. ordinances, rites, cere- 
mony; co-k6 mat vb. to perform ceremony; 
co-ko-pdn s. master of ceremonies; — 



*£o — *cok 


co-gyu s. a lesson, a task; — co-ge pa-no 
T. cos-kyi rgyal-po the judge of the souls, 
of the dead Skt. dharmardja P.; — co ce 
sacred articles; — co com s. an altar; Gr. 

— CO tem-bo s. the rules of religion; — 
CO fdm lyan s. a bookshelf or place for 
putting b.'s; — co-ne T. cos-gnas a. a 
monastery; co-ne-bo s. a monk, a priest; 
a hermit; — co-pan s. 1. attendant on 
priest, 2. a librarian; — co-pu i.q. co-bo; 

— co-p6r s. a printing press; co-por kyop 
vb. to print, see por buk; — co plyd-bo 
i. q. CO dyit; — co ban s. the beginning 
of b.; — co-bo s. a learned man, a scholar, 
a clergyman, a monk T. rnal-byor-pa, 
Skt. bhikshu, yogin, co-bo ydn-re fam-cdn 
ponsdn gum the clergy are to benefit of 
all living beings P.; co-bo ge-lon mat to 
become a devotee, to become a student; 
co-bo-sd md-zu ma^ to assume appearance 
of devout man or of a monk T. dge-lon 
zig-tii sprul-ba P. — co-mik s. letter, the 
spots on dice, co-mik re sup-sup mat-lun 
ryu-ld md-M-ne the letters are so small 
I cannot see them; — co min s. a word; 

— co-ydn s. a fee given to priest for 
teaching, co-ydn fap to give fee to p.; — 
CO ydm-bo s. one skilled in books or 
religion ; — tfo-yuk s. scriptures ; co-yuk-sd 
tem-bo tsdk to establish religion; — co-lep 
s. a leaf of a book; co-lep pun s. the 
margin of leaf; co-kin id.; I'o-lep lut vb. 
to turn over b.; — co-lem dap vb. to shut 
book; — co-lem fot vb. to open b.; — 
^o-lok T. ^OS-log s. a rejected probationer 
for priesthood; — co lom-ka ndn vb. to 
walk in the path of religion P.; — co- 
hryum and co-hrim s. 1. chastity; co- 
hrim-bo s. a virgin, a chaste young male 
or female; 2. religious training, T. 'dul- 
ba, Skt. vinaya : co-hrim tsam to maintain 
r. t.; co-hrim -bo one under moral dis- 
cipline, a lama's servitor; co-hrim rdn-so 
contrary to religious rules; — co-dyit s. 
an author. 

*co II. see cok. 

*fio III. T. m^od(-pa) see also ce, Mt 
s. an offering, a sacrifice; — co-K6n 

T. mead- Man s. a place of sacrifice, a 
temple, an altar; ^ co-kun s. a brass- 
lamp, used for sacred purposes, a candle- 
stick or lamp-holder; — co-com s. a niche 
or stand for image or sacred thing, an 
altar, see also co I.; — i'o-ten T. mcod- 
rten s. a monument, a sacred building 
Skt. caitya; co-ten ca-run ka-sor name of 
a celebrated monument near Kathmandu; 

— co-mi T. mcbd-me (the lights used on 
an altar) s. a lamp, a light, man sut-sd 
co-mi a tallow-candle; — co-mi dun(^-re) 
s. the wick of lamp; — co-mi dyak s. the 
fiame of 1.; — co-mi la-la s. the flicker- 
ing of 1. ; co-mi la-la dyak(^-bam) to flicker; 

— co-mi mak (lamp) to go out; — co-mi 
glot vb. to light 1.; co-mi sot vb. to ex- 
tinguish light. 

*bo IV. T. pyogs s. side, quarter, party, 
sect, faction, L. kon; co ji the four 
quarters; nak co T. nag-p. s. 1. the 
dark side of moon or month; 2. evil 
spirits; kar-co T. dkar-p. s. 1. the light, 
2. good spirits; — pUn-jiim co s. the 
enemy's side, hostile, hostility; — co je 
T. pyogs - bye adj. foreign, belonging 
to another; — co-no T. pyogs -sna s. 
foreign, of another country, md-ro co-no 

*co-gu l.sog-bu, sug-gu s. 1. paper; co-gu 
a-fdr a sheet of paper; <!.-gu k'o a full 
uncut do.; co-gu a-gun a blank paper; — 
co-gu a-tdn thick paper, co-^m a-sap thin 
paper, co-^tm pi-t'om-bo written paper, 
manuscript, co-gu for-fom-bo sheets of 
paper pasted together; co-gu Idk vb. to 
make paper; co-^m lep i. q. co lep; — 
2. fam-blydk s. a spec, of butterfly. 

*CO-lon or so-lon T. co-lo s. dice, co- 
lon ri vb. to shake dice; co-Ion dydn vb. 
to throw dice; co-Ion kH vb. to play with 
dice; co-Ion kH-bo a gambler. 

*cok and co T. mcog advly. very, most 
M. 32 f., e. c. a-tim large, tim-co largest; 
man little, man-co least; a-ryum good, 
ryum-co best. 

*bok T. cog adj. fit, worthy, proper, 
able of, z&m cok fit for eating; lin cok 


6ok— cd 


worthy of being spoken of; von cok 
passable; dyek cok to-tsdt s. harvest. 

6ok incorr. for sok (negat.) or cdk 
q. q. cfr. 

*6on T. con s. n. of a stone, Calcedony, 
aec. Jaschke Cornelian or Sardonyx. 

6on s. a line; adj. smooth, straight, 
con kyop vb. to rule a line; to make 
straight, to smooth. 

cot vb. to act, to decide, cot-Id adv. 
certainly, cot-Id ho kd-su kor-ka a-vi-don- 
bo a-vo dyum-ha surely a bloody husband 
art thou to me Ex. 

*cot T. cod see Mt. 

cor: cor-la adv. reaching the point; 
penetrating into (as arrow etc. when 
hitting and entering the object) reaching 
the bottom as stick, when forced into 
tube; ban hyam-ka cor-ld von vb. the b. 
has gone to full into its' sheath. 

col vb. to pluck up by roots, to eradi- 
cate (as plant), to pull out entirely, to 
extract (as tooth etc.). 

*col T. 'colQ-ba to be in confusion), 
col-ld, cal-ld col-ld or cil-ld col-ld adv. 
confusedly, disorderly, col-ld nan to be 
in confusion. 

*C(5 I. T. ca, COS see ?a. 

c6 II. c6m vb. to agree, to correspond, 
to accord with, to harmonize, to be con- 
gruous, reciprocal, to be fit, to be suit- 
able; met. to agree, to be in unity. 
md co-nun-sd on a horse not adapted 
for riding; — go ho-sd md-co-num-o I can 
have no fellowship with you; — go-nun 
a-dom co-luii md-Ku-ne I cannot agree 
with you; — hu sd-ha co-bam go Id co- 
sdn gum when he is there, I will be 
with him; — go sd-ba c6-ba td-se sd-ld 
c6-sdn giim wheresoever I am, there is 
Ta-se also. P.; — co-wun-sd lyan a land 
adapted for living in; — md-c6-nun-sd 
unadapted, inconformable, inappropriate, 
unsuitable, unbefitting. — md-c6-nun-sd 
md-ro a person not fit to be associated 
with; — together, in one in comp. 
c6 da vb. to lie together; — c6-(lun) non 
to accompany; — co t'o vb. to place things 

together corresponding to eachother; — 
CO no vb. to boil together as meat and 
vegetables; man sd bi co no boil the m. 
and V. together. — 2. to take root: 
applied to seed of tree, to generate, 
copulare a-yu-sd md- com- nun do not 
have carnal connection with women; — 
a-kup CO or co nop to become pregnant 
Ex. ; l.-sd td-ayu-kiip nyum hd-nyi bo kup 
CO non thus were both the daughters of 
L. with child by their father G. 3. to 
be appropriate, to be apposite, to be 
good for, to be meet, to be propitious; 
CO lyot vb. to do anything in opposition, 
to take revenge etc. M. — in sense of 
purpose, benefit hu-ka su co U gdn 
what would be the use of speaking to 
him; — co met without cause or reason. 
— com-mun s. agreement, harmony, 
accordance, union, sympathy; peace. 

com-ld adv.: com-ld mat vb. to make 
friends, to cease hostilities, to be re- 
conciled, to be agreed in as in opinion, 
to make peace. 

a-com s. i. q. com-mun, a-com a-tun id. 
a- com a-tun go-nun a-yu kor-ka to kd-su 
a-com rem go-nun a-yum bo peace I leave 
with you, my peace I give unto you J. 

*c6 III. T. 'pya(-ba) s. taunt, re- 
proach; CO ka, CO kyop, co ton vb. to 
taunt, to reproach; co rin li vb. to remind 
one of one's fault; in L. also: rancour, 
illwill, malignity, malice, co kyop to be 
malicious; crime, fault, cometi.; md- 
ro-sd CO md-nyin-num-bo a man without 
a fault. 

*cdk T. pyag see cak. 

*fidk T. cag see cak. 

*6dn- see cak. 

*Sdn T. can L. ci see can. 

cdii s. a fine, see gye-c. and pam-c. 

cdt fr. T. brgyad see ka cot, dyo cot. 

*cdn T. ^an s. boiled grain. 

*cdp see cap. 

*6dp T. 'cab(-pa) vb. to conceal, to hide. 

*cdp T. cab (-ma) s. a buckle, ^op-IMk 
T. cab-hlag s. an ecclesiastical decoration 
of high order. ko-c6p T. bgo-^ab s. the 

cdm — Edr 

ja— jat 


buckle of waistbaiid, used by L.'s for 
a belt. 

cdm see ka-com, dyo com. 

*cdm see under ed, cfr. T. 'cam(-pa). 

*cdm 1.'cam{-pa) s. gymnastics, vb. to 
dance; com-bam-bo a dancer, a gymnast; 
com lyan s. a gymnasion; com kyop vb. 
to dance, to exercise gymnastics. 

cdr s. the pouring of water, un air-Id 
glo the noise of falling water, uii cor-ld 
lu'ii to pour out much water. 

cor-rd cor-rd adv. pouring; in torrents; 
so cor-rd c&r-rd yii rain to fall in torrents ; 
zo cor-rd cor-rd liin to spill rice in 


ja T. E the seventh letter of the L. 
alphabet ace. M. pronounced like the 
French j. 

ja, jci vb. t. to fix arrow on the string, 
to prepare to fire off; jd bii din vb. to 
prepare to fire off; jd op vb. to fix do. 
and fire. — vb. il, gerund: jam and jum, 
to sit, used generally when tired with 
burden, to sit without taking burden off, 
to rest, bii jd-ld non to go along carry- 
ing load resting it at intervals; pd-jum 
lyan jd vb. to sit in a crouched manner. 

Deriv. pd-jd, pd-jdm, pci-jum sitting 
on hams bum pd-jd. — piin-jd s. support- 
ing, resting, carrying, help, support, 
assistance, dependance; explet. to pun-top. 

(ja), sa-ja-la adv. rising up as skin 
when rubbed. 

ja-na see under jdn. 

ja-mdr-zo s. a spec, of zo (rice) q. v. M. 

jdk vb. to have remnants, to be left: 
un jdk-bam there are remains of the 
water; jdk dydn or jdk nyon vb. to fling 
away remains; jdk, a-jdk s. the remnants, 
the sediment, the debris; the dregs, the 
refuse; the finale, the close, the end, 
the last, the rear; a-jdk-bo adj. the last 
one; jdk-bo i. q. a-jdk. 

jak I. i. q. zdk vb. t. to hit the mark 
(as arrow); to reach the point: (arrow, 
bullet; speach) to be apposite, to have 
effect, to achieve, to accomplish, to ful- 
fil, to operate; to point, to indicate, to 

direct; to be pointed, to taper, to be 
conical, a-do riil Mm jdk your words 
hit him; — jd op-lihl mdk-ka jdk taking 
aim to fire and hit the target; — • ke-ci 
jdk-non the necessary business is accom- 
plished; — a-kd-nun jdk vb. to indicate 
with hand; a-kd-sd jdk-lun dim to show 
by touching with finger; lom-kun jdk s. 
a hand -post on road; a-kd jdk s. the 
forefinger; jdk byi vb. to point at; jdk 
non to be pointed conical. 

II. also jok to join, to kiss, M non-lun 
rum-sd hlo-ka hii-sd Uum-lun hum a-bon 
jdk he went and met him in the mount 
of God, and kissed him. Ex. hence a-bori 
jok a pointed mouth; — suk-jdk 1. id.; 
2. a rat Tbr.; — liik-don bou jok a large, 
long-mouthed dog. 

jak incorr. for jak (tuk-sdm mat) and 
for juk to decrease. — suk-jdk-ld advly. 
narrow in centre and large at ends, 

jan, jdn s. a rising hill, an eminence, 
a mountain M. 81; — redupl. siin-jdn-ld 
hilly, lya/i siin-jdii-ld ah. country; heaped- 
fuU s.-j.-ld cik vb. to give heaped measure; 
s.-j.-ld blydn to be heapedfull. 

jan-dor s. a spec, of mushroom. 

jat I. see jet. 

*jat n. vb. t. T. bsad^-pa) to ask, to 
desire, to wish, to demand. 

jat UI. s. a pin (large), used to pin 
up L. -cloth over shoulder; jdt-nun fyer 


jdn — jar 

jal— jak 

or jrU fyer fo to pin cloth together; jdt 
6t vb. to take out pin (out of cloth); 
jdt-sd u Tb. to take out with pin (as 
thorn); jdt-nun tsdt vb. to prick with pin. 

jcin vb. to rise up and sit down again; 
jdn jdn restless, impatient, fickle, change- 
able, variable; Jdn jdn mat vb. to be 
restless, to move up and down; tuk-cek 
jdn jdn mat to be restless. 

jan, jd-nd, jdn-nd and^ew vb. to be bad, 
to be evil; to be poor, indigent, destitute; 
Or-bo jd-nd gdn a-kup jdn-ndn-ne if the 
father be bad, the son will be bad. — Ma 
jen abuse; nym^ jen menacing; nyor jen 
fo zom a menacing diabolical aspect; td- 
gri-hu jen a venomous centipede. 

a-jdn, a-jen; jdn-bo, jdn-nd-bo adj. bad, 
evil, wicked, pernicious, indigent, sordid, 
a-jdn-nd sak-cin-bo s. a badminded man; 
a-jdn a-dyon poor, the poor; jdn-kyon-bo 
id.; jdn-bo krok-bo gan kup (zon) rich 
and poor, old and young. 

jdn-ldt s. 1. badness, evil, wickedness, 
ill; 2. poverty, indigence, distress, need, 
penury, privation, destitution. 

2. advly. temporally, a short time; li 
jd-nd zuk vb. to build a temporary house; 
jdn tet bam vb. to remain for a short 
time only. 

jdp vb. to be small enough to catch 
hold of, to be very minute, tsam md- 
jdp-nd too small to be laid hold of (said 
of a child); a-kd-nun jap md-Ku-ne can- 
not catch it, it is too small to pick up; 
kat-niin kat-mum m.d-jdp-ne the one is 
too little for the other; to pick up (poor 
relations, when one has become a great 
man); — jdp-lun dyok mat vb. to do work 
completely to a jota. — jap -bo a very 
small thing, a jot. — jdp-pd jdp-pd adv. 
drizzling, so jdp-pd jdp-pd yu to drizzle. 

j5m I. vb. to repair M. 

jam II., tiin-jdm see under jam. 

jam in., a-kd jdm tip of finger. 

jam, jdm-md adj. all, entire see jam. 

]iv: jdr-rd jdr-rd adv. flashy, showy, 
splendid, sparkling, magnificent jdr-rd 
dr-rd mat vb. to have a showy appear- 

ance, to be fine, said of tail of peacock; 
jdr-rd jdr-rd 16m vb. to walk with great 
show, to flaunt. 

jal I. see jel. 

jal II. jel vb. (cfr. T. mjal-bd) to have 
correct pronunciation M. 6, to speak 
correctly, md-jel-ne not to pronounce 
correctly, rin jel-ld li vb. to speak a 
language correctly; to speak truly, ad- 
equately, jel-ld md-jeUne impossible to 
describe; a-jdl s. correct pronunciation. 

jal III. vb. to be used to, to become 
accustomed to, to become expert; ayok 
yak md-jdl-ne to be awkward in work; 
— a-kup-re lorn jdl the child has acquir- 
ed the art of walking. 

jdl vb. to dry over fire: applied to 
sticks or split bamboos etc.; bok zu jdl 
to dry the split bamboo {bok) for torch. 

ja exclam. of irritation, disgust, .im- 
patience; ja gram or ja grdm-ld adv. 
quickly; ja Jio-ld get you gone, get away, 
tush! fie fie! 

*ja-giik corr. fr. T. Icags-kug s. a sort 
of long clasp used by women round the 
waist, a hook, a buckle. 

ja-gyu s. a large spec, of tuk-nol q. v. 

*jak I. T. Ijags hon. s. L. a-U q. v.; 
jak-cu hon. spittle saliva. 

*jak n. T. gzag(-pa) vb. to subdue by 
witchcraft, to enchant, to bewitch, to 
cause evil spirit to enter a person; jak 
tuk-sdm ydm-bo s. a wizard, a sorcerer, 
an enchanter; jak ydm-bo mun s. a priest, 
which possesses the knowledge of en- 

*jak in. T. 'jag-{pd) vb. to establish, 
to settle, to fix; tso jak vb. to colour, 
to paint. 

kd-jak a firm hold; explet. for kd-tan 
q. V. kd-jak-ld tsam vb. to grasp firmly. 

jak IV. vb. 1. to itch, to tickle, to 
titillate; md jak-kun do not tickle; but 
jak s. the itch, psora; jak-ldt s. itchiness, 

a-jak; tiik-jak s. itching; kd-sdk tuk-jak 
s. a spec, of imwholesome k.-s., which 
produces an itching when eaten. 


jam — ji 


2. to desire, to long, to lust for; num- 
lyen jak to lust after a maid. 

jan I. vb. to shirer, to tremble, to feel 
blood run cold, to shudder mu jan-ld 
nydn to feel an inward shrinking from 
cold, fear etc. mu jan-ld li vb. to feel 
blood run cold as from fear, fever etc. 
jan-nd adv. J. : troubled hu-do som-ka yu 
muk-lun mu jan-nd li he groaned in the 
spirit and was troubled. — redupl. siin- 
jan-ld adv. standing outfretted as hair, 

jan n. vb. to be close as mat, basket- 
work etc. a-fo jan {non) to be close set 
as teeth, regular, hence "to be dead" Tbr. 

jan-ld adv. fine as basket work, com- 
pactly jan-ld tset vb. to knot closely; 
tuk-pdl jan-ld kok vb. to make paling 
close; jan-ld tap vb. to place close to- 
gether; jan-ld t'ydr vb. to raddle finely, 

a-jan adj. close, compact as matting, 
baaketwork, thatch. — tun-jan s. a basket 
small at bottom and large above chiefly 
for carrying. 

jap; jap-pd jap -pa adv. quick with 
fingers, dexterous; jap-pd jap-pd tsam 
vb. to be quick in taking hold of. 

*jap T. zabs see sap; jap-ci T. zahs-pyi 
s. a foot-man, a servant. 

*jap-tsu T. 'jab-tse s. a pair of scissors, 
pincers; jap-Uu-sd tydt vb. to cut with 

jam I. vb. to dip into water, to im- 
merse; jam nydn to be dipped; un-ka 
dum jam to dip cloth into water; — gui- 
ld jam vb. to plunge under water, to 
(JiYe; — jam-byi vb. to baptize Chr. 

jam-md jam-md shallow (water); un 
jam-md jam-md da to lie deep enough 
(water) about to wet the feet.. 

a-jam s. baptism J. — tiir-jam-mo or 
tiin-jam-mo s. water, rain Tbr. t.-j.-mo 
b&n to rain Tbr. 

jam II. vb. to collect, to gather together, 
to assemble. — adj. all, altogether gun 
jam; jam-Id adv. altogether, jam-Id mat 
vb. to gather together jam-Id mat to id. 

a-jam adv. altogether, completely, see 
gyom, gydm. 

jam in., a-jam s. use, adventage; accu- 
racy, a-jam ndk vb. to examine; a-jam 
nyim-bo adj. of use, useful; a-jam md- 
nyin-nwm-bo adj. useless; — a-jam, tak- 
sik mat vb. to ascertain, a-jam tak-sik 
mat vydt vb. to ascertain by actual in- 
quiry; — a-jam mat vb. to ascertain; — 
a-jam li vb. to speak to advantage or 
to the purpose. 

*jam IV. see j6m. 

*jam-pal T. "jams-dpal n. pr. Mafijusri. 

*jam-bydn T. 'jam-dbyans n. pr. Maiiju- 
ghosa. *jam-by6n rip s. the daisy, Bellis 

*jal T. zal see se; *jal-ta-r)io see se- 

jf I. vb. to be peevish and fretful and 
cry for things, said of children; (a-kUp) 
ji gye mat hryop to fret and cry much 
for anything (as a child). 

pd-ji or piir-ji s. trouble, annoyance, 
vexation, nervousness; sak piir-ji vexation. 

jf II. (see also ?') s. sand: fat-ji; Idn 
ji grit, gravel, sand; so noil ji s. small 
flakes of snow; sd-tap ji s. small hail- 

a-ji s. small flakes or particles as of 
snow etc. 

td-ji s. 1. powder, dust, very fine par- 
ticles, flour. 2. a spec, of fern, see under 
td-jit; — 3. a spec, of kvn-dak; — 4. a 
small spec, of midge td-ji-sd uydt; — 
5. incorr. for tur-ji q. v. 

redupl. sd-ji-ld thin, fine. 

jit vb. 1. to sift as corn zo jit; 2. to 
adjudicate, rin jit-liin sem to investigate, 
to try; — a-jit s. the separating of small 
stones fr. grain zo a-jit lyet. 

id-jit i. q. td-ji 1. broken particles of 
grain, meal zo ci-ba td-i td-jit tet zuk 
when treading rice to overdo it by 
bruising the rice; son hlok non zo jil 
gdn fral-h td-jit nun-so the weather 
being very dry, the rice if it gets very 
dry, will become brittle and crumble 
into pieces; td-jit fydt vb. "to cut the 


ji— Ifk 

*jfk— *jit 

sand" Tbr.: to make water. 2. spore of 
fern: td-jit tun-kr6k. 

jf III. for jit see also dyit; ji ri-nom 
vb. to stink; dyit ji ri-nom s. a feculent 
smell; _;'/ zcik \h. to be filthy, to be con- 
taminated, to be tainted, to become 
corrupt, to be polluted, (physically and 
morally) as eating food placed for the 
dead or eating in the house of a woman, 
who has just given birth to a child. — 
ji di-so the consequences will be bad, 
said when a person would eat food, 
which has lain near where a man has 
died, under the idea that with his dying 
breath foulness entered the food. 

ji-fi i. q. fi tnuii q.v.; — ji-lut s. manure, 

ji IV. s. 1. spec, offish no ji, ji-no; tHk-ji 
id. 2. tUn-ji, sijbn-ji Picus confertifiora. 

jf v., kd-ji see kd the hand. 

*jf VI. T. gzi s. ground, cause, origin, 

*ji YII. T. Ui num. four L. fa-li. 

jf Yin. (T. spyi-brtoU) vb. to be ex- 
asperated as wasps, to be irritated, vot 
ha ji-nan the bees swarm and assault. 

*jf IX. T. 'byi(-ba to be blotted out, 
cleansed, to be purified), kiir-cin-sd kvn- 
lok zo ji zo to prepare the meal of the 
kiir-c. and the seed of the kiin-l. for 
eating by purification and expelling the 
poison in hot ashes; ji ce s. purification. 

*jf X. for je T. •rye, *ji-run T. rje-drun 
s. a learned man, a pandit. 

*jf, ji-v6r fr. T. gzir-ba adj. long, pro- 
tracted, chronic; ji-v&r-ld dak a protract- 
ed illness; ji-vdr-lun mak, ji-lun mak vb. 
to have a p. illness and die; hlet-kdk ji- 
Kn mak to die fr. a p. cough, ji-v&r-ld 
adv. harassing, see also jir. 

*ji mfn i. q. je-min. 

*ji-ten incorr. for jik-ten L. sUk-dum. 

*ji-ro T. zim-ro s. a superior sort of 
bread made with butter, a sweetmeat. 

*jfk T. 'jig(-pa) vb. to destroy, to spoil, 
to ruin, to rend, to despoil; jik-bo de- 
structive, spoiling, ruining; jik-ldt s. de- 
struction, devastation, laceration. 

a-jik s. rag as of cloth dUm-jik; splinter: 

*jfk T. gzig vb. to investigate, to con- 
sider, to judge, to adjudicate. 

*jik T. Ijid vb. to be heavy. 

*jik T. gzis{_-kd) s. one's native land, 
permanent dwelling-place, home; jih-ka 
bam to remaine at one's own home; jik- 
ka bam-bo s. an inhabitant, a permanent 
resident of a place. — jik-ld settled, per- 
manent, fixed, constant, standfast, un- 
wavering, jik-ld nyim-bo a fixed per- 
manent (thing); a steady, unwavering 
(person); a person having a home, 
prosperous, jik-ld md-nyin-rmm-bo un- 
settled, homeless, vagrant, wandering, 
wavering; nUm-vom jik-ld mat vb. to 
marry and settle down. 

*jfk-ten T. 'jig-rten i. L. the laity, in 
opp. to co-bo: jik-ten mi n6k-bo the laity; 
jik-ten-bo s. a layman; a secular. 

jin, jin-nd jin-nd showing teeth, grin- 
ning jifi-nd jin-nd li vb. to have inflamed 
face from drink; jin-nd jin-nd mat vb. 
to show teeth, to grin. 

jin see yew; i.q. dyen. sd-jin-ld adv. con- 
stantly said of crying as of child; sd-jin- 
ld hrydp vb. to cry incessantly (as child). 

*jft I. T. mjed-paf affixed to a-mik the 
eye, implies "repugnance" mik jit to hate, 
to detest, orig. to have a particle (irritat- 
ing) in the eye. M. 

jft II. vb. to be agreeable to the taste, 
palatable, to agree with; neg.: a-z6m md- 
jit-ne, ci md-jit-ne see also (at. 

jft in. see under ji. 

jit IV. s. (see ji, dyit, it) urine jitkdn 
vb. to squirt out u.; jit cit vb. to make 
water over or upon; jit-sd cit-lUn mi sdt 
to put out fire by making water upon 
it; jit cUp vb. to restrain w.; jit nam or 
nom vb. to want to make w.; jit tsiip 
vb. to have stoppage of u.; jit I6t vb. to 
make w. — jit-sim piim s. the bladder. 

*jit V. T. brjid s. lustre, splendour; 
vb. to be spangled, to glitter, sd-hor 
jit nan; Deriv. tUm-jit adj. speckled as 
fowl, hik tUm-jit. 

jfn— jin 

num-jit and nun-jit i. q. tum-jit speckled; 
bright, sparkling; num-jit hik bom lit. "the 
sparkling fowls nest" the Pleiades, dUm, 
pd-fUn-sd niim-jit hik bom Arion's belt 
and the Pleiades forming a fancied ap- 
pearance of a bow and arrow aimed at 
the fowls nest; — niim-jit nyom s. a spec, 
of the grashopper-tribe, Gryllus, see tHk- 
nyom; — niim-jit miin-fydn s. an ancient 
bard M. niim-jit nyom id. ; niim-jit nydm 
pd-son pd-li md-lyot-ne the n. priests will 
be good and true to us. 

pd-jit-ld, pHr-jit-ld, sd-jit-ld adj. spangled 
as sky or starlight-night, brilliant. 

jfn Tb. (probl. the same as jen but 
generally used to emply a slighter de- 
gree) to be mad, to be foolish; jin-bo s. 
a mad man, a fool, an idiot; jin-ldt s. 
foolishness, aberration of mind, idiotism. 

a-jin adj. mad (as dogs etc.); kd-ju 
a-jin a mad dog; md-ro a-jin a man 
affected with hydrophobia. 

(jfn) jin-ld or jin-ndjin-nd adv. twinkling 
as light, vibrating, palpitating, trembling, 
sd-hor jin-nd jin-nd si (rnat) the stars 
twinkle; j.-nd j.-nd tyii vb. to tremble, 
to palpitate, to vibrate, to twinkle. 

*jin T. sbyin, jin-dok T. sbyin-bdag (a 
benefactor) s. 1. a host, an entertainer 
of guests; 2. the settled inhabitant of a 
place, the master of a house. 

*jim-bo and jUm-bo, jUm-po s. T. sbyin- 
pa charity, gifts, blessings, favour, alms, 
j.-bo ton T. sbyin gton to give charity, 
gyiim-md 7nd-r6-mn kiir-v6n-ka hd-yu-niin 
td-si-sd ydn a-yu jUm-bo md-ton-niin m,d- 
ga-nd gdn a-yu td-lyan nan-bo a-bo lyan- 
niin da kyem fop-sdn md-nyin-ne take 
heed that ye do not your alms before 
men to be seen of them, otherwise ye 
have no reward of your father, which is 
in heaven ; — to bestow blessings ; mak- 
bo-sd jim-bo klon to give charity for the 
sake of the soul of the dead; jim-bo 
kldn-bo a charitable person, a beneficent 
person. jOm-bo ul vb. to ask for alms; 
ji/m,-bo ul-bo s. a beggar. 

jin see pUn-jin. 

jin-je bf— jfl 


jin-je bf see Un-je hi. 

jfp I. vb. to crush see jop. 

*jip II. T. 'jibQ-pa) vb. to suck. 

*jfp in., Sfp T. m s. powder; adj. fine, 

jfp IV. vb. t. to place in order, to 
arrange, to adjust, to smooth; 
to place in order. 

jfp V. s. a sort of basket for holding 
meat or fish, no jip. 

(jfm), a-jfm s. the rent of a house, wages 
or the payment for doing work; a-jim 
hi bo vb. to give rent or the payment 
of labour; a-jim lyo vb. to take rent or 
the payment of labour. 

jfm, pHr-jim s. the thick part of arm. 

jim- see jin. 

jfm; jim-jim flapping, rising and falling 
(from wind), sHii-mut-nun j.-j. mat to flap 
from wind; to be raised up and down, 
see kryom-ld. 

jir (also jUr) see jin, jit; jir-rd jir-rd 
or ji/r-rd jUr-rd adv. shining, glittering, 
dazzling, sparkling, lo-mi jir-rd jir-rd 
dyak nan the light shines; met. appear- 
ing applied to crops, j.-rd j.-rd hr&h 
(crops) to appear above ground; — jir-ra 
rir-rd shining, glittering, dazzling, sparkl- 
ing; jir-rd rir-rd mat nan to shine, to 

jfr i. q. ji, ji-v6r. 

jfl 1. vb. to be dried up, to be wither- 
ed ; so md-yii-nd-ha zo jil-non from want 
of rain, the crops have become withered up. 

jfl 2., a-jfl adj. fr. jil 1.? small, tender, 
young, said of birds, chickens, small 
grains or particles of rice hik-kUp a-jil; 
zo a-jil; — niim-jil id. ; — jil-kun., niim- 
jil-kun see under nd-jil-kun. 

jfl 3. and Jul vb. 1. to be insane; to 
be wild, rampant, 2. to cry incessantly, 
as child dyeh-nd jil; 3. a-bon jil to laugh 
at or to make a joke of a p. or animal 
as cat, dog, goat, lizard, when in a state 
of rabidness, in which case it is said the 
p. so-doing will be struck by lightening: 
a-bon jil gdn sd-dydr zdk-so. — jil jil vb. 
to laugh a \ittle, to smile. 



jum— jiim-bo 

jil-ld jil-ld ady. wild, furious (ad 1). 

a-jil, a-jul adj. insane, unsafe, wild, 
unmanageable; s. delusion, witchcraft T. 
yyo-fahs P. run-jil-mun n. pr. see s. t. P. 

(jil) 4., jil-ld jil-ld adv. pure, clear (as 
water, sky) jil-ld jil-ld fm. 

ju 1. (obsolete) vb. to be mild, to be 
gentle in spirit: a-lut-tun ju. 

ju 2., fd-jv, see _/«, jd, jum. 

*ju 3. T. 'ju{-ba), zu{-ba) vb. to melt, 
to dissolve, to digest as food, to distil 
ju fo vb. id.; jij, tom-bo melted, molten, 
anything digested; — laon. pur ju to burn 
a corpse, litly. to "dissipate" L. fan. 

(ju) 4., a-ju adj. extensive (as a country); 
many (as words). 

ju 5., a-ju s. a thorn, a prickle, a prong, 
any thorny plant; ju-p6k s. thorn-crown 
Chr.; ju pd-Mn-ka tap fo vb. in a hole 
fenced in with thorns P.; ju prdn pldfi- 
ka bam-re zdn like being upon thorns; 
ju tsu vb. to have thorn enter into; jii, 
tsdt vb. to be pricked with th.; ju ?> vb. 
to extract th. 

ju 6. see hik ju, mun zuk-ba hik jii, kydn 
ndk-so when propitiating evil spirit to 
divine the fate of patient by inspecting 
the state of a fowl. 

juk vb. 1. to decrease, to decline, to 
diminish, to degenerate, to deteriorate; 
jUk-ld ndn degenerated. 2. to be poor, 
without relations. 

Deriv. juk, a-jiik s. 1. small shoots, 
fresh leaves just come out, young shoots, 
applied to vegetables and flowers when 
small: buk a-jiik, bi a-jiik; rip juk young 
plants, flowers; muk jiik weeds; kun juk 
a bush, adjly. 2. being without relatives, 
oti jUk a poor and friendless child. 

Redupl. sUk-juk-ld also suk-jdk-ld adv. 
1. decreasing, taperingly; 2. friendless, 
without relatives. 

*jun-tsa T. sun and tsa s. the offering 
of melted butter, jUn-tu'd ton vb. to put 
m. b. on pile when burning dead; jUn- 
tsd ji ce ton vb. to bestow purification 
on the deceased by the oflfering of m. b. 
jup vb. to be close together, to be near 

together; jup-ld fop vb. to put close to- 
gether; jUp-ld nan vb. to be close together. 

a-jHp adj. close; a-jHp pi vb. to write 

jum 1. see jd, jd; pd-jiim jd or pd-jum 
lyan nan vb. to sit on hams, crouched 
up; jUm pd-jH-ka nan to sit on legs in 
half kneeling position. 

jum 2. vb. to shrink, to contract, to 
become shrivelled up as hand or foot, 
to become attenuated, a-kd jum ndn hand 
to be shrivelled. 

a-jiim adj. small, minute, s. particle, 
!cu jUm crumbs; mi jiim sparks, small 
pieces of live coal, min jiim a particle 

jiim 3., a-jum 1. s. distress, affliction, 
torment, a-jiim mat 1. vb. to be harrassed 
2. advly. with difficulty; a-jum mat-luu 
mak vb. to die a tedious death; a-jHm 
mat-lUn sd vb. to recover with difficulty; 
a-jUm-sd nan vb. to be in difficulty, to 
sit in thorns, adj. harrassing; tedious, 
difficult (as work), impassable, lyan jiim 
an i. place; — perplexing, unattainable 
fam jiim an unattainable object; sd-g6r 
jiim an inaccessible precipice; dyok jiim 
a difficult, an impossible work; tuk-fil 
jam a noxious poisonous ant; 2. i. q. pun- 
jiim an enemy, hostile, offensive, ob- 
noxious, baneful, jiim zdn hostile, ene- 
mied, inimical; — rivals, opponents; — 
animosity, opposition, enmity, illwill, 
malevolence, a-nyi jum zdn-d said when 
two cannot agree. 

jUm-fi mun see fi. 

Deriv. nUm-jHm s. the spirit of the 
dead; n.-j. niim-sar s. id.; n.-j. nUm-sar 
tyUp (the soul) to perish; num-jUm dyul 
vb. to examine the s. after death by 
miin. — pUn-jiim and p.-j. pUn-zom s. an 
enemy, foe, adversary P. — miin-jiim s. a 
malignant Miin, a wizard, a sorcerer, an 
enchanter, one who affects others with 
evil spirits. 

jum fyet or jam zdn fyet or jam tyot s. 
a spec. rice. 

jiim-bo see jim-bo. 

jur-ra— *juk 

(jun) a-jun — *je 


jur-ra jur-rd see jir-rd. 

Jul see jil 3. 

ju 1. Yb. t. to bring up, to maintain, 
to domesticate, to foster, to patronize; 
ju to vb. to cherish, a-li ju to to keep 
up race; a-kup fo tam-cdn-sdn ju to to 
cherish children, birds and beasts. 

jut I. <vb. t. to restore to life: I6t jut, 
as fire mi jut; person, to bring up, to 
foster as animals, to cherish as children, 
to support; — yb. n. to sustain life, to 
exist, to live not to die as wounded man 
as animal in confinement, to survive 
dak go -run M jut- so tho' he is ill, he 
will live; — jut-bo adj. i.q. a-jut 2. q. cfr. 
tam-cdn. jut-bo a tame confined animal. 

n. s. 1. large breasts or udder giving 
large quantities of milk, bik jut bun-bo 
a good milker. 2. the organs of generation, 
chiefly of beasts Tbr.: bik-sd jut; md-rd- 
sd jut pudendum viri aut mulieris Tbr. 

a-jut s. 1. support, nourishment, o-re-sd 
a-jut-ka for the s. of; 2. adj. fed, fostered, 
tame, kd-su-sd a-jut fostered by me ; tam- 
cdn a-jut domestic animals. 

fd-jut-ld, fur-jut-ld adv. : mik-gruh pd- 
jut-ld pld to shed tears. 

(ju) 2. a-ju adj. green, unripe, raw, 

ju see zu. 

*ju T. 'jug {-pa) vb.t. to put into, to fix, 
to establish, tam-ju s. contrivance, ex- 
pedience; tam-ju mat vb. to contrive, to 
find an expedient, to improvise; t.-ju 
a-gydn a miraculous contrivance, a wonder, 
a miracle. 

*ju T. bzugsQ-pd) hou. 1. to sit; ju-le 
please sit down, ju-bo s. a sitter. 2. to 
remain, to exist, to live; ku-zu zon ju- 
pu ydn m hon. (I write) praying, that 
your health is good, ju-den T. bz.-gdan, 
ju-hri T. bs.-Kri s. a kings cushion, a 
throne or couch. 

juk see j6k 2. 

*juk T. mju^ s. the end, the base, the 
fundament, the tail, the posteriors, Ice 
juk s. the end, the lowest or back seat 
for inferiors, juk-ka L.: in the end, at 

length, at last. — juk-do T. mjug-dogs s. 
the lumbar vertebra. 

(jun) a-juii s. a stalk of straw. 

*jun T. gzun s. (the middle, the best 
part), used by L.'s in s. of: government, 
national: jun-je lit. kings food: revenue, 
confiscation, jun-je non (was) confiscated 
by government M. 145. jun-sd ayok s. 
a public or national work. 

jut see ju. 

jun, a-jun adj. middling seized (man 
or animal). 

*jum T. 'dsumQ-pa') s. a smile; jum-ld 
or jum-md juni-md tydn vb. to smile; jum 
tet tydn id.; — fr. T.'dsum to wink? j.-ld 
or j.-md j.-md tyo vb. to hear a sound. M. 

jum-run or jum-ruii pyak-run ace. M. cor- 
ruption of cu ce s. Amrita, drink of the 
gods, nectar, the water of life. 

jur vb. to be split at end or mouth, 
to be broken at the end as eye of 
needle; to be split or to come loose at 
end; kun klo-wiin-sd jur-non the tree 
when felled split at the end; ryum ban 
jur-non the eye of the needle is broken; 
a-mik jur means to appear in a con- 
temptuous or ridiculous light as when 
a poor man would affect the ways and 
actions of great men. a-mik jur vb. to 
regard with disgust, disdain, contempt, 
antipathy; go-niin hum mik jur-bam I 
cannot bear the sight of him; mik jur 
mii-ld uyok md-viat-tun do not do that 
which will render you contemptuous, do 
not make a fool of yourself. 

Jul vb. to sprout (flesh, young, branch) 
to shoot out, Jul pld vb. to shoot out, 
Jul di vb. to sprout, to germinate; jul- 
lUn lin vb. to shoot out; man Jul proud 
flesh to rise (over sore). 

a-jul s. sprouts from wood or sticks 
after they have been cut; fresh sprouts 
of grass etc. rip a-jul hron det. 

■ *je 1. T. rje (cfr. tu-je) s. lord, master; 
noble, je non vb. to go into the presence 
of a great man; *je-tsun T. rje-btsun adj. 
honourable, reverend, a title of honour, 
je-tsHn-bo s. a high-priest, an abbot; je- 


"je — jen 

jen— jem 

tsun-mo s. an abtess; je-tmn da-wa T. 
rje-btsun zla-ba the honourable, the lady- 
moon; je-tsun kar-ma T. rje-btsun shar- 
ma 8. the holy stars. 

*je 2. T. rjes adv. after, afterwards, 
more; i. q. za ik-je again yet, afterwards, 
yet more; je-ba i. q. zd-ba; je luk to- 
morrow; je luk kat-ka in a day or two. 
*je 3. T. rjes s. mark, track, cak-^je 
T. pyag-rjes hon. the mark of hand, 
signature; sap-je T. zabs-rjes hon. foot- 

*je 4. T. bzes{-pa) hon. vb. to eat or 
drink sd je, ci je; to receive, to accept; 
to accept offerings, said of rum: rum-nun 
ce-bo je; je-le pray take. 

je 5. vb. to twist (as cotton for thread) 
bv a rapid friction of the hands; ki je 
to twist cotton by passing it thro' hands; 
ki la-ju-nunje to twist cotton with spindle 
(and thro' hands). 

a-je a. the twisting raw cotton-thread 
into thread. 

*je mfn T. zes min "it is not thus" i. q. 
rdn-so another, other; else, different, je- 
min md-si-nd I saw nothing else. 

*je-dak T. mje-ldag obsc.aword of abuse. 

jek 1.: Idn-jek s. a whetstone. 

jek 2. vb. n. to open out (as leaves), 

jek hron vb. to shoot up as plant. — 

a-jek affixed to a-jok q. v. a young tree 

or plant-sprout. 

(jek) 3., tiin-jek and tuk-jek s. streams 
of water, dropping from eaves; heavy 
droppings in opp. to tdk; li dap-nun so 
tuk-jek z6k rain to flow from house-top. 
jen 1. adj. bad and small so as to 
leave exposed as plants the earth; being 
without its adjunct as bow without its 
string, small so as not to reach its proper 
height as person. 

Orrjen a. the bow without the string. 
mn-jen-ld 1. bare as teeth or exposed, 
without its adjunct; s.-j.-ld tydn to grin. 
2. hard, bad as earth; 3. dwarfish as 
person. Ad m mat sun-jen-la bam-mun 
ti md-yd-ne why do you always remain 
small never growing large, sdrjen-ld and 

sd-jin-ld small or numerous pieces as $d- 
jin-ld tup or tdt vb. to cut or mince into 
very small pieces. 

jen 2. vb. 1. to found, 2. to commence, 
cfr. M. Gr. 94. Ayok jen vb. to commence 
a work; jen to vb. to begin, to commence, 
to found, to establish; jen fyd s. the com- 
mencement; dum jen fyd the c. of the 
warp of cloth. 

a-jen s. commencement. 
(jen) 3. jen-nun da Id-vo mit s. the 
goddess of all seasons, the everlasting M. 
— siin-jen-ld 1. continually, 2. tightly, 
s.-j.-ld dam; jen-nd jen: so jen-nd jen lat 
(rain) to leak much, see riin-jen, ran-jen. 
(jen) 4. jen kd-ldk: tun-jen s. a musk-rat. 
jet 1. also jdt vb. to be harrassed, 
haunted, muk-nyam-nun jet to be harrass- 
ed by ghost; repeated implies restless- 
ness as non jet lot jet going and return- 
ing; nan jet luk jet keep sitting down 
and getting up; bu jet fo jet mat to carry 
and place down again. See also jen. 

jet 2. : jet-td jet-td adv. grating (sound) 
jet-td jet-td U vb. to feel grating in mouth 
as when sand get into mouth. 

jen 1. see jen and nim-da Id-vo mit. 
*jen 2. T. gzan pron. adj. other, an- 
other; jen-sd md-dok-ne unequalled, un- 
precedented, incomparable; jen md-nyin- 
ne there is no other. 

jen 3. vb. to be troubled with evil 
spirit, to be deranged, to be mad, to be 
demented; jen-bo s. a mad man; mun 
suk-lun jen-bo nun -non an evil spirit 
having entered him he has become 
raving and mad. See also jet. 
jen 4. see jdn. 

jep i. q. cep vb. n. to be parched up; 
see also hp. — a-jep adj. withering as corn. 
jem vb. T. 'jem{-pa) s. (skill, dexterity) 
to be well or neatly done, to be fine, 
to be elegant, to be tidy; — jem-ld advly. 
tidily, neatly, finely, well etc. dyok j.-M 
mat vb. to do work neatly; jem-ld pi vb. 
to write neatly, finely; dum jem-ld hrap 
vb. to sew clothes neatly. — c. sak: sak 
jem vb. to be relieved in mind. 

jer— *jer 

jei — *jon 


a-jem s. neatness in work or anything. 

jer 1.: tuk-jer s. side of a thing; bik 
ryum-ho-sdn-sd tuk-jer-ka din (they) stood 
by the wellfavoured kine Ex. 

jer 2.: tuk-jer Idn s. talc, mica, from 
ser glass? 

jer 3.: tun-jer s. overclouded weather; 
see dyiir, td-dyur. 

*jer 4. P. zar or T. gser s. 1. gold, 
Thv.wdt-nyim-bo or mun-ga lep. — )'er tok- 
tom-bo wrought gold; jer por kyop or jer 
por Idk vb. to cast gold; jer por kydp 
(or IdK) fom-bo cast gold; jer {A vb. to 
refine gold; jer a-bon bad gold; jer a-yan 
fine gold; jer-sd golden: jer-sd td-dyu kup 
i. q. jer-mit an angel, a goddess; jer zdn 
like gold, very precious; — 2. golden 
i. e. yellow, jer vik applied to ivory 
which has turned yellow, see kdm vik. — 
3. a piece or coin of gold (money), 
jer k&m silver and gold, money P.; jer 
kat a piece of gold about 5 rupees; jer 
a-bu 1. fine gold, 2. a gold coin value 
21 rupees; jer a-mot 1. inferior gold, 
2. a gold coin of lower value. 

Comp. jer kar-vo s. a goldsmith; — 

jer kar-yo s. gilding; — jer ki s. gold 

thread; — jer ku s. an image of g., jer 

ku-sd por s. a mould for do.; — jer fun 

s. the eminent deceased; j. f. lyo-wun-sd 

sun ju-bam I am commemorating the 

history and experiences of the noble 

deceased. — jer t'am-blydk s. a spec, of 

butterfly; — jer td-i s. gold dust; — jer 

tun-kut 8. gold wire and thread, gold 

fringe; — jer tun-kr6k s. a spec, of fern, 

any of the spec. Filices, whose sore and 

sporns have a red or golden hue; — jer 

fam-bik s. applied to the Cascidae spec. 

of coleopterous insects; — jer dan s. a 

sort of vest embroidered with gold; — 

jer pun-jin s. gold-wire ; — jer piin-lyop 

s. gold sheet, leaf-gold; — jer pot lya s. 

a piece of gold set in coral; — jer bir- 

bo-li s. a b. earring set in gold; — jer 

fram s. a gold necklace; — jei' ts'dn s. 

golden colour; — jer rik s. spec.of creeper; 

— jer rip s. spec, of flower: jer rip pun-di. 

jel 1. see jdl. 

*jel 2. T. mdser(-pa) s. a wart, verruca; 
jel pld hron (w.) to grow. 

jo 1. vb. to be convenient, to accord 
with one's will, to be agreeable to, to be 
suitable, to be in accordance with; a-yu 
rin-ka lin md-jo-ne I can not express it 
well in your language. 

jo or jo di vb. to be convenient for, 
to be suitable, to come easy to, to be 
applicable; kun a-kon nyim-bo-ka hron jo 
di it is easy to climb a tree with branches ; 
ind-ro nydn-ydm-bo-ka lin jo di it is 
pleasant to speak to one who listens; 
a-do ii-mun-ren jo di fa your arrival has 
brought pleasure. — jo-di-ld adv. con- 
veniently, opportunely. 

jo jo adv. unanimously, in unison, with 
one accord, jo jo li vb. to speak all at 
once, as many people; ayok jo jo mat vb. 
to do all at once. — jo ts'dn s. a convenient 
day or time, an auspicious moment. — 
jo I6m s. convenience, accordance with 
will, pleasing, facility, suitability. 

*jo 2. T. jo s. a master, lord, jo-wa 
lord, master; jo-wo T. jo-wo s. lord; 
jo-mo T. id. lady. 

*jo 3. T. 'jo{^-bd) s. milking; jo-don 
T. bzo-don s,. a milk-pail. 
jok 1. see jdk. 

jok 2., a-jok s. 1. young feathers before 
they are well barbed; 2. a sprout fr. 
cut-down tree. 

jon 1. see jdn. adv. jon-nd jon-nd in 
a heap, a pile, tur-jon s. clouds of smoke 
flights of clouds, t.-j. klon vb. to send up 
clouds of smoke, pur-byon t.-j. din vb. 
clouds to stand in masses as on hill. 
See also byon. 

*jon 2. s. T. rdsons fortress, joh-pdn s. 
the commander of a fortress. 

(jon) 3. jon-ms s. a bucket, a large 
bowl; a bason, a pail, see nyen kyok jon 
see also don. 

*jon 1. T. gzon{-bd) to be young, jon 
ba, jon-sd fok the time of youth; jon-bo 
a. youth, a young man; jon-sdn fd-lyen 
num-lyen youths male and female. 


jon— j6k 


a-jon adj. young (animals or man). 

jon 2.:jon-ld adv. T. i'on(-pa to ascend); 
rising, pd-nol jon-ld nan vb. to kneel 
and rise as in salutation. 

jop 1., a-jop s. a marsh, a morass, a 
fen, a swamp: un jop; jop fat nok id.; 
jop fat nok da a boggy marsh; un da 
jop-ka tyan-lun mak vb. to die from 
sticking in a marsh.. 

jop 2., a-jop s. the smell of burnt 
leather or feathers a-jop ri-ndm. 

jop 3. Tb. t. 1. to depress, to indent, 
pun-jen fyii jop-tom-bo an indented iron 
pot; 2. to crush, to extort, to oppress, 
to be rapacious, a-zom jop-lun zo vb. to 
eat the bread of extortion; a-zom li-ka 
nyi tet hu jop-liin non as long as there 
was food in the house he remained and 
then departed; td-dyu-mot-kup luk-myen 
jop-lun zo vb. to take an exorbitant price 
for daughter; bik nyen jop-lun zo Tb. to 
take all the milk and leave none for 
calf; mi-sd jop-lun zo vb. to oppress sub- 
jects; jop-ld ddk vb. to have rheumatic 
pains; s. rheumatism. 

jop nanr-bo s. 1. an oppressor, a tyrant, 
2. a parasite a-zom jop-bo. jop-ldt s. 
rapacity, vampirism, oppression, tyranny, 

*jom T. 'joms {-pa to conquer, etc.) 
vb. t. to overcome a disease, n. to be well, 
to be cured, a-do dii ddk jom-non-d are 
you well of y. fever? cfr. T. nad 'joms-pa. 

jor, a-jor s. leisure, convenience. 

*]6 1. fr. T. 'jog{-pa), (pd-no') ju-den jo 
(king) to sit on throne. 

*jd 2. T. Ijags s. mode of speach, style 
of language, dialect, idiom, phraseology, 
diction, pronunciation, rin-sd jo the style 
of a language; a-rat jo Bhutiya-dialect; 
rdn j6 Lepcha-dialect. 

j6k 1. s. the remains, the last, also jdk 
vb. to pour away as remains; ci j6k vb. 
to pour away remains of ci: ci un jdk. 

jdk 2. vb. to wrangle, to dispute, to 
make altercation, disturbance, to quarrel, 
to make a noise; — jok dyu vb. to con- 
tend, to dispute, to squabble md-rd-sd 

md-dyil md-j6k-ne not to strive or contend 
with others. j6k-ydm-ho adj. disputatious 
contentious, quarrelsome, s. a noisy, 
brawling person. — j6k-kd jdk-kd advly. 
simultaneous (noise) j.-kd j.-kd hryop vb. 
many weeping together (as children); 
j.-kd j.-kd lik vb. to chirp together (as 
young birds). — reduplic. juk-kd j6k-kd 
indistinct, faint (sound) juk-kd jdk-kd tyo 
vb. to hear indistinctly. — a-j6k s. loud, 
noisy talk, disturbance, a-j6k re md-gat-ne 
I do not wish such noisy talk; a-j6k dyok 
mat vb. to promote discord. — jdk pro s. 
noise, wrangling, dispute, squabble; jdk 
pro mat vb. to dispute with noise. 

jdk-tydl s. a companion, a friend. 

jdn 1., a-jdn s. a maternal uncle, jdn 
klip maternal cousin. 

*jdn 2. T. bzens(-pd) hon. vb. to rise, to 
get up, applied to king or great man; 
pd-no ju sd jdn -bam the king sits and 
gets up. 

*jdn T. sbyon(-ba) vb. to be accustom- 
ed to, to be practised, trained, disciplined, 
to exercise (body or mind), to perform, 
to practise, jdn-{l)am)-bo adj. exercised, 
practised; vik-ldk-ka j.-b.-bo practised in 
military exercises, md jdn-num-bo in- 
experienced; jdn-la adv. by practice; — 
mak jdn s. military exercises. — jdii Idn 
or jdn do s. a slate, a stone for practising 
on, jdn Idn (or do) pi-set (or nyo-gu) a. a 
slate-pencil, jd^i sin s. a board for writ- 
ing on (lit. for exercising on). 

jdn kun s. n. of tree from the leaves of 
which a yellow dye is extracted. 

jdn gd s. Curcubita pepo. 

jdt 1. vb. to increase so as to become 
plentiful, niim-sim-nyo dyok mat gdn rum- 
niin jdt bo -so if man works God will 
give the increase. 

jdt 2. vb. to have sufficient, to last, to 
satisfy, supply, sd-dyak kat-sd zo jdt-pa 
to have sufficient food for one day; md- 
jdt-n^ not to have s. — jdt-ld adv. suf- 
ficiently, satisfyingly. 

a-jdt s. sufficiency, abundance (as of 

j6n— jdl 

nya — nya nya 


jdn, tun-jon; M-j6n i. q. M tun-jon s. 
the fringe of cloth, the ends of the warp 
after it is cut (forming a fringe). 

jdp 1. vb. n. to be flat, to be flattened, 
2. t. to squeeze flat, to crush, ho-nun 
kd-su tuk tuk jop you have crushed my 
hat, nan-liin jdp vb. to flatten by pressure. 
— suk-j6p-ld flattened, crushed, squeezed 
flat. — a-jop s. flatness, a-tyak a-j&p a 
flat head. 

*j(ip s. T. zab& (foot) means, substance, 
property, jd-p md-nyin-ne to be without 
means, to be indigent. 

jdm 1. adj. wet, rainy, said of season, 
earth etc., nam j6m s. a rainy year. 
fat jdm, un jdm a march, a swamp. 
See jop. 

*j(5m 2. also jam, jdm see under B, C 
T. 'jam(^-pa) 1. to be soft, to be fine, 
to be thin dum jdm a fine cloth, ki jdm 
fine, soft cotton; to be easy, to be yield- 
ing; 2. to be tender, gentle, sak-jdm "to 
have the mind softened"; 3. to be wearied, 
to be disgusted with. 

jom-ld adv. easily, softly. 

II. s. 1. softness, smoothness, 2. repair, 
excellence, adornment, decoration, 3. ease, 
facility, 4. ease, rest. 

III. as an affix denotes: easy fom jdm 
easily masticated. 

a-jom adj. fine (as cloth), easy (as 
work etc., a wound, sickness etc.), fine 
(as sand or a needle). 

jom-ldt s. easiness, softness. 

jom kyop vb. t. to repair, to adorn, to 
embellish, to decorate, to ornament, to 

B. jam peacefully, calmly, tranquilly, 
applied chiefly to animals, opp. gydm^ 

j. mat or j.-ld ham to live peacefully, to 
be well; adv. well, good, excellent. 

C. jdm: tiin-jdm s. gentleness, quiet- 
ness, tiin-jdm-ld mat vb. to do quietly, 
gently (without noise or roughness); tun- 
jdm-ld 16m vb. to tread gently, lightly, 
t.-j.-ld tsun vb. to pick up anything 

jdm 3.: kd-jom fingers, fan-jom toes. 

jdm 4., a-jdm s. consequence, effect, 
fruit, dyok-sd jdm the fruits of work, it 
is used also in a bad s. for effect as Id- 
yo-sd jdm the effects of sin, punishment. 

jdm 5. vb. to be overclouded as mind, 
face, kin jdm mm. 

*jdr 1. T. sbyor^-ba) vb. to join, to 
connect, to adjoin, adhere; to mix to- 
gether, to mingle, jdr din to stand close 
to or behind anything; (?■?>;) jdr vb. to 
agree together as syntax; — jdr fo vb. to 
put on, to add, pi-lat-niin cd yfik ka Id 
pi-lun a-fydk kun-ka jdr fo P. wrote a 
title and put it on the cross. J. hd-yu- 
nun . . . mdn-pdn jdr fo-liln dum-sd prdk 
they . . . wound (it) in linen clothes with 
the spices J. — jdr fdm-bo joined together; 
— jdr-mo double as cloth. 

*jdr 2. T. gcar{-ba) vb. to smooth with 
knife, to plane, jdr din id. — jdr-mo s. 
a carpenters plane. 

*jdi' 3. T. 'jor s. a hoe, a mattock, a 

jdr 4. a-jdr adj. wanting a limb, a-mik 
a-jdr one-eyed, a-(an a-jdr one-legged, 
a-kd a-jdr having but one hand. 

jdl, jdl-ld or jdl jdl adv. wide, fully, 
to its full extent; jdl-ld fdt vb. to open 
wide; a-bon j.-ld fdt to o. the mouth w. 
"to jabber, to brawl" Tbr. 


nya the eigth letter of the L. alphabet 
= T. ^ ace. M. 7. a palatal ny and sound- 
ed as nea in near. 

nya nya advly. to and fro; staggering 
(as drunken man), ci nyd nyd bup-ndn 
he has got reeling drunk. 


nyak— nyan 

nyak I., nyak vb. t. n. see nyan, to shake, 
to cause to shake, to vibrate, to oscillate, 
U nyak ham the house is shaking; hin 
nydk to shake tree; kri-bo nyak to ring 
bell; a-1yak nydk to shake head (as in 
dissent); to shake forcibly (as post etc. 
when fixed in ground to loosen it); kun 
pyil cil nydk to sh. tree forcibly fr. side 
to side in order to loosen it. — kyun 
nydk vb. to rock cradle. 

nyak n. see wyek. 

nydn vb. n. see nydk I. to move, to 
shake, to vibrate, to be loose; sun-mut- 
nun kun nydn bam the tree is shaking 
by the wind, nydn nydn advly., see also 
nyd nyd, staggering, as drunken man, 
rickety, unsteady (as thing), nydn nydn 
mat vb. to stagger, to be unsteady. 

nyin, a-nydn s. a whole head of plantains. 

nyat 1. num. cfr. T. gnyis two, nydt-bo 
the second; iiydt kon-ka, nydt-bo-ka, nydt- 
lyan-ka, nydt lom-ka secondly M. 88; nydt 
fyin twice, nydt cd two parts, double; 
nydt cd md-byi-nd so I will not give you 
double share, nydt cd-nun a-re um this 
is twice as good. 

*nyat 2. T. snyad(-pa) (to show), l.vb.n. 
to be evident, manifest; yan-ld israel-ka 
hum nydt-sdn-ka tdn a-re-nun go un-ka 
bap-tisma byi-ld lat but that he should 
be made manifest to I., therefore am I 
come baptizing with water J. — 2. vb. t. 
to show, to point out, to exhibit, to 
exemplify, to instruct, to inform, a-re 
kd-sum. nydtrtd show me this, gun-nd-sd 
tet-mo-ka nydt to be exhibited as a 
spectacle to all or warning to all; md- 
nydt-ne not to show, not to inform, nydt 
to i. q. nydt 2., nydt-f6m-bo shown ; nydt 
byi to show, a-bo-nun . . . hu-do-niin tarn 
sd-re zuk-kun-pdn gim-nd nydt byi the 
father . . . sheweth him all things that 
himself doeth J. — nydt-aim-bo s. a sight, 
a show, a spectacle, an example, an in- 
dication, information, exhibition. 

nyat see nyet, Id-vo nyet. 

nyan 1. vb. t. cans, of nan q. v. to fix, 
to institute, to establish, to place, to set 

nyan— *nya 

on, to place on (on thing or on mind), 
to devote to, to dedicate to,, to put apart 
for, nydn to vb. t. to fix, to institute, to 
appoint to, to establish, to devote to, 
hlan-kd-ka nydn fo to place it on the 
shelf; rum-ka nydn fo to dedicate to God, 
to consecrate; iin un-pun-sd luk-min vdn- 
ka nydn t'o and she laid it in the flags 
by the river's brink. Ex. 

nyan 2. vb. 1. to be doubtful of, to be 
uncertain of, to be dubious of, 2. advly. 
whether, perhaps, zdk-pu go nydn-bam 
I am doubtful whether it is correct; 
nydn lat md-nydn-nd lat go md-yd-ne 
whether he has come or not I don't know. 

*nyan 3. 1. s. T. snyan hon. i. q. L. 
a-nyor ear. 2. vb. T. nyanQ-pa) to hear, 
to listen, to attend, to pray attention, 
to mind, to regard; to permit, to endure, 
to suffer, md-nydn-ne not to listen to, 
to be unobservant of, to disregard, nydn- 
bo one who hears, obedient, regardful of, 
attentive; md-nydn-num-bo one who does 
not bestow, to be inattentive; md-rd a-dom 
on-ci mat-lun ho nydn-bam people tyran- 
nize over you and you suffer it; nydn^bu 
vb. to pray attention to, nydn biin-bo 
i. q. nydn-bo, nydn fup vb. to attend, 
hu-nun kd-su rin nydn m,d-tup-ne he 
gives no head into my words. 

nydn-ldt and a-nydn s. attention, obe- 
dience, observance. 

kd-nydn-bo a good-tempered dog. 

*nyan 4. T. snyan{-pa) adj. agreeable, 

nydm, a-nydm see nyikn. 

nyar vb. to settle or allow to settle as 
sediment in water; zo nydr(^-lun c6n) vb. 
wash the rice allowing the dirt to settle; 
to be loose, soft as earth when the season 
(rain) has rendered it fit for cultivation; 
fdt nydr pld or hron the earth has swollen; 
to dry up a bed of river by turning off 
the water into another bed. 

nyar reduplic. of nyw q. v. 

nyal see nyel. 

*nya T. nya s. a fish, see no; nya-ji 
T. nya-pyi s. mother-of-pearl; nya-ji Idn 

*nya— *nyam 

s. a pearl; nya-ji no s. an oyster; nya 
ra-bo s. a fisherman. 

*nya T. gnya s. the neck, hinder-part 
of neck, *nya-Un T. gnya-Uh s. a yoke 
for oxen. 

(nya), a-nya (JSTepalese) : a-nya mat vb. 
to oppress. M. 

*nya-nen T. my a- nan s. grief, as for 
the death of any one, mourning, sorrow, 
lamentation, nya-nen mat yb. to grieve, 
to sorrow; to be miserable, to be afflicted. 
nya-rd s. ceremony, rite, the perform- 
ance of duty or attendance upon sick, 
care, attention nya-ro mat vb. to perform 
ceremony, to attend on sick or helpless, 
nya-ro nyi-ro i. q. nya-ro. 

nyak vb. to be close, to be close to- 
gether; nyak-liin nan vb. to sit close to- 
gether; nyak-luri cap vb. to thatch closely; 
nyak-lun da vb. to lie close together; 
nyak-lun fyer vb. to plait close together 
as matting etc. 
nyak cans. fr. nah q. v. 
nyak (see nydn), nyak-ka nyak-kd adv. 
shaking, waving, wagging as tail etc., — 
nyuk-kd nyak-kd tossing (head) as in 
scorn, defiance, wading, winding, con- 
torting, a-fyak nyuk-kd nyak-kd mat vb. 
to toss head (as in defiance). 

nyak, a-nyak s. point, edge; adj. point- 
ed as knife ban nyak point of knife; 
a shoot, a young branch kun nyak; a head 
of vegetable bi nyak. 

nyak-ka adv. much, many, very, ex- 
ceedingly, highly P., nyak-kd ryu-pa it 
is exceeding good; nyak-kd dyok mat vb. 
to work excessively. 

nyan adj. full, filled with, as vessel, 
brimful, nyan fo-o fill to brim, nyan-ld 
blydn-nd-o id.; adv. fully, thoroughly, 
severely, (appl. to a beating), nyan-ld 
tyok vb. to beat brown and blue or 

nyan vb. to move, to cause to move, 
to set in motion. 

nyap, nyap-ld biik vb. to knock down 

*nyam T. bnyam(^-pa) vb. to smooth. 

nyam— nyi 


to level, to make straight, nyam-fo vb. 
to equalize, to level, as trees with the 
ground, nyam-ld hrap vb. to hew, to sew 
regularly, nyam met adj. matchless, in- 
comparable, see nyom. 

(nyam), fd-nyam applied to tobacco, 
when made up into a mass for smoking. 

*nyam and nydm T. nyayns and snyam- 
(jpa) s. mind, disposition, feeling, temper, 
nyam-go vb. to be pleased, to be glad; 
s. pleasure, joy; nyam-go mat vb. to re- 
joice; nyam-no s. delay, procrastination, 
tardiness, nyam-no mat vb. to delays to 
procrastinate, to be tardy, to be slow. 
nyom-cun s. self-deprecation, humility; 
nyom-cun nyat vb. to depreciate one'self 
to be humble, nyam ddk vb. to be 
sorrowful, to be grieved, to be unhappy. 
nyam-tidt s. state of mind, temperament, 
nyam tsat lyo vb. to adopt anothers habits. 

'■'nyam-ryek T. ska-rags s. girdle, to-ro 
lyo-liin Mi-do nyam-ryek ryek he took a 
towel, and girded himself J.; ho a-jon-ka 
td-do bot-tun nyam-ryek ryek-lun when 
thou wast young thou girdedst thyself J. 

'■'nyal T. nyal(^-ba) vb. to lie down, to 
repose; nyal-hri T. nyal-Uri s. a couch, 
a bed. 

nyf 1., nyi-m to be T. yin, neg. md- 
nyin-ne; see go, gum, kd, dyum-ba 1. to 
be a-ayit-ka sun ydn-re nyi J. 1. 1. nyi- 
md-o it is so, be it so M. 77. ho mak- 
sdn-ka nyi-md you shall die, you are a 
dead man; moriturus es. nyi-nun-d are 
there really; zd nyi what is afterwards; 
nyi-ld (see 3) or nyim-ld existing; nyim- 
Id md-nyin-ne not existing, never; nyim 
mat adv. existing, being; dya nyiyn, mat 
yan-ld a-ldn nyim md-mat-ne it was so 
before, but is not so now. — 2. to be in 
a certain place, bam nyit (he) is at house, 
for barn nyi dydt; 3. to exist: to be 
sure, to be certain, nyi-kun i. q. nyi-ld; 
nyi-ld (1.) being, existing, nyi-ld mat vb. - 
to cause to exist, to create, rum-nUn 
niim-sim-nyo nyi-ld mat God created 
mankind; (2.) surely, certainly nyi-ld 
byi-o be sure to give it to me; go nyi-ld 



nyf— *nyi 

fo-so I shall certainly get it, ho nyi-ld 
lot hi-sdn a will you assuredly return 
it?; a-lut-ha a-hrdt-ka nyi-ld mat-td-o 
obtain or make perseverance, endeavour 
with all your heart. 4. to support: nyi 
bam; a-dyan-re md-zii nyi-bam the legs 
support the body; 5. to be possible, 
duk-sd sun-re mat-Id md-nyin-ne it is not 
possible by any manner of means. 6. neg. 
to be of no account: md-nyin-ne it is 
nothing, it is of no account; without, 
fam-cdn-ka kyon-dydk md-yd-nd gdn co 
mat-md-mat md-nyin-ne he who knows 
not compassion for his beast, be he 
otherwise holy or not, it is of no account; 
m,d-nyin-nun-sa, lyan-nun pun-jum pld to 
be accounted an enemy without a cause; 
ho go li-sd md-nyin-ne not to speak of 
you or me i. e. every one else; 6. to 
exist, to be on hand, m md-nyin-ne there 
is nothing nyi md nyi 1. is or is not, 
2. every, all; et cetera nyi md nyi-pdn 
all, every one; nyi tet as much as one 
possesses; all, every, nyi tet a-lom ind- 
pld-ne all do not turn out so; nyi tet 
bo-so I will give you whatever I have; 
nyi md nyi tet till all, every; 7. to have, 
to possess, Lat. est mihi T. yod-pa c. gen. 
or dat.; c. -ka, kd-sil md-zii-ka sd-fa-ld 
nyi-dyop ddk-kvn hin (or dyi£) md-nyin-ne 
I never had a cold. c. -sd, tem-bo-sd nyi 
it belongs to the state; ho su nyi-wUn-d 
what do you possess; a-bo-sd Ka-cem, nyi- 
wiJm-re possessing his fathers will; nyim 
k6n let him have M. 47; nyi-ka in 
possession, in plenty, m,d-nyin-nun-ka in 
want, in poverty. 

nyim-bo existing, one possessing, li 
nyim-bo a householder; md-nyin-num-bo 
one not possessing. 

nyi-wun l.being,possessing, 2. existence, 
possessions ; hu-sa nyi-wim his possessions. 

nyi-dok (nyi and the T. affix pluralis 
dag? M.) all, every one, nyi-ddk-kun sak- 
cin md-dok-ne proverb signifying that all 
are not of the same mind; Lyan nyi-ddk 
nyi tet fam-cdn md-sdn-ne no place 
possesses eveiy description of animal. 

Deriv. pd-nyi affixed to pd-hu q. v. 
epidemic disease. See under nyit 3. 

nyf 2. T. nyi(-ma 1. the sun, 2. the day) 
s. day, opp. to night; *nyi-ma T. the 
sun, za nyi-ma Sunday; — nyi, nyim the 
day, nyim-re 1. s. the day, nyim-re kyop 
vb. to fix the day, 2. adj. intermittent; 
nyim-re dO. lot the day for fever to come, 
to have intermittent fever; nyim-rel-ld 
advly. daily M. 123. 

Comp. nyi nyo improper time, days in 
which no work is done, see cam and sir, 
*nyi-dd, nyin-do T. nyi and zla^-ba) sun 
and moon, the sign 5 of the so-called 
L. 'alphabet, Skt. anundsika; nyin-do kAp 
s. the point within the nyin-do. 

Dqriv. sd-nyi, siik-nyi, s.-nyim or s.- 
nyUm the day, opp. to night, sd-nyi sd- 
ron-ren pyil-ld from this day forward. 

nyf 3. cfr. T. gnyis num. two 1. post- 
pos. of dual n. of the pronom. roots 
kd-, a-, hv,-; see nyikn (only f. substantives) 
object, nyim: kd-nyim, bo give us two; 
hii-nyim byi give them two. 

2. T. gnyis: *nyi-d6p T. gnyis-Mab 
double; o-re-len a-re nyi-dop ryu this is 
twice as good as that; T. nyi-su: *nyi- 
m twenty etc. 

nyf 4., (to love) a-nyi explet. to a-go 
s. joy, pleasure; love, td-nyi explet. to 
td-dyu q. v. See also nyit. 

nyf 5. nyi-kun {nyo-knin) s. grand- 
mother, nyi-kun nyo s. great-grandmother; 
nyi-kun fi-kun s. grandmother and gr.- 
father, ancestors; nyi-kun nal s. great- 
great-grandmother, nyi-kun nal pum s. 
gr.-gr.-gr.-gTandmother. — nyi- fa s. a 
grandchild, nyi-fin s. great-grandchild, 
nyi-fit s. a gr.-gr.-grandchild, nyi-fit tek 
s. a gr.-gr.-gr. -grandchild. 

*nyi 6. T. snaf, in comp. "nose"; nyi 
dyop s. a cold, a catarrh; nyi dyop muii 
or nyi dyop a-mi s. the evil spirit of 
colds; nyi dyop zdk vb. to suffer under 
influence of nyi dyop Tnun: i. q. nyi dyop 
dak vb. to have catarrh (also s. catarrh); 
— *nyi Slip s. a nosepin in bullock's 
nose, properly corruption of T. sna-(rtsa) 

nyi-curt— *nyin 

rtsih; nyi mp pup vb. to bore hole for 
do. — nyi mp run s. running at nose as 
fr. cold, nyi mp run zok vb. to have 
r. at nose. 

nyi-cun s. a spec, of nun-lut q. v. 
nyf-toii s. land surrounded by marsh 
and infested by evil spirits. M. 
nyi-td i. q. nye-to. 

nyf fyum s. the cheek-bones, the molar- 
bones, also that part of the face; nyi 
fyv/m ron id., nyi fyuni ron pd-plu-bo high 

nyiii 1., a-nyin s. poison, T. dii^, applied 
particularly to the Aconitum ferox lUn-ji 
nyin, ace. Hooker I, 168 ,A. palmatum 
"bikh"; — applied to a plant: muk (with 
long leaves). nyin-Mn mak vb. to die by 
p., nyin-niin sot vb. to kill by p., nyin 
bid vb. to rub in p. to fix it, firmly to 
arrow after sit q. v., nyin mol vb. to have 
blood poisoned as by poisoned arrow, 
nyin sit vb. to apply p. to arrows; — in 
a moral sense a-lut nyin 1. evil passions 
of the heart, a-rok ci sd hik-ti sd mon- 
mdn sd a-re sam zo gdn a-lut nyin wine, 
eggs and pork are three forbidden things ; 
2. sorrow, grief, a-Ht nyin the heart- 
burn; sak nyin adj. distressed, grieved. 
Comp. nyin gyiit s. a young bulb of 
aconite or other poisonous bulb; nyin fol 
poison for fish extracted from the fol; 
nyin bru id. from the brii. 

a-nyin-bo adj. poisonous (as snakes). 
- *nyin 2. T. snyiii i. q. sak s. the heart, 
the mind, *nyin ji T. snyin rje s. great- 
ness of h., magnanimity, generosity; — 
nyin-d&k i.q.sam-diik sorrows of h., misery; 
— *nyin-tsum T. snyin-tsim s. satisfaction 
of mind generally in a bad s. joy felt at 
anothers misfortune; — "^nyin-ru T. snyin- 
rus s. the hearts care, diligence, endeavour, 
perseverance; nyin-ru mat vb. to make 
perseverance, to work diligently; — *nyin 
kun T. snyin bukun (-ba vb. to bury in 
the heart) to understand, to comprehend, 
s. understanding nyi?i md-kiin-ne cannot 
understand; nyi kun md-nyin-ne has no 
comprehension; — nyiii fik vb. to fix the 

nyin-rup— nyfl 


mind, advly. hearty, sincere, heartily, 
cordially, nyin fik(-lvn) dyok zuk vb. to 
do work heartily; nyin fik-sd dyen z6n s. 
an intimate friend, a sincere f. — 2. Tbr. 
semen nyin bam lyan. 

nyin-rup s. a volley as of musketry; 
nyin-rup ton or 6p vb. to fire a volley. 

nyft 1. s. Sesamum orientale T. til P. 

nyft 2. see nyi 4.; 1. expletive to fydn 
laughter: fydn nyit; 2. explet. to ddk: 
dak nyit or nyit ddk vb. to cherish great- 
ly; s. a-ddk a-nyit q. v. 

nyft 3. T. rnyid{-pa to wither) applied 
to teeth by L.'s a-fo nyit-nun fa or nyit- 
bu-nun fa (tooth) to be decayed or eaten 
by the tooth-insect. — pd-nyit (obsolete) 
s. withering, fading, dying away. 

''nyft 4. T. gnyid vb. to sleep, affixed 
to da, Am da nyit he is asleep *nyit-cdn 
T. gnyid-can adj. sleepy *nyit-ts6n T. 
gnyid-tian s. a sleeping-place. 

nyft kuii s. Indian hemlock, Abies 
dumosa M.; ace. Hooker 2, 45 '■'■gniet 
koong''' Pinus longifolia. 

nyfn see under nyi 1. 

nyfp vb. t. to bind together, to bandage, 
to tie up, a-fyak nyip vb. to tie up head 
so as to support hair; fyak nyip s. a hair- 
tie; kun-ka nyip vb. to fasten to tree. 

nyfm 1. see nyi 1, 2. 

nyfm 2. (purple, darkcoloured), Deriv. 
nixm-nyim adj. id., vi niim-nyim dark 
blood, arterial blood; vi n.-ny.-sd a-so 
the arteries, a-mik biik niim-nyim kon to 
give^ a black eye by a blow; niim-nyim 
niim-nom-bo-niin pydl-ld nydn to be com- 
pletely covered with bruises; — sd-nyim 
red colour etc. see under sd-nyim; — see 
fik-nyim sub fik, tiik-fik. 

nyir and nyiir vb. 1. to foster, to fix, 
to unite, to join together, to combine, 
la-co-sd nyir vb. to fasten with wax; 
a-hyo-nUn nyir vb. to gum together. 
2. to live together in one place (as 
people, animals, fish etc.). nyir-Mn bam 
vb. to live in one place together. 

nyfl vb. t. to fold back, to pull back 
(as skin, bark of tree) to flap backwards. 


*nyil — nyum, a-nyum 

nyur — *nye 

to draw back, so as to show behind; 
orfo nyil ih. to show teeth, as dog etc.; 
kun pi nyil vb. to pull off the bark of 

*nyil T. mnyel{-ba) vb. to be weary, 
fatigued L. fydl nyil-ld nyil-ld i.q. nydl- 
Id nyol-ld. 

nyu, nyii-t vb. t. to dye, to colour, dum 
nyu to dye cloth; tidn nyii. to dye with 
dying matter; tio nyii to dye, to colour, 
to stain; a-hyir nyii to dye red; nyii-bo 

1. coloured, dyed, 2. i. q. ny&t-bo a dyer; 
nyu-tom-ho dyed, a dyed article. 

nyuk reduplic. of nyak q. v. 

nyuii vb. to be deep, to be intricate, 
to be obstruse, as subject, learning; un 
sd-tet nyHn-nun-d how deep is the water; 
un-dd a-gyap nyiin the pond or lake is 
very deep. — nyHn-bo and a-nyHn adj. 
deep (of water) W. 60, complicated, pro- 
found, difficult; rin nyun-bo a profound 
subject, obstruse language; — nyHn-niin 
and a-nyixn s. depth, profundity; diffi- 
culty; nyiin-mm-ka Mo or a-nyHn-ka fi 
to fall into difficulty; a-nyiin-nun for to 
be released from difficulty. 

nyun, a-nyun s. a cluster as a head of 
plantain, kHr-don nyiin. 

*nyun T. snyun(-pa) vb. hon. i. q. dak 
M. 135. 

nyup i. q. nyiim: nyim two, you two, 
a-nyi nyiip you two both, you two; nyiip- 
ka byi give to both. 

nyiirn i.q. w^/m 1. pron. object. : a-nyiim 
you two, kd-nyUm us two etc. md-ro 
nyiiTn-nun zuk the two people did it. 

2. fr. nyi to be; nyiim-bo i. q. nyim-bo 
one having, possessing; 3. i. q. suk-nyiim, 
sd-nyim s. the day; nyiim-pyet s. midday. 

nyum, a-nyum s. the throat, nyiim Mr 
vb. to clear the throat; a-bon-sd nyiim 
md-for-ne does not press down the throat 
P., — the voice J. a-nyiim kin a shrill 
voice ; a-nyiim gryon-nd grydn-nd a harsh 
V. ; a-nyiim cUp vb. to be hoarse, a-nyiim 
cwp det bam to be getting hoarse v.; — 
a-nyiim bin vb. vulg. to stick in throat, 
a-nyiim bin tsiip to have v. stopped, to 

lose v.; — a-nyiim rik vb. to be in tune- 

— a-nyiim ron-nd ron-nd a deep, base v. ■ 

— a-nyiim a-ryum a good v., a-nyiim 
md-ryu-ne a bad v.; — a-nyiim ryon-nd 
ryon-nd a harsh v.; — a-nyiim vyen (the 
V.) to tremble. 

nyur also nyir vb. to growl as dog, 
tiger, a-lyii nyiir, kd-ju nyur. 

nyur i. q. nyir. 

nyul; nyiil-ld nyiil-ld floating on the 
surface of water (as oil), niim ny.-ld ny.- 
Id plyun. 

nyul reduplic. of ny6l q. v. 

nyu, a-nyu s. an aunt, also applied to 
elder sister, wife, a-nyu kiip s. nephew, 
niece, child of elder brother. 

nyu vb. 1. to direct with hand a-kd- 
niin nyu^ with eye mik-sd or mik-niin 
nyu, with head a-tyak-niin nyu, generally 
to go (opp. pa to come^ non-sdn nyu, to 
give a sign to go away. 2. to offer a 
thing and not to give, to tantalize. Mm 
md-nyu-niin do not tantalize. 

*nyu T. smyug, *nyu-kri T. smyug-gri 
s. a pen-kidfe; — nyu-krok T. smyug-Hrog 
s. a p.-h older; — nyu-gu T. smyug-gu s. 
a pen (reed p.) for writing: nyu-gu pd- 
tin; nyu-gu pUn-kop s. a quill-p.; nyu-gu 
(bon) zat vb. to split p.; nyu-gu zat-re 
or fom-bo s. the split; nyu-gu plyok vb. 
to cut the front-slice of p.; nyu-gu ban 
s. the nib, nyu-gu tydt or tin vb. to' nib 
the p., nyu-gu zuk vb. to make the n. 

nyu-bii see pd-gok-bu. 

*nyun T. id. pron. adj. little, few. 

*nyuh i. q. nyiin L. ddk: pd-no ny. bam. 

*nyuri-ne T. snyun-gnas s. the feast of 
Padmapani bcu-gcig-zal (the eleven- 
faced). M. 

nyuh-bu s. n. pr. of insect, spec, wood- 

nye 1., a-nye adv. presently, by and by; 
a-nye gdii, a-nye grdp id.; a-nye kam z6 
very shortly, in a few minutes; (a-)nye 
kdm pat id.; a-nye so-nap to-night. 

*nye 2. T. id., near, adj. and adv. 
nye to or nye tap vb. to ascribe; Comp. 
*nye-kro T. nye-grogs s. a neighbour; 

"nye— nyet 



nye-kro lyan s. neighbourhood; — *nye- 
rin T. nye-ran (near and far) s. partiality, 
nye-rin nyim-bo a partial person; nye 
rin mat vb. to show partiality, to show 
affection, favour, ''nye-ne T. nye-gnas s. 
nye-ne mat-bo-sd lyan no-o go to the place 
of (self)-subjugation. 

*nye 3. T. nyesQ-pa) 1. adj. wrong, 

noxious, 2. s. evil, calamity, 3. moral fault, 

,sin, 4. punishment; nye fo md-nyin-ne 

it is not my fault; nye-bo s. an offender, 

a criminal. 

*nye-t6 T. nyes(^-pay and rtaffs (sign) 
s. i. q. nye 3; a-re-mm mat-ba nye-to pld 
from the cause the fault arose; — m 
nye-to-mm tnak-nyi-wun-go thro' what 
evil cause did he die; nye-to hyop vb. to 
accuse; nye-to don vb. to search for cause 
of complaint, nye-to don su mat-ba dyu- 
wun-go thro' what evil cause are you 
fighting. — nye-to nyim-bo s. faulty, one 
giving cause for complaint, nye-td md- 
nyin-num-bo s. one, who gives no cause 
for grievance or of complaint. 

nye nye speaking to a baby: sleep, go 
to sleep. 

*nye-po T. gnyer-pa (s. a steward), 
gnyer-ba (to provide), one who provides 
for or takes care of, a purveyor, com- 

*nye-ts(in 'Y.gnyid-tsan s. a sleeping-place. 

nyek; nuk-nyek, num-nyek see nek, nok. 

nyek, nyak to be hollowed out, to be 
concave, mlem nyek receding face. 

nyen 1. to be fast (as colour), tso nyen-ld 
jak the colour is fast, is firmly dyed, in- 
flammatory irritation to break out on body. 

*nyen 2. T. myen(^-ba) hon. i. q. ro 
q. V. to fear, pd-no nyen bam. 

nyet 1., a-nyet s. the fibrous juncture 
of the bulb of some plants, buk nyet the 
f. juncture of some of the Dioscoreaceae. 

nyet 2. 1. vb. t. to curtail, to make 
smaller, to condense, to compress, to 
shorten; a-do mlo kdm nyet-td curtail 
your article a little; co nyet-lun pi vb. 
to abridge a book; kd-ju tuk-sim nyet 
vb. to dock the tail of a dog; to rectify. 

to reform, to alter, to correct, rin nyet- 
lUn li vb. to correct one's words; mlo 
nyet-lun fo vb. to put in order things; 
Id-vo nyet-lun fron vb. to make correct 
calculation of the month, to correct by 
intercalary days; to repent, to feel sorrow 
for sin: Id-yo sak-cin nyet; sak-cin nyet cin 
to think over again, to repent; 2. vb. n. 
to settle down as loose earth: fdt nyet 
nan; to shrink as cloth, to subside, td- 
lyd-dd-rem nyet kon-lun he caused the 
sea to go back Ex. to go backward, to 
recede hd-yu td-gum lol-ld nyet-lUn fdt- 
ka pok-non-ne they went backward and 
fell to the ground J. 

nyen 1. s. milk Tbr. : ton-tson; nyen-sd 
a-lut s. butter; — nyen no stale milk; 
nyen ju unboiled milk; nyen ham pure 
m. ; nyen dl new fresh m. ; nyen cor sour 
m.; nyen c6n s. milk and wine: the price 
of girl for wife, nyen c6n tydt vb. to 
complete the payment of bride; it is 
succeeded by the nyom tsum tap (litly. 
the interview- fee) and finally the riim 
fat the offerings to the deity completes 
the marriage ceremony; — nyen jo don 
s. the m.-pail; — nyen-dor bi s. "m.-mush- 
room" a spec, of fungus, Agaricus; — 
nyen nut bu s. the Ascaris lumbricoides; 

— nyen nut ri-nom s. the smell of m. as 
from child; — nyen pum s. the udder, 
mamma kiir-sak also kUn-don pot Tbr.; 

— nyen pot and nyen-bon s. the teat; — 
nyen-bum t'ydn or nyen-bi/m di tet fydn 
vb. to laugh immoderately; — nyen mak 
s. cream (nyen mak) kdm (cream) to 
form; — nyen yum s. the clotted curl 
that adheres to a vessel in which m. has 
been kept; — nyen tdn-(bam)-bo (a-kup) 
s. a suckling; — nyen zon-bo s. a good 
milker (cow); — nyen Idt-bo id.; — nyen 
kdm coagulated m. 

iiyen kyok vb. to churn, nyen kyok don 
s. a milk churu. — nyen cet vb. to wean, 
to ablactate; — nyen nO. vb. to suck as 
baby, calf; — nyen vyik vb. to touch up' 
the mammae; — nyen tydn vb. to suckle; 

— nyen ma vb. to conceal, to keep back 


'nyen— *nyer 

nyel — nyo 

the m., said of a cow, who when being 
milked keeps back her milk and will 
allow none to pass, but when suckling 
the calf gives it out in great abundance; 

— nyen tser Tb. to milk (co-vf); — nyen 
lydt vb. 1. to cease giving m., 2. to be 
weaned (child, calf); — nyen sok vb. to 
abstain from drinking m.; — nyen sap 
(non) m. to be dried up. 

*nyen 2. T. bsnyen(-pa) vb. to pro- 
pitiate, to reverence, *nyen-ne T. hsnyen- 
gnas s. a holyday, a fast -day. — ""nyen 
jo-mo T. bsnyen jo-mo s. a priestess, an 
ordained lady, a lady-superior, an abbess, 
*nyen jo-wo T. hsny.-jo-bo s. an ordained 
priest, a highpriest. 

*nyen 3. T. snyin(-pa) vb. to be meek, 
to be mild, to be gentle, a-bon li-ba nyen 
to be gentle of speach; nyen-bo adj. gentle, 
mild, docile, nyen-ldt s. gentleness etc. 

— to be ductile, yielding, to be facile. 
a-nyen I. adj. gentle, mild, rin a-nyen 

mild language, md-ro a-nyen a gentle 
man; 2. s. gentleness; a-nyen-sd dun byi 
vb. to inform with g. ; nyen-ld adv. gently, 

nyem 1. s. a mole, a small dark ex- 
crescence on skin. 

nyem 2. vb. to crush, to press together 
as sides of basket tun-gryon nyem; hat etc. 

*nyem-bo T. bsnan-bo in L. : s. impor- 
tunateness, pertinacity, earnestness, nyem- 
bo top vb. to be importunate, to be per- 
tinacious, nyem-bo liyu vb. to struggle, 
to attain, to strive earnestly; nyem-bo 
mat vb. 1. to be importunate, to be 
pertinacious; 2. to be earnest in. 

*nyer 1. T. nerQ-ba s. a sinking), Id-vo 
nyer the wane of the moon, l.-vo ny.-tsu 
hyop vb. to reckon the waning phasis. 

(nyer) 2. tuk-nyer and tuii-nyer s. a large 
bowl (close-plaited basketwork) for hold- 
ing the grain of chi. 

*nyer 3. T. gnyer{-ba) vb. to persist 
in, to persevere in, to be obdurately firm 
in, to take firm and persevering hold of, 
hence to take charge of, to endeavour 
to the utmost, to struggle for; kd-ju nyer 

bam the dog holds on pertinaciously; — 
nyer-lim ay ok mat vb. to work persever- 
ingly; — md-ro-ka tam-rin nyer-lun ryak 
vb. to prosecute another perseveringly; 

— to provide for, to take charge of, to 
look after; mlo bldn nyer to look after 
goods; — to do good service for great 
man, to work well for do. nyer-lun sap- 
ci su gdn a-bryan a-tim pld-so if a servant 
of great man performs good service he 
will obtain high rank, nyer-umn-sd md- 
ro a persevering, zealous person. 

nyer-bo, si nyer-bo s. a protector of 
goods, a house-keeper. 

nyer-ld adv. perseveringly etc. nyer-la 
mat vb. to exert. 

nyer-ldt s. perseverance, endeavour, 

nyel 1. fyak nyel s. the occipital sutures 
of the skull. 

nyel 2. see nydl s. the gums (of teeth). 

nyel 3. vb. to repeat anything, nyel-lun 
li vb. to speak again, nyel-lun biik to 
beat again, nyel-lun zuk vb. to perform 
again, to renew. — kiim-fal kiim-nyel s. 
repetition, see tal. 

nyo I. s. snot, tuk-nom nyo, tuk-nom 
dyit\ nyo lut vb. to pick nose; nyo-ayit 
s. snot, nyo-ayit z6n Met slippery as snot. 

nyo II. s. 1. explet. to mik; a-mik a-nyo, 
mik nyo td-at-ld or -td-at-td expr. the 
confusion of idea or being dazzled by 
the sight of numerous objects. P. — 
2. the eye of grain, zo nyo; mik nyo id. 

— 3. in nyo bu nyo bon or mur-nyo bu 
mur-nyo bon standing waters, lakes M. 139; 
a-pa pa ci a-tet nyo bu nyo bon zon sd- 
lom fdn Ku-wun-d gramercy! how can you 
drink so much chi as if all the running 
waters were gathered together. — nyo un 
s. a large expanse of water. 

nyo, a-nyo III. s. the side of a bouse, 
cornice, angular edges ; border of garment, 
hem; a-nyo tek s. the mastoidal bones; 
mh nyo s. a space, district, region. 

nyo IV. explet. to vi blood, a-vi a-nyo; 
vi-nyo-nim gyek-tom-bo-sd a-kwp one's 
own child, born of their own blood (male 

nyo— nyo 

and female); old as female or pedigree 
on female side; nyo dun vb. to tell 
pedigree on mothers side; — s. a-nyo 
a lady, a gentle woman, M. a queen 
W. 60; nyo tin lady and lord; nyo-kun 
s. a grandmother, an old lady, an ancestor 
(female); nyo-kun nyo s. a great-grand- 
mother; nyo-kun nal s. a gr.-gr.-grand- 
mother; nyo-kun pum s. a gr.-gr.-gr.- 
grandmother. nyo-kun fam-blydk s. a 
spec, butterfly. — • nyo-ld and nyol-ld adv. 
old, former, always, nyol-ld ham vb. to 
remain always in one place, nyol-ld 
bam-bo a resident (permanent). 

nyo, a-nyo Y. adj. old (said of yams 
and some other vegetables of former 
season), a-nyo fat ndn applied to vege- 
tables of f. s. that have become decayed. 

nyo VI., nyo-m, nyd-t, nyo vb. to be 
portentuous, to be ominous [mon muk 
a-ju ayek bu lat-liin tiin-hap-ka a-sap zuk 
gdn nyo-so when a pig gathers bushwood 
etc. from the jungle and makes its bed 
under the house, it is considered an un- 
fortunate auspice and the pig is killed; 
bik tvk-sim li dum-po-ka myil gdn nyo-so 
when a cow gets under a house and 
there becoming fixed twists its tail round 
the post, this likewise is considered of 
bad import and the cow is killed, zo 
bri zo-bdn buk fdn t'a gdn nyo-so when 
a person eats toasted yam after having 
eaten new rice, it is said ho will become 
deaf; a-yu a-kup-bii-bam-bo ik hu-sd a-vo 
sd-tdn tsuk man fa gdn yan hik dr-pdn 
tydm-lun mak-dydt-bo ndk gdn nyo-so if 
a pregnant woman or her husband during 
the time of pregnancy (and till 4 days 
after birth of child) eat of flesh of ani- 
mal killed by a tiger and or happen to 
see a fowl or other animal dying, it is 
said the child will die; a-yu a-kup-bii- 
bam-bo-sd a-vo on- sop \tsam gdn nyo-so 
when the husband of pregnant woman 
lays hold of a horse -bridle in which 
case it is said both wife and child will 
die; a-n&m-sd I6n gdrl nyo-so having 
carnal connexion with sister or cousin; 

nyo — nyon 


it is used generally to mean an un- 
fortunate effect, the days on which is 
not proper to work after the death of 
relative: nyo-wun-sd sd-dyak as the three 
days after death of relative etc. 

nyom-ho s. a portentuous thing or 
event; a-lom nyi gdn nyom-bo nyi-so if 
this occurs it will be a portentuous cir- 

a-nyom adj. portentuous, a-nyom sd- 
dyak same as nyo wun-sd sd-dyak the 
days in which after death the body re- 
mains in the house, the interval between 
death and burial. 

fam nyo vb. to be ominous. 

fam-nyot or fam-nyom or fam-nyot t'am- 
kot s. (pag. 27 col. I read nydt for fdt") 
an infortunate or inauspicious circum- 
stance, but fam-nyot is used for a greater 
degree of ill omen than nyom, especially 
for incest and such like; tam-nydt mat 
vb. to commit incest or any portentuous 
act; fam-nyot kiip s. a monster. 

nyo probably "large" in opp. to krdn 
q. v., nyo-bik s. a bulky cow, a hill-cow. 

*nyo-tson T. nyo-ts'oA s. commerce, 
merchandise, nyo-tion mat vb. to traffic, 
to trade. 

*nyok T. rnyogQ-pd) vb. to rub together, 
as hands when washing them a-kd nyok\ 
a-mik nyok to rub eye ; dum nyok to wash 
clothes by rubbing between hands; zo 
bi nyok to stir rice. 

nyon; nyon-nd nyon-nd rickety, ny.-nd 
ny.-nd nan vb. to be rickety. 

nyon kur kun-rah s. a spec, of mustard- 

nyot vb. to penetrate into, to be merged 
into, to assimilate with. 

nyot-td nyot-td incessantly babbling, 
nyot-td[nyot-td li vb. to speak incessantly. 

nyon vb. to be deeply rooted, a-re kun 
rik buk nyon nan these trees, creepers 
and yams lie deeply rooted. 

nyon-nd nyon-nd adv. soft, flabby, elastic, 
as fat flesh, bulbous vegetable, buk ny.- 
nd ny.-nd gum the yam is soft (bad); man 
ny.-nd ny.-nd nyi-pa the flesh is flabby. 


nyop— nyor, a-nyor 

nyor jin— nydk 

nyop; nyop-pd nyop-pd foolish, silly, 
simple, i. q. bon zon; nyop-pd nyop-pd li 
vb. to speak in a foolish manner or 
rather hardly able to speak like a dumb 
person, nyop-pd nyop-pd lorn vb. to walk 
in a foolish way, like a simpleton, nyop- 
pd nyop-pd dyok zuk yb. to do work in 
a foolish way. 

nyom, fam-nyom see under nyo VI. 
''nyoiYl T. snyem; *nyoih cun T. snyeni- 
cun (col. nyom-cun Jaschke) adj. pride- 
less, humble, kind, td-do-mum nyom cun 
mat to depreciate oneself, to be humble. 
*nyom T. snyom(;-pa) vb. to make even, 
to level, to equalize in seize or rank, 
to make uniform; gun-nd-ka nyom-lun 
hyi vh. to give to all alike; to be equal 
etc. ; a-yijL a-vo nyom-pa the wife and 
husband are equal. 
nyorrt-ho adj. an equal. 
nyom-ld adv. equally, uniformly, alike; 
nyom-ld mat vb. to make even to, to 
equalize, pd-tin-pdn nyom-ld not cut the 
sticks evenly; nyom-ld dim vb. to equi- 
librate; nyom-ld pi vb. to write even; 
nyomr-ld zuk vb. to make even; nyom-ld 
sem vb. to judge with impartiality. 

nyor vb. to increase in size as body; 
to grow, to become large, a-kup nyor 
ndn; nyor-rd nyor-rd large, strong, stout. 
nydr-rd nyor-rd adv. flabby, md-zu nydr- 
rd nyor-rd flabby flesh, tun-gryon nydr- 
rd nyor-rd basket to shake when being 
carried. (See also nyon-nd.^ — nyor-ld 
increasing in size, kun nyor-ld nun ndn 
the tree has become large. 

nyor, a-nyor s. 1. ear hon. nydn, explet. 
a-vydr; a-nyor-ka hruk vb. to be tired 
of hearing; — a-nyor-ka nydn vb. to give 
ear, to pay attention, a-nyor nydn-bo s. 
an earwitness; — a-nyor gi vb. to incline 
ear, to listen, a-nyor gi-lun fyo incline 
ears and hear; — a-nyor-nim fyo vb. to 
know by hearsay; a-nyor tyom-bo s. an 
earwitness; — a-nyor dap vb. to shut the 
ears; — a-nyor rmn vb. to pinch the ears; 
— nyor p6n to be deaf; a-nyor p6n(-bo) 
adj. deaf; a-nyor pon t'yo-ld mat vb. to 

make the deaf to hear; a-nyor mar vb. 
to twist the ear; — a-nyor za adj. quick 
of hearing; — a-nyor zd-nd zdn-nd vydl 
vb. to prick up ears; — a-nyor vo-bam 
vb. to fancy one has heard when no one 
has called; — a-nyw sak zd vb. to be 
stunned; — a-nyor sun-zon-ld mat vb. to 
prick ear forwards as dog or fox; — 
{a-)nyor o dull of hearing. Comp. nyor- 
krdl s. an earprick; — a-nyor -pot s. 
dewlap. 2. the pan of gun-lock sd- 
dydr mi nyor. 

nyor jin or jen s. threatening, menacing, 
nyor jin (jen) rin threatening languag'e; 
nyor jin (Jen) mat vb. to menace, to 

nyol, a-nyol s. vegetables that are large 
and fine. 

nyol-la see nyo-ld under nyo. 

nyd adj. odd as number (3 or 5 etc.), 
co-nyo odd and even; a-fron nyo an odd 
number; Mom- nyo an odd shoe. 

nyd vb. to be sore, to be stiff (as body), 
to ache (from labour), uyok-nijm mat-ba 
md-zH nyo bam; to be cramped (as from 
long sitting) : nan gyap-niin mat-ren dyan 
nyo ndn. dyok a-lim zuk-ba md-zH nyd 
non-so when you do heavy work your 
limbs become stiff or sore; a-dyan nyd 
ndn the legs to become stiff as from 
long sitting. 

*nyd T. dmyal(-ba) s. hell, nyd-nun 
kye-mo mat vb. to deliver or save from 
hell; nyd tun-hdH the gulf of h.; nyd-sd 
mi h.-fire; nyd-niin dop vb. to burn in h. 

*nyd, a-nyd T. brnya(-ba to borrow) s. 
a loan; a-nyd fop vb. to receive a loan; 
a-nyd Idt-fop vb. to receive back the 
amount of 1.; — (a-)nyd byi vb. to grant 
a 1., nyd byin md-fup-ne vb. not to agree 
to lend; — (a-)ny6 lyd vb. to borrow; 
— nyd vat id. ; — nyd ul vb. to request 
a loan. 

nyd-t'6k see nydk-fdk. 

nyd-dor see tHr-nyd-dor. 

nyd-Sor vb. to overcome, to vanquish M. 

nydk vb. to twist as string, to twine, 
to ]5lait, tuk-jM nydk to twist cord, nydk 

nydk— *ny6n 

fdk s. a necklace plaited of gold or silver- 
thread or wire worn by women. 

nydk A. vb. 1. to be slow, tardy, to 
be dilatory, to delay nydk bam; 2. to be 
false, spurious, to be base as coin: kom 
nydk false money; — nyok-ho or a-nyok 
adj. 1. slow, tardy, Tbr.: a workman, 
a-nyok zdn-bo an inferior Tbr.; a-kd 
nyok-ho slow with hands; ydm-nyok-ho 
slow of comprehension; 2. false, pseudo- 
md-ro nyok-bo a f. person, an impostor; 
a-nyok a-lyok spurious counterfeit (as 
money etc.); dor-bi nyok-bo a spurious 
mushroom (not edible), nyok-ld adv. 
slowly, tardily; nyok-ld zuk vb. to work 

B. s. a-nyok s. delay, procrastination; 
(a-')ny6k mat vb. to make delay. 

nydn s. a kind of grass, used for thatch- 
ing U nyon cap. 

nydn s. a bird, some of the spec, of 
warblers, Drymorpus inornatus etc., nyon- 
fo M. Je. 2, 178. ace. W. ''nyonf Centro- 
coccyxbengalensis; "go nyong" Gopsychus 
saularis R. 217. 

*nydn T. myon{-ba) vb. to feel (said 

of body or mind) Tio so-zdn-re zon nyon 

do you feel cold; sak-ddk-re zon nyon- 

nun-d do you feel sad; — to taste, a-re 

CO sd-lom nyon-nun-d how does that tea 

taste; — to suffer from the effects of, 

la-yo nyon to suffer the effects of sins, 

to be punished, to feel remorse; hrim 

nydn to suffer punishment; ci nydn to be 

intoxicated "to suffer the effects of chi"; 

hii tdm-bo-ka ndn-bdn nydn ndn having 

gone to the feast he suffered from the 

effects i. e. became intoxicated; a-dy&t-ka 

nydn-ndn-ne he was killed in battle; mdk 

nydn to take effect on; — to happen, to 

befall, to occasion, su nydn nd nydn 

zuk-so whatever may be the consequence 

(whatever may happen) I will do; m 

nydn nd nydn ndn-so whatever will be, 

will be; — to seem, to appear, so-yii si 

zon nydn does it appear as if it would 

rain; go-nixn kydm-hydt-re zdn ruk-nyam 

mat-re zdn nydn te yo-bdn md-tsu-ne I did 

nydt — nydn 


not write it on account that it might 
appear that I was romancing. 

nydt s. a cultivated field, a field, culti- 
vation in opp. to pd-zdk jungle; nydt-sd 
a-lut or a-pdt s. the fruit or produce of 
field; nydt ti s. the upper end of £; nydt 
dan kat a f. as large as one man can 
cultivate; nydt dydr fields lying side by 
side, parallel with eachother; nydt num- 
bren s. an early crop from fields in the 
valley; nydt mi mo s. a f. after the jungle 
or forest has been burnt; nydt sd-grydm 
s. a f. where the trees are left after 
having been cut down; nydt a-fydk a 
small f.; nydt krydn s. a small watch- 
house in f. ; nydt tan s. the lower side 
of f.; nydt fok s. the crops of f.; nydt 
num-bri s. first fruits of season; nydt Mt 
s. the centre of f. — nydt cek vb. to cut 
down forest for a f.; nydt tydt vb. to 
prepare f. by cutting away trees; nydt 
pydk vb. to clean f. of rubbish; nydt fyel 
vb. to finish clearing a f.; nydt bdk vb. 
to weed cultivation; nydt mat vb. to 
cultivate land P., nydt mat-bo s. a culti- 
vator, a-bon nydt mat vb. to jabber, to 
talk nonsense Tbr.; nydt zuk vb. to 
cultivate or prepare a field; it also im- 
plies "to prosecute or pursue an object", 
to make exertion, to perform, rin nydt 
zuk to endeavour, to attain one's object 
by speach, to mediate, to advocate; kdm 
nydt zuk to trade, to merchandize. — 
nydt zuk-bo s. gardner; nydt rat or nydt 
lion vb. to clear cultivation of bushwood; 
nydt hrydk vb. to burn the felled trees 
etc. off f. ; td-lyan nydt s. 1. a large 
cultivation, 2. the service of the great, 
riim-sd td-lyan nydt i.q^. sd-tsuk Id-vo nydt, 
pd-no-sd td-lyan nydt i. q. pd-no-sd dyok. 
— dan nydt s. a field in low country; 
Mo nydt s. the hill -cultivation; sur no 
nydt s. a f. between the high and low 
cultivation, intermediate field. 

nydt, t'am-nydt see under nyo. 

*nydt T. snyad vb. to accuse, to charge, 
bi nydt to accuse, to lay a charge against. 

nydn caus. of ndn q. v. 


nydn— *nydm 

*ny(5ni— nydl 

nydn T. gnyan adj. cruel, fierce, ob- 
durate, a-lut nydn-bo adj. hard-hearted. 

nydp 1. vh. to make believe, to pretend 
to do a thing, to simulate, to counterfeit, 
zuk-Mn ny&p vb. to pretend to do; ddk- 
sdn nydp vb. to feign sickness, mak-sdn 
nydp vb. to counterfeit death. 

nydp 2. vb. to cut a tree on the side 
opposite to that on which you wish it 
to fall; kun dyap-ban nyop-lun cek tydl 
having made incisions , on the side you 
wish the tree to fall, to set to work on 
the opp. side to hew and fell it. 

a-nydp a-buk s. said in cutting trees 
when a slight side-cut is given. 

nydm 1. s. a month, the name of a m. 
as a period. The following are the order 
and names of the m.'s: dyit nyovi; ra 
nydm; mar nydm; kur-nyit ny.; kur-sdri 
ny.; fdn ny.; sdm ny.; num-tsam ny.; 
blun ny. ; nwm-kum ny. ; pur-vim ny. ; glu 
ny. M. 141. 

nydm 2., a-nydm s. a bride, also a 
daughter-in-law; nydm kldn vb. to send 
a bride to marry; nydm lyo vb. to take 
bride, to marry; — nydm-kup s. the 
daughter-in-law's younger sister, brother 
or cousin; nydm-dyen id.; nydm al s. a 
bride; nydm sek s. the price of bride; 
nydm sek tap vb. to pay do.; nydm tsum 
tap vb. to pay final price of bride, lit. 
interview after the nyen cdn tydt; nydm 
sd mydk the daughter and son-in-law, 
the bride and bridegroom. 

nydm 3., a-nydm s. a leaf, kun-nydm 

1. of tree; a-nydm tik bu vb. to get leaves, 
to sprout into leaves; a-nydm Idn (a leaf) 
to dry and change colour. 

nydm 4. tuk-nydm s. the genus Grryllus; 
num-on nydm Mantis religiosa. 

*nydm 5. T. nyams s. the mind, see 

nydm 6. caus. of ndm 1. vb. to smell, 

2. s. ulcer. See ndm. 

*nydm 7. T. nyams^-pa) vb. to be di- 
minished, grown worse, defiled, polluted 
profaned; nydm ndn reduced in circum- 

stances ; — to be separated, to come apart, 
to be divided, to be disjoined; — nydm- 
Id mat vb. to defile, to pollute; to pro- 
fane, to desecrate; riim^ka nydm-ld mat 
to blaspheme, to commit sacrilege. — 
nydm-ldt s. defilement, pollution"; pro- 
fanation, sacrilege. 

*nydm T. snyom^^fd) vb. to level, see 
nyam; L. tarn. 

nydm-rek incorr. for nam-rek. 

nydr 1. s. a caste of the Nepalese. 

nydr 2. vb. to pour from one vessel 
into another. 

nydr 3. vb. to grunt, to groan or moan 
in sleep, ho Su m,at nydr-run-d why are 
you moaning in your sleep. 

nydl 1. vb. to annoy, to plague, to 
teaze, to vex; nydl-bo adj. annoying, 
vexatious, troublesome; — nydl-ldt s. 
annoyance, trouble, vexation. 

nydl 2. vb. to be soft, bad (applied to 
iron), to be hard, troublesome to cut 
(said of wood); — to be slow, lazy, to 
be sluggish, nydl-ld nydl-ld adv. hard, 
troublesome to cut (said of wood); ^ 
nyul Id nydl-ld adv. slow, lazy, tardy, 
nyiil-ld nydl-ld Idm vb. to walk lazily; 
nydl nydl id. 

nydl nydl s. indolence, laziness, sluggish- 
ness, jiydl nydl mat vb. to be sluggish. 

nydl-bo and a-nydl adj. 1. bad, applied 
to soft, bad iron, ban nydl-bo a knife 
made of soft iron, tough, said of wood 
opp. to a-gdt: kun nydl-bo hard trouble- 
some wood; long-winded as in speach 
or running; 2. slow, sluggish, a si. person. 

*nydl 2. T. snyol{-ba) vb. to lay down; 
nydl kun applied to a dead body, a corpse; 
ny^l kun kUn-bo (lit. the prostrated tree) 

nydl 3., sd-nydl, nydl-ldn s. an anchor 
of ship P. 

nydl 4., a-nydl s. 1. the edge of bason, 
cup etc. 2. a small cooking vessel, see 

nydl bif s. a shuttle. 

nydl tun-krdk s. a spec, of fern. 

ta— ta- 

ta — tS, tt-m 


ta the ninth letter of the L. alphabet 
T. =5 = the English t. 

-t I. verbal increment (see -m, -n) 
forms nomina fr. verbal roots zdt cfr. 
T. zas fr. zo to eat T. za-ba\ with prefix 
a-, td-, tarn- etc.: a-dit fr. di to come; 
a-tit fr. ti to arrive; td-not fr. no to be 
old; tam-nyot fr. wyo to be ominous; — 
before the agens postp. -ho verbs ending 
in a vowel, assume their final c. M. 98 
dit-ho a comer fr. di to come. — II. gives 
a transitive or causative s. esply. for roots 
with i- vowel e. c. dit in hyon dit (also 
hyon dyii) from di, (see also kyon dyak 
fr. dak q. v.); nyit vb. to cherish fr. nyi 
s. love, jit vb. to sift fr. ji s. sand, kit 
vb. to seize, to hold fr. ki vb. to take; 
jut vb. to foster fr. ju id., tut vb. to wash 
fr. tii id.; — when a vb. ending in a 
vowel is succeeded by kon postp. of the 
2nd p. imp. the final is amplified^by the 
c- termination -t (or -m, -n M. 47) dit- 
kdn let him come fr. di to come. 

ta- prefix 1. with postp. -kd or -sd or 
-sd-o a third p. imp. is formed td-mat-kd 
let him do it; td-non-sd or td-non-kd let 
him or them go; td-Sor-sd-o let it be lost; 
with -sd ydn affixed to vbs. implies "for 
the purpose of" "in order" "that" as 
mlo kat md-ro-niin td-par-sd ydn a-ryam 
zuk to ornate a thing in order to induce 
a person to buy it; nikn-Um-nyo td-tdt- 
sd ydn jUm-bo ton to give alms in order 
to obtain praise of man. 2. forms nomina 
(substantive) fr. verbal roots td-klak fr. 
klak to be round, td-si fr. si; td-dam fr. 
dam, see under the following roots: kam, 
kal, kram, krydn, klak. Map, klep, klok; 

9^ i9"), 9<^^> 9W^ 9^y 9^h 9^h 9^K gron, 
gryuk; gryo{jn)\ ndl, no((); nyi; fit; nok; 
pyet; hdk, bdt, bun, boii, bydn, hyup, byum, 
bral, brum, blyon; fdl, fa, fan, fap, fur, 
fai, fut, fup, fan, fyek, fyep; tsup, tsot; 
ya; rd (rdm), rat, ram, ran, ral, rvl, rol, 

ryiim, ryon; Id, Idn, la, lap, lam, lin. Urn, 
lep, lo, lop, lydk, lyap, lyiim, lyun, lydn; 
hd, hdk, hdp (hap, hiip), hryak, hryHk, 
hlam, hlet, hid; van, vi; sd; si, M, sop; 
dn, an, i; ayii, dyot; see under tiik-, tiin-, 
tUn-, tiir-. — forms adverbs from verbal 
roots td-at-td fr. at and particles see 
under so, dydn, dya, dyo. II. reduplic. 
of roots beginning with t, f, d see under 
td, tdl, ta, tar, tal, tyd, tyol, tydl; fat, 
far, ddt, ddr, da, dar, dUr, det, dydl, 
dyixr, dydl. 

ta- prefix (cfr. ti high, great) in td-lya 
dd and td-lyan. 

-ta postp. 1. see under -d, 2. verbal 
postp. c. e: td-e of indefinite s. nun dyu 
td-e compose it M.; c. -o expresses ne- 
gation: it nyi-td-o it is not the custom 
P.; td-se a-re zon-sd si-td-o T. the like 
of whom was never seen P. ; go n6n-td-o 
I will not go. 

(ta) I. pronom. root "there": td-d, td-d, 
td-a, td-o that, that there, td-o da-bo that 
lying there; td-van thither, hither. 

ta II. an emphat. particle as go td rdn 
gum I am a L. td-lo id., ci td-h nyi 
yes, here is marua P. 

ta m. indef. particle, when affixed or 
sometimes preceding vbs. it implies: how- 
ever, notwithstanding, yet; h6 non td go 
bam-so tho' you may go I shall remain; 
ho sd-tet li go-run go mat td whatsoever 
you say notwithstanding I shall do it. 

ta, ta IV. solitary, alone: reduplic. td- 
td vb. to be solitary, to be alone, to be 
single, to be desolate; td-td-bo solitary, 
a solitary p.; a desert; td-td-ld adv. soli- 
tary; td-td-ld yan-yan-ld bam vb. to live 
quite alone. 

a-td, a-td adj. solitary, lonely, a-td-ka 
nan to sit alone; U a-td a solitary house; 
lyan a-td a lonely place; s. a desert, 
a-td-ka in the wilderness J. 

td, td-m vb. to bear, to endure, to suffer. 


^td— ta-krdk 

ta-krdk— ta-RSp 

to be able to bear, to tolerate, to Tenture, 
to dare o-re ro-wun-sd ayok go td-so 
I will venture to perform that dangerous 
duty, in cases of shame nu would be 
used not td; stin-kar td pa to be able 
to bear the pungency of the chillies; 
md-td-ne to be unable to endure, to be 
intolerable, go so-zdn md-td-ne I cannot 
stand the cold, hu-sd rin md-td-ne his 
language is intolerable, sak-cin md-td-ne 
I cannot bear the thought; ndk md-td-ne 
to hate; go hum ndk md-td-ne I cannot 
bear the sight of him, I hate him. td- 
wun-sd venturesome, endurance, daring. — 
tdm-bo adj. a-lut tdm-bo intrepid, brave. 

*t4 T. rtogs{-pa) or Itos vb. to under- 
stand, to know, to comprehend, mik-td 
or mik td T. mig-ltosf "to know from 
having seen" ''experience" to understand 
manners, to know the regulations of 
politeness and ceremonies, mik-td bo to 
give an example, a-yu-nun Id go-nun 
a-yum mat re zon zuk-Mn-ka go -nun 
a-yum mik td bo-fat for I have given you 
an example, that ye should do as I have 
done to you J. — mik-td nyim-bo s. one 
having knowledge of laws of politeness, 
conversant with the ways of court, a 
courtier, see under to. 

td-yd vb. to know. 

*td incorr. for tii T. stu, in compos. 

ta-kar adj. lustful, lascivious, ce-mo 
td-kdr a lecherous whore. 

ta-kup i. q. pd-kup q. v. 

ta-ku s. the rice that remains in mortar. 

ta-kdl s. a spec, of fern Asplenium 
esculentum, td-kdl tun-krok; t.-k. bi the 
same as vegetable. 

ta-krdi s. the Sal- tree, Shorea robusta: 
td-hrdl-kun ; td-krdl tHk-fyil s. a spec, of 
large red ant. 

ta-krf or tuk-krf kuri s. n. of tree, dan-sd 
and hlo-sd. 

ta-krdk and tun-krdk s. a fern spec. 
Pilices the general name, but each 
species having its own name, td-krdk s&r 
fydr to vb. to make matting or basket 
work after pattern of fern. 

ta-krdk or tun-krdk ta-luk s. a spec. frog. 

ta-kryup or tuk-kryiip rfk s. a spec, of 
cowitch, Mucuna (purple flower); td- 
kryup pot s. the pod, the seeds when 
cooked are eaten after having their de- 
leterious qualities washed out by soaking 
in water; td-kryiip niin-dyen a. another 
spec, of the c. ; td-kryiip miin-dyep s. a 
spec, of small -seeded Cynoglossum (?); 
tOk-kryup ban tUn-krok s. a spec, of fern; 
td-kryiip bup "incrassated with cowitch" 
a pig of fit size and fat for eating Tbr. 

ta-kryuk or tuk-kryuk s. a toad, Bufo; 
t.-kr. ban tUn-krok s. a spec, of fern; td- 
kr. mik s. a leaf Tbr. 

ta-kryul rfk s. a creeper, spec, of cowitch 
(white flower) t.-kr. pot the seed of do. 
eaten like td-kryOp-pdt. 

ta-kryok explet. to pd-zdk. 

ta-klf s. 1. bowels, entrails, guts; td- 
kli klit vb. to clean entrails by drawing 
them thro' fingers; td-kli hril 1. vb. to 
embowel; 2. s. the mucus of entrails; 
td-kli ton s. td-kli ton ddk the colic; Tbr. 
barrenness td-kli wek bowels to yearn. 
3. the string of the weights of a net 
sun-li td-kli; 4. a creeper: td-kli rik; td- 
kli (rik')-pdt sour fruit of do. used by the 
Nepali's to stain their teeth. 

ta-kliii-fo or tun-klin fo s. the wild fowl, 
jungle-fowl, tUn-klin fo bH s. a jungle- 
cock, tuii-klin-fo mot s. a jungle-hen; 
kd-hryak tUn-klin the pheasant- fowl or 
jungle-fowl; tUn-klin nydyn rik s. n. of 

ta-klun and tuh-kluii s. 1. the bottom of 
any thing (as of box etc.), rom-sd t.-kl. 
2. the private parts of man or woman. 

ta-klok s. the noise made by clucking 
tongue in mouth by drawing the tongue 
back on roof of mouth and sending it 
forcibly forwards, td-klok mat or td-klok 
tak vb. to cluck with tongue; td-klok bi 
s. dandelion, Leontodon taraxacum. 

ta-Kdk and tuk-Kdk s. a long whistle in 
relief after exertion, td-Mdk mat vb. to 
give vent to that whistle. 

ta-K^p: td-Kdp fat vb. to make a standing 

ta-Kdk— ta-gum 

ta-go — ta-gryu 


leap (forwards) as far as one can, td-Kdp 
fat tse gydn to vie with each other who 
can leap furtherst. 

ta-Kdk s. a longing after forbidden food, 
after women, td-K6k dak vb. to be affect- 
ed with such desire; t.-lL fak to have 
longing satisfied. 

ta-gdn and tuh-gan s. a hukka, td-gdn 
tdn Tb. to smoke a hukka, td-gdn p6t s. 
a cocoanut, td-gdn (pot) kun a. a cocoa- 
nut-tree; td-gdn fyak s. a chillam, td- 
gdn fyak kat md-mdk-nd pa-ka a few 
minutes ago. 

ta-gak s. a snail's shell, a shell, tuk- 
nom-sd td-gak s. the snail and shell; td- 
gak mdn s. a spec, of millet. 

ta-gap s. a spec, of flowered woven 
cloth, td-gap dum s. flowered cloth. 

ta-gum or tuii-gum s. the back, td-gum- 
ka hw vb. to carry on back. — td-gum 
uyuk vb. to turn backs to each other, as 
things or person, to travel in opp. di- 
rections. — td-gum mat or van vb. to 
turn back, used in sense of to refuse, as 
go-nun hum su yan-ld hu td-gum mat or 
van I asked him for a thing, but he 
turned his back: he refused me; td-gum 
mat md-td-ne not to be able to leave 
behind. — td-gum-ka in the absence of, 
as md-rd td-gum-ka jan li vb. to speak 
ill of one behind one's back (in his ab- 
sence); — td-gum advly. or td-gum-ka or 
td-gum-kon afterwards, after, the future; 
behind td-gum-ka ndk-kd look to the 
hereafter; hu non-nun-sd td-gum-ka after 
he was gone, td-gum-ka com 1. to leave 
behind, 2. to forsake, to depart from; 
go-nun hum td-gum-ka cdm I have left 
him behind; go -nun kd-su li-sd a-kicp 
sdn td-gum cdm md-td-ne I cannot bear 
to leave my home and children behind; 
hu td-gum-kdn ham-nyi he has remained 
behind; lyan a-gyap td-gum to ay at to 
have left a long way behind, to have 
come a long distance; td-gum ryak vb. 
to follow after, to pursue. — bad, evil, 
wicked i. opp. to kur-von q. v. Id-yo-sdn 
re zdn td-gum-kon-ka md-l6m-mun do not 

like the wicked walk in the paths of 
evil; td-gum-sd sak-cin dydn-nd un kur- 
v6n van-lun rum-ka nd-ld ndk-kd depart 
from the ways of the wicked go to God 
and meditating become righteous. 

ta-go i. q. ta-go s. a jacket. 

ta-gdn or tiin-gdh fo s. n. of a bird M. 

ta-gyo s. an evil spirit, td-gyo ddk s. a 
venereal ulcer, t.-gyo mun zdk vb. to 
have ulcers, see td-gro. 

ta-grak; fat td-grdk-fo Je. 475 "■phat- 
tagrak-pho'' s. a spec, chat Niltava mac- 

ta-grf s. a male, a man in opp. to td- 
dyu {yu) a woman; male of any animal; 
td-gri-lut-ka td-dyu sak-cin von-nun-re 
md-ryu-ne it is not the part of a manly 
man to pry into the thoughts of woman; 
td-gri kiip s. a male child P.; td-gri mim 
s. a widower; td-gri niim-vom s. a married 
man, a benedict; td-gri vdn s. a batchelor, 
an unmarried man. 

td-gri bi), s. 1. a man, 2. a centipede, 
Scolopendra, also contemptuously a vile 
person, td-gri bu. mat vb. to act obscene- 
ly, to commit sodomy; td-gri bu, jen s. a 
centipede ho td-gri-bH jen kd-ka non a 
a threatening expression: may you become 
the portion of centipedes, may you die. 

ta-gro i. q. kd-gro, ko-gro q. v. 

ta-gro and tuk-gro s. n. of an evil spirit; 
td-gro mun zdk to suffer fr. influence of 
*.-pr., now the evil sp. of gonorrhea; 
used indefinitely for evil spirits : mun-ma 
td-gro tak-pu lyan so-fat-sdn giim-o will 
be conveyed to the place of evil spirits P. 

ta-grdn or tun-grori-bu s. n. of a spec, 
of caterpillar. 

ta-gryu s. 1. the cheek, 2. the crop or 
craw of fowls, td-gryu cup hollow cheeks ; 
td-gryu tdn plump cheeks; td-gryu sap 
thin face; td-gryu sd-lyek-hyep i. q. kiir- 
ddn kur-son rosy- cheeked; td-gryu dvn 
vb. to puff out cheeks; td-gryu top vb. 
to lean cheek on hand, td-gryu sup vb. 
to swell as cheek from toothache, td-gryu 
hydl-ld hydl-ld smooth soft cheek; td-gryu 
hlep-ho contracted cheek as from illness. 


ta-gia— ta-jum 

ta-nye rik — "la-nok" 

ta-gIa or tuk-gla or tun-gla kun s. fam. 
Malvaceae and Urticaceae, etc. t.-gla 
kun hh-sd Kydia calycii^a, t.-gla k. dan- 
sd Dicellostyles jujubifolia; td-gla a-yan 
spec. Sponia. ace. Hooker 1, 315 "tukla" 
Rottlera tinctoria. 

ta-glah or tuk-glan or tun-gldn-kun s. 
n. of a tree, Eugenia jambolana. 

ta-glo, tuk-glo s. a spec. frog. 

ta-gldt s. a small spec, of lizard; Tbr.: 

ta-nak s. a spec, of small cicada. 

ta-nram or tuk-nram kun s. a spec, of 
soap-wort; t.-nr. dor s. a spec, boletus. 

ta-nrem or tuk-nrem or tuii-nrem kun 
s. a spec, of tree. 

ta-jf, tuk-ji or tiin-ji 1. a tree: t.-ji kun 
or sun-ji kun s. a tree bearing small 
spec, of fig, Ficus confertiflora, tun-ji 
pot the fruit of do., small but edible, 
tun-ji sd-gok kun a different spec, of the 
same ficus, the fruit a little larger than 
the P. confertiflora: Ficus conglomerata, 
tun-ji pd-yd kun another spec, of the 
Ficus tree, leaves a little smaller than 
the F. confertiflora; td-ji mik tap s. a very 
young head of maize when grain is just 
forming td-ji sd-dydt mik tap id.; see 
pd-fyu m. f.; tun-bol hop m. (. 2. a spec, 
of flsh no-tun-ji i. q. no-ji; 3. tun-ji pur- 
ayam s. a shrew mole; 4. td-ji-fo, tur-ji- 
fo, tdr-ji-fo s. crimsonwinged laughing 
thrush Trochalopteron phoenicium; ace. 
W. (K. 211) 'Har-zhi" Tr. subunicolor, 
Tr. squamatum, Tr. nigrimentum Hho 
t.-zM" Tr. affine. cfr. also Je. 2, 48 
^Hil-ji-pho" Trochalopteron phoenicium 
and td-mol fo. 

ta-jum and tuh-jum s. a spec, of wagtail 
(blackfaced) t.-j.-fo Motacilla luzoniensis, 
and may be applied to other species; 
t.-j. fd-lyu s. ace. M. Je. 2, 218 id., ace. 
W. (R. 219) M. leucopsis: white -facied 
wagtail; — t.-j. mlyd tet so yii moderate 
rdin just sufficient to efface the footprints 
of the M. — tun-jum nyok s. a plant; 
t.-j. mun dyep and t.-j. dyok rik s. a spec, 
of creeper, Dieentra thalactrifolia. 

ta-nye rik s. a spec, of Mucuna (a creeper), 
M. macrocarpa. 

ta-do (see da) pron. one's self, one's 
own M. 44. td-do fdn one's own will; 
td-do zon one's own people; td-do mya- 
nun zuk zo to live by one's own talents; 
td-do s6t-liin mak to die by one's own 
hands, to commit suicide; td-do vun-ho 
mat-lun lyan vun-re zdn si thro' one's 
own turning round the country seems 
to turn round; td-do mat md-cin-ne to 
think of no one but one's self, to be 
selfish; — td-do bdt-tUn of one's own 
accord or self, td-do bot-tun a-cum cin 
vb. to think meanly of one's self, td-do 
bdt-tUn I6t Mn vb. to reproach one's self. 
— td-do td-do each one's own. td-do 
fdii td-do nyim-bo-ld 7nd-nyin-ne not to 
be master of one's own wishes; td-do 
duk td-do mat vb. to be the author of 
one's own troubles. — td-do kd-ta-mH, 
by one's self, alone, singly. — td-do-sd gen. 
td-do-sd sak-cin-nUn thro' one's own re- 
flection, of one's own accord. — td-do-ka 
dat. td-do-ka md-nyin-nd Tnat vb. to ab- 
negate ourself; td-do-ka sak-cin bam vb. 
to be selfish; td-do-ka dyep mat li vb. to 
scold one's self; td-do-ka a-cum mat li 
vb. to speak humbly of one's self; td- 
do-ka a-tim mat li vb. to boast. — td- 
do-nun instr., td-do-nun mat-ba thro' one's 
self, by one's own fault. — td-dom object., 
td-dom li vb. to speak to one's self. 

ta-dyufi s. the ventricle of stomach; td- 
dyvn tim-bo one of great capacity for 
eating or otherwise. td-dyun-kUp i. q. t.-d. 
pUn-di diim sdr; td-dyun cot third stomach 
of ruminating animals; t.-d. piin-di dum 
sdr 2. the second stomach of do.; t.-d. 
pum the junction of gullet and first 
stomach; t.-do mo the chief or first 
stomach of ruminating animals. 

ta-dyol an exclam. of fear or when 
startled o ta-dyol. 

ta-no explet. to td-ayH, and td-sit\. 

"ta-nok" ace. Vf. ta-nok s. a bird, a 
spec, snipe, Gallinago nemoricola R. 209. 
See also under td-hi and nok. 

''ta-pa— ta-mydii 

ta-tson— ta-lf 


*ta-pa or td-po (T. stod-pa praising, ex- 
tolling) also td-bo s. praise, commendation. 
td-pa or td-po or td-bo mat vt. to praise, 
to commend J. go-nun hum td-bo mat-so 
I will exalt him Ex. 

ta-jiu or to-pu i. q. tuk-cim s. a measure 
of about 1 lb. 

ta-fu s. a spec, of creeper, Pothos de- 
cursiva, used with the aconite to in- 
tensify the activity of the poison also 
after boiling used sometimes as a basis 
for chi. 

ta-fuk s. the abdomen, the lower part 
of stomach, td-fuk kd-ydt i. q. td-dt Tbr. 

ta-fur s. a spec, of beetle, ayit td-fur 
Scarabaea coprophaga. 

ta-fyep s. 1. a spec, gourd, a ladle, 
2. a spec, bird, ace. W. con td-fyep 
Suthora unicolor and Scaeorhynchus rufi- 
ceps R. 210, acc.M. and Je. 2, 14 Gampso- 
rhynchus rufulus. 

*ta-bo i. q. td-pa. 

ta-bon ace. W. "ta-bon: sok ta-bon" s. 
a spec, of bird, Conostoma oemodium 
R. 210. 

ta-b6h s. a spec, of water-plant M. 

ta-brik: un td-brik s. a spec, of bird, the 
"brik brik" calling water-eater W. R. 206. 

ta-mak, td-7nok, tuk-vfidk, tiin-mdk-fo etc. 
s. a spec, bird, quail ace. W. '■HimoK^ 
Turnix plumbipes R. 208; ace. Je. 3, 597 
T. ocellatus. 

ta-ma s. a spec, of midge M., sd-aydt- 

ta-mft see dd-mit. 

ta-mo s. a path Tbr.; td-mo td-li id.; 
mun td-mo ten a confined, haunted road. 

ta-mok i. q. td-mdk. 

ia-mol-fo and tum-mol-fo s. applied to 
several specc. of laughing thrush Garrulax 
caerulatus, Trochalopteron subunicolor, 
T. sqamatum. M. Je. 2, 14. 

ta-mdr s. 1. -fo a spec, of bird, night- 
jar, Caprimulgus indicus Je. 192, R. 205. 

2. -tam-blyok s. a spec, of butterfly. 

3. -zo s. a spec, rice, see tuk-mor. 
ta-mydn incorr. for tam-yon q. v.; td- 

myon kup s. a cat Tbr. 

ta-tson s. a spec, of waterplant M. 

ta-zdii pron.? the same? P. 

ta-yak see td-ryok. 

ta-rak num. T. drug six, td-rdk-bo the 

ta-raii s. a silvan spirit, the presiding 
genius of forests fi-kun td-ran nyi-kun 
nd-ran the forest-lord and lady. 

ta-rik tek-fo s. a spec, of redstart, Ruti- 
cilla, ace. W. "sm tik tik" R. frontalis 
R. 217, ace. Je. 2, 141. '■Hak-tirri-n-phd" 
id.; Hho ka-li ik-tik" ace. W. R. schisti- 
ceps R. 217. 

ta-riii-gin-fo s. a spec, of bird, ace. W. 
^'■tw-ring-ging'" Yuhinanigrimentum R. 21 3, 
ace. Je. 2, 259 "turring-ging pho" Ixulus 

ta-rek-bu s. 1. a spec, of earthworm 
(small), opp. pd-dun-bu large earthworm; 
td-rek tuk-sol s. worms and lumbrici; ho 
td-rek tuk-sol nun-nd-d may you become 
as the worms (a malediction) also applied 
with ban q. v. 2. obsc. Tbr. penis. 

ta-rel s. 1. the lower part of outside- 
wall of house li td-rel. 2. a spec, cicada: 
pon td-rel. 

ta-rd 1. s. i. q. to-rd a napkin, 2. s. the 
two side-beams of a loom. 

ta-rdl rik s. n. of a creeper, Spatholobus 

ta-ryak and ta-ryal see td-rek, td-rel. 

ta-ryan gi s. a prawn, a shrimp, td-ryan 
gi fok vb. the shell of do. 

la-ryok-fo s. the blue-horned pheasant, 
the monaul, Ceriornis satyra R. 208; Je. 
3, 516; ryu-lat-re td-ryok-fo zon provly. 
goodness equal to the t. M. 

ta-ryon: sun-kar t.-r. the round birds- 
eye capsicum; td-ryon round? 

ta-rydk ta-yak-fo s. rufous-bellied fairy 
blue chat, Mltava sundara. 

ta-rydn dor s. a spec, of tree -fungus 
(edible), perhaps the same as tiir-nyon; 
td-ryon dor-bi. 

ta-la see under td-hi. 

ta-lin s. td-lin fo a spec, of bird, 
Graucalus macei R. 215; Je. 417. 

ta-lf 1. s. a waistcloth, undercoat. 


ta-lf— ta-lyan 


ta-lf 2. I. s. a shovel, a spoon; td-li 
pd-h6n-ld a percolated spoon; td-U-sd ok 
(zo) \h. to eat with sp.; td-li kdl vb. 
litly. to insert a spoon into; to have a 
stitch in side as from running Tbr. 
II. an oar; P. nd-var td-li-nun md-Kun- 
niin a ship, which cannot be propelled 
by oars. — td-li dor s. a tree-fungus 

ta-lf 3. explet. to tok q. v. 

ta-luk s. a frog, the common water- 
spec, td-luk fak s. a dried frog for eat- 
ing, td-luk fak-re zon like a dried frog 
a person very thin and dried up. td-Uk 
td-lydk s. "like patches of frog" small 
patches as of cultivation, pools of water; 
td-luk td-lydk gun da small patches of 
void or barren places. — td-liik tup s. 
"humerus of frog" a plant, spec, of 
Ophiorrhiza Tbr. 

ta-lu s. a mat, ci hryot td-lu a mat on 
which chi is spread out to cool; td-lu 
Ml vb. to roll mat, s. a roll of matting; 
td-lu fydr vb. to work m.; td-lu fydl s. 
the finishing of m.; td-lu a-sor plaited 
matting; td-lu fi a small m. for sitting 
on; a piece of matting; td-lu ml a long 
m.; td-lu um a short, a small m. 

ta-lo see under td II. 

ta-lo, ta-io-la accidentally, see under sak. 

ta-ldn incorr. f. tdr-lon. 

ta-ldm s. the name of place on banks 
of the rii-mom; td-lom-mo s. the inhabi- 
tants of that place, 2. a cow Tbr. M. 131. 

ta-lya s. the joists of floor li td-lyd; 
t.-l.-sd tUn-krom s. the joists and flooring; 
t.-l. ndk upper smooth joists over which 
flooring is placed. 

ta-lya or ta-lya da s. the water under 
earth, opp. to mvr-nyo the waters upon 
the earth; J. Buddh. Text Soc. 4, Ap- 
pendix 5. td-lyd sUn-vo s. the vast deeps, 
t.-l. s.-vo ^uk-kun pldm-bo-wo o thou who 
proceeds from the bowels of the earth. 

ta-lya i. q. td-lyo q. v. 

ta-lyaii s. "the high place", the sky, 
the firmament, the heavens; atmosphere, 
td-lyan kor s. the expanse of heaven 

td-lyan kor piip fat den tin (whose ma- 
jesty) covers the expanse of heaven and 
overspreads the earthly tabernacle (a 
flattering speach to great men); td-lydn- 
nun md-ziX md-nydt-ne a-rin tyo (^Td-se) 
hears the prayers tho' his person be not 
manifest; td-lyan fo a-sdm un no a-sam 
zdn innocent as the birds of the air and 
the fishes of the sea; td-lyan-sd fyek s. 
the confines, the end of heaven?; td-lyan 
sap s. the surface of sky, space of above 
the clouds; td-lyan sdp-ka lam to fly high 
in the air; in P. i. q. T. mMa-gro Skt. 
khecara, ddkka, ddkini; — the state of 
weather, td-lyan nydt-bo s. a barometer; 

— td-lyan mlem s. the face of the sky; 
td-lyan mlem-ydm-bo s. an astrologer; — 
td-lyan tsat the weather, state of atmo- 
sphere, td-lyan tsat ndk-bo a meteorologist, 
t.-l. ts. ndk-sd co a book on meteorology; 

— td-lyan lut s. the state of atmosphere 
or the atmosphere itself, td-lyan Mt 
fyak-bo a meteorologist, a weatherwise; 
t.-l. lut nydt-bo a barometer. — td-lyan 
lom s. the state of sky, the weather, the 
appearance of the heavens, astrology, 
td-lyan I6m ndk vb. to look towards the 
sky, to consider the state of weather; 
td-lyan so s. rain-water, the weather, 
td-lyan so-ka dydm md-nyin-ne there is 
no judging of the weather; td-lyan so yu 
to rain; — td-lyan mo s. the sun Tbr., 
td-lyan mo zdk vb. to have stroke of the 
sun. — td-lyan mun s. the evil spirit of 
the air (heavens), td-lyan mun zdk vb. 
to be struck by the sun, sunstroke, moon- 
stroke. — 2. above ground, kd-nydn sd 
la-biik td-lyan pld hron-non the young 
sprouts of turnips and radishes have 
appeared above ground, see td-lyon; — 
3. high, noble, important like the heavens, 
universal, free, great, td-lyan zdn; td-lyan 
nydt see nyot, s. 1. an extensive culti- 
vation; 2. the service of the great; 3. a 
great work, the works of nature, nature 
(itself), sd-tsuk Id-vo-sd td-lyan nydt to 
diin Ku te who can enumerate all the 
numerous requirements of state? riim-sd 

ta-lyaii bu— ta-son 

td-lyan nyot s. the service of God, also 
the wonders, the wonderful works of G. 
Chr.; a-liit td-lyan dok to, be great of 
mind, noble, magnanimous. 

ta-lyan bu s. a spec, of blind worm: it 
is said to convey itself into the tails of 
cows to render them brittle. 

ta-lyam s. a spec, of wasp. 

ta-lyo s. a spec, of yellow wasp i. q. 

ta-lyoii s. the young blades, which appear 
above ground, of corn, rice. See juk. 

ta-lydn s. porch, td-lyon fd-no nyim-bo 
having five porches J. 

tS'^dn i. q. td-bon q. y. 

ta-hf s. a crab, Telphusa Hooker II, 7, 
a cancer; td-hi-(sa) (a-')g6n the claw of 
a crab; td-hi run-gdn id.; td-hi run-gdh- 
ka pyit-non "to be caught in claws of 
crab" means to have fallen in difficulty, 
got into work where there is no ending 
Tbr. td-hi z6n 16m vb. to walk like a 
crab; td-hi fo zal muk s. n. of plant; td- 
hi fok s. the shell of a crab ; td-hi pHl- 
dyon ffiuk s. n. of plant; td-hi fon s. a 
piece of cloth worn on privities; td-hi 
nydm s. scald-head. — td-nok td-hi s. a 
spec, of black crab; td-la td-hi s. a spec, 
of red crab. 

ta-hu s. a spec, of grain, two specc. : 
td-hii nok and dum M. 

ta-hril, tHk-hril, tUn-hril-kun s. a tree 
t.-hr. kun-mo s. a spec, of Rhus? t.-hr. 
kun klip or nyok s. Clausena Wildenovii. 

ta-hryum, tHk-hryUm s. (see hryiik, td- 
hryuli) name of very small fish, said to 
swim towards you if whistled to; t.-hr. 
muk or hru s. a plant used as poison 
for fish; t.-hr. hdk tet mydn to be partly 
cooked to about the size of the stomach 
of t.-hr.; td-hryUm dor s. a spec, of 
boletus (edible) td-hryum sdk ndk-bo s. 
applied to several specc. of the family 
of Distylidae. M. 

ta-siii blu ace. W. '■'■ta-sing blii" n. pr. 
of a mountain W. 65. 

la-son ace. W. '■Ha-song" s. a bird, robin, 
Janthia indica R. 217. 

ta-s6 fo— tak, tdk 


ta-sd fo s. applied to several of the tit 
species e. c. the black tit Lophophanes 
beavani R. 210 (ace. Je. "Afo ta-so"), the 
yellow-faced crested tit, Machlolophus 
xanthogenys M. also a spec, flowerpecker, 
Melanochlora sultanea R. 213. 

*ta-Si T. bkrd-sis Skt. mahgala, *td-si 
ku-yi gum-bo s. n. of a bird, Sitta formosa 
R. 214. "td-si on be-u" ace. W. "■tashi-on- 
bdu" the glorious bau, Chrysolaptes sulta- 
neus: a spec, woodpecker R. 206; a-ce. 
M. td-se wom-bo fo CHtishi-warm-bo-pho" 
J. 281) id. 

ta-Sin (or tUn-sin) td-no dd s. the name 
of a lake in nun-ydn the land of the de- 
parted spirits ; the lake of life and death. 

ta-Se L. n. of Padmasambhava, T. pad- 
ma- byun-gnds or u-rgyan pad-ma, see 
A. Waddell, Buddhism in Tibet 24—32, 
379—884, 542, Gazetteer of Sikhim 244ff. ; 
Graham Sandberg, Handbook of colloquial 
Tibetan 201 ff.; Koppen H, 68 ff., Schlag- 
intweit. Buddhism 67 ff.; td-se tuk-bo (in 
id. T. slob-dpon padma 'byun-gnas Skt. 
mahdcdrya padmasambhava; td-se- nv,n 
rirni ayit niim-sim-nyo ayit lyan dyit un 
uyit gvtn-pda dyit T. created good spirits, 
man, the earth, the water, he created 
every thing; td-se bon-mdt s. litly. the 
mustache of T. n. of spec, of grass. — 
td-se sun s. Ta-se's history, see T'oung- 
Pao, Leiden 1896, 526 ff. 

See also under td-si. 

ta-ut s. n. of a bird. Pitta nepalensis 
R. 220; acc.M. td-dyut-fo i. q. kHr-dydt-fo. 

ta-dl-fo s. the grey-sided thrush M. ace. 
Je. 2, 40 "ol-pho" Garrulax moniliger, 
2, 39 G. leucolophus. 

tak, tak I. s. what comes first, the first, 
the summit, adj. immediate; lik-ba tak 
(am-bo-re ryu when called the first, who 
answers, he is good; li tak tit-bo-re the 
first house you reach. — tdk-ld adv. prompt- 
ly, immediately, at once, tdk-ld non vb. 
to go at once; tdk-kd tdk-kd id., tdk-kd 
tdk-kd li i. q. md-don-nd mat li vb. to 
speak promptly; tak-kd tdk-kd or tHk-kd 
tdk-kd or tuk-tdk-ld or tUn-tdk-ld adv. 


tak— *tan 

tan-kii— *tdn 

quickly; nn tuk-tdk-ld lyot U vb. to answer 

tSk 11. see under tap. 

iiV. ni. tdk tdk onom. picking as bird 
hik tdk tdk zo. 

tak-t4 kun s. n. of tree, Heynea trijuga. 

tak-tsak s. a spec, of reed-grass; t.-ts. 
tsdn an arrow made of this reed. 

*tak-tsu T. tok-tse s. a hoe, a mattock, 
tdk-tsw kryok vb. to hoe, to dig with 
mattock, tdh-tsii lun s. the eye of hoe. 

tan emph. all [T. dan?^ zum-lun tan dar- 
mit a collection of all the goddesses M. 

t^n, a-tin s. a large, corpulent male, 
applied chiefly to pigs, dogs and cats, 
mdn tdn s. a large boar cfr. gu. 

tan vb. to he thick as anything (cloth, 
paper etc.); to be plump, a-tdn adj. 

1. thick (as cloth, plants, board etc.), li- 
mp tan thick thatch. 2. often, frequently. 

tan, a-tan s. the roe of male fish; the 
milt; the sperma genitale of all small 
animals as snakes, insects, birds of every 

tan, a-tafi s. (ace. M. fr. T. dm a pro- 
fundity, an abyss) all country below the 
source of springs or rivers sd-lol-ld un 
kon non a-tdn U; waterflow, the increase 
of rivers as they flow un ti a-tdn lo-ld 
non; un-kyon tdn or uh tan the course 
of the stream P.; the lower direction 
nyot tdn the lower end of field in hills. 

tdn-dek s. 1. the bottomless pit (L. 
myth.) the regions below td-lyd dd; tdn- 
dek sd-hor Jit nan-bo Tbr.: the pa-zdk 
yam (buF); — tdn-dek hik-hv, s. the cock, 
that fought with miir-nyo-bH the serpent, 
who leads the running streams from td- 
lyd dd; tdn-dek hik-bH-sd tyak s. a spec, 
of ground-fungus; tdn-dek hik-bii dor s. 
a spec, of mushroom (not edible); tdn-dek 
hik-bv, rip s. the pitcher-plant, Ascidium; 

2. Remusatia vivipara. 

*tan adj. void, empty, incorr.for ton q.v. 

*tan num. thousand, inoorr. f. ton q.v. 

*tah vb. fr. T. gton{-ba^?: td-bon tdn 
vb. to have confidence in; a-liit tdn vb. 
to trust in. 

tan-ku i. q. tom-ku q. v. 

tan-klin s. ace. W. '■Hang-kling'" s. Gallus 
ferugineus. R. 208. 

*tan-gok see tdn-gdk s. a gown worn 
by priests. 

taii-glu i. q. tun-ghi. 

tan-tin s. a sort of small gong; tdn-tin 
buk vb. to beat a small g., tdn-tin vyaii 
ace. W. '■'■tong-ting vyang' s. Cuculus 
striatus R. 207. 

tan-tek s. a cup formed of bamboo. 

tan-ddt s. pride, tdn-ddt mat vb. to be 

tan-den s. an inferior priest P. 

tan-pum s. ace. W. "-tang-puTrC a spec, 
owlet Glaucidium cuculoides R. 205. 

tan-bo see z6 ron-mo tdn-bo. 

tan-vit s. n. of insect, t.-v. bik. 

tan-§ini s. ace. W. '■Hong-zhim" a spec, 
tree-pipit, Anthus maculatus R. 219. 

*tdt T. stod(-pa) vb. t. to praise, to 
compliment, to laud, to flatter; tdt-tuu-sd 
rin s. complimentary language. 

a-tdt s. complimentary phrases, flattery, 
rin a-tdt flattering language, a-tdt mat 
vb. to compliment, to flatter. 

tdt: tdt-td tdt-td and tdt-td tdt adv. 
tdt-td tdt li vb. to have an astringent taste. 

tat tak-tak ace. W. 'Hat-t. t" i. q. fat 
td-grak-fo Je. 475 a spec, fairy blue chat 
Niltava macgregorii (R. 216). 

tan vb. to shrink, as cloth etc. dum 
tdn non. 

*tcin also tiin esply. in comp., T. don 
1. sense, meaning, signification, tdn pap 
byi vb. to explain the meaning, to inter- 
pret; tdn mat vb. to comprehend, tdn 
mat-td-o know, understand; — 2. cause, 
reason, motive; tdn ndk vb. to regard 
the motive; tdn si vb. to perceive the 
motive; tdn a-re-niin on this account, 
for this reason; — 3. use, profit, see tdn 
ddk, tdn met T. don med without a cause, 
insignificant, useless; hd-yum rin tdn met 
nydn md-kon-niin-o let them not regard 
vain words. Ex. — 4. claim, title, pre- 
tension; kd-su-ka m tdn-ld md-nyin-ne 
you have no claim on me. 

*tan— *tdn 

Comp. *tdn-cen T. don-can significant, 
rational, tdn-cen-nun by reason of, pur- 
posely; *tdn-cen T. don-cen, fdn-cen-Tiun 

1. with great object of reason, tdn-cen- 
nun mat-ba on account of important 
matter; 2. advly. especially; tdn-nyim-bo 
adj. 1. significant, rational, reasonable, 

2. useful, profitable, tdn md-nyin-nvn-(ha) 
without meaning, causeless, tdn md-nyin- 
nun-sd rin s. nonsense; — *tdn-ddk T. don- 
dag s. motive, object, sake, account, tdn- 
ddk(-ka) also tun-ddk(-ka) advly. on 
account of, for the sake of, a-do tdn- 
dok-ka for your cause, for your sake; 
a-do pon tdn-ddk-ka for your advantage; 
su tdn-ddk-ka for what object, purpose, 
why, wherefore; m tdn-dok-nitn id.; to 
tdn-ddk-ka for whose sake, on whose 
account; tdn-ddk nyim-bo adj. possessing 
an object, useful, td-do tdn-ddk kd-ta 
sak-cin nyim-bo a selfish person; to-ld do 
do-sd tdn-ddk-ka rum ka-yu gun-nd-sd 
tdn-ddk-ka every man for himself God 
for us all; tdn-ddk ndk vb. to perceive 
the motive; tdn-ddk mat vb. to assist, to 
benefit, to help, tdn-ddk li or tdn li or 
tdn-tdm li vb. to speak in earnest; tdn-ddk 
md-nyin-ne without any object, useless. 

tdn to vb. to learn by experience, to 
obtain knowledge or experience by suffer- 
ings, M tdn to-non he has gained ex- 
perience by his sufferings; tdn-to tdn-ti 
id. ; tdn-to tdn-ti-wun-sd Ke-bo one having 
gained experience by his sufferings, tdn 
to-ld i. q. ko nyi-ld mat-td under- 
stand, know; a-re den-tsuk yuk-pdn-nim 
md-rd to-ld tdn to-ld mat-td-o or ko nyi-ld 
mat-td-o know all men by these presents. 

*tcin T. ston{-mo) s. the same as tdm- 
bo, but the Lepcha's use tdm-bo for joy- 
ful occasions, whereas tdii they use for 
"funeral feast"; tdn mat vb. to give a 
funeral feast. 

*tdn possbly. T. ston(-pa) vb. to show; 
cet tdn 1. vb. to put forth i. e. to show 
strength; 2. s. power, might, virtue; riim- 
sd cet tdn the power of God, cet tdn-lvi'i 
uyok mat to do work with vigour. 

*ian-gak— tar, tdr 


'^tdn-gak T. stod-gag s. a priests officiat- 
ing garment. 

tap see tap. 

tap vb. 1. to sip very little, to take a 
small sip; 2. to touch very lightly (as 
with finger), to support anything lightly; 
3. also to set, to catch water which drops 
or flows very lightly; tdp-fo i. q. tdk-(o 
i. q. tsdk-fo to catch water when it flows 

tap see (un) tndr ti tdp-fo ace. W. 
mdr ti tap "the buttercapped" a spec, 
redstart. R. 217. 

tam, a-tdm adj. occasional, a-tdm a-tdm 
adv. occasionally; a-tdm a-tdm non to go 

*tam-bo T. ston-mo s. a banquet, a feast, 
entertainment, J. tdm-bo sd-dyak or sd- 
nyum s. a feast-day, a festival day, t.-bo 
kydp vb. to hold a festivity, to entertain, 
see tdn. 

tar, tcir also tur 1. vb. to support i. q. 
top. — piin-tdr s. a prop, a support. 

2. *tdr T. dar (-ba to be propagated, 
diffused) a) to prosper, to prosper in 
business, to increase (family), to flourish, 
to succeed dyok-ka tdr to prosper in 
business; num-lyen fd-lyen tdr-non young- 
people to grow up and thrive, b) to 
excel, to be preeminent; kat-sd ka tdr 
one to excel or to be superior to the 

tdr-nyon s. brightness, splendour. 

*tdr-l6n T. dar-rlans s. luminous rarifled 
vapour that rises from damp ground, when 
rarifled by sun's rays; the red rays of 
rising or setting sun; — expletive to 
tdr-bu q. v. 

tdr-bdn and tixr-boh s. the glittering of 
the sun's ray's on water, t.-b. lyop the 
rays to glitter (move) on the surface of 

tdr-TH&m and tHr-mom s. fog, haze, 
t.-m. rut haze to gather together, to over- 
spread the land. 

pmi-tdr s. 1. shoots, sprouts po pun- 
tdr shoots of bamboo, 2. prospering, 
prosperity, success. 


tar— ia 

*ta— tak 

tar i. q. tdr-bum s. a small sort of b^U, 
larger than tar-ji a small kind of bell 
worn as ornament, t.-j. rya s. a string 
of *.-/ bells worn as ornament. 

tar-bu see tur-bu s. 

tal, td-tdl see td-tal under ta. 

tdl vb. 1. to take away or off as pot 
off fire; 2. to dismiss (from presence), 
to discharge (from service), to send away. 

-ta see under -a. 

ta 1. adv. above there, up there; — 
ta-d (or tor), to-a, ta-t'an, ta-ba id. M. 73. 
— ta-re there above; ta-re re the one 
there above. — ta-lem kon above there, 
in that direction. — ta-lon kon in the 
direction there above. — ta-lom as it is 
there above. 

tal (fr. ta-ld) adv. up, above; tal din 
myil nan to stand up and sit down; t. d. 
m. n. md-nyin-ne means to have no means 
whatsoever (nothing to stand on), tal 
van 1. q. tal-ld van. 

tal- Id adv. up, above, kd-ti-sd tal-ld 
upwards of ten; tal-ld riim-lyan-ka in 
heaven above; tal-ld ndk vb. to look up- 
wards, to aspire; tal-ld din vb. to stand 
up; tal-ld mat vb. to exalt, to lift up, 
tn.-nun lyan a-td-ka bu-rem tal-ld mat re 
zon as M. lifted up the serpent in the 
wilderness J. tal-ld myil-ld above and 
below, (little and great etc.), tal-ld md- 
krok-ne myil-ld md-jdn-ne neither to be 
very good or very bad, tal-ld ndk td-lyan 
myil(^-la) ndk fdt consider the things of 
heaven above and the earth beneath, 
said also when one is lost in amazement 
or totally unable to comprehend having 
tried every, and cannot find it out; tal- 
ld myil-ld cin-bo s. one who considers a 
thing in all its bearings. — tal-ld van adv. 
upwards, tal-ld van ndk vb. to look up- 
wards, tal-ld tyok vb. to fling upwards. — 
tal-ld tal-ld high above, upwards, tal-ld 
tal-ld non vb. to go upwards, to proceed in 
an explored direction, to improve ; see tul. 

redupl. td-ta-bo adj. td-ta-ld adv. having 
large head or top as person or thing, 
high, high up. 

*ta T. rta s. a horse, ta-ka a h.-shoe; 
ta-c6k T. rta-lcag s. a horse-whip, a whip; 
ta-mel s. id.; ta-pdn T.rta-dpon s. a groom, 
a horsekeeper; ta-cd s. horse's food, grain. 

*ta T. rtags, see also td, s. a sign, a 
token, a characteristic mark. *ta-kd 
T. rtags-skyes (a child of shame) s. "a 
woman's token", a bastard; pun-ron 
mdn-ka ta-kd fo-fat-md-o the blowfly has 
laid its maggots ("bastards") in the meat. 

*ta-go fr. T. stod and gos? a. a jacket, 
jerkin, ta-go kon s. the collar of do.; 
ta-go 6t vb. to take off do., ta-go suk 
vb. to put on do. 

*ta-gy6n for da-gyon T. mda-rgyah s. a 
bow-shot-distance, used also by Lepcha's 
for "gun-shot-distance". 

ta-pyet i. q. tak-pyet. 

*ta-bdk T. ta-bag s. a plate, a platter, 
a dish. 

*ta-zik, ta-zuk T. sta-gzig, ta-zig n. pr. 
Persia, a Persian, ta-zik-bo or ta-zik-mo 
s. a Persian. M. 

ta-zd s. a crown? M. 

ta-rd s. a towel, napkin, see to-ro. 

*ta-le la-ma T. ta-ldi bla-ma; ta-le la- 
ma kun s. the palm-tree, Livistona ro- 
tundifolia, also Licuala peltata, ace. M. 
fr. Skt. tdla. 

*ta-Iok T. lta~log s. opposition, as to 
authority, insurrection, rebellion, ta-hk 
mat vb. to rise in opp. to an authority, 
to oppose, to rebel. 

ta-wa ace. W. "ta-wa" brown, hlo ta-wa 
s. n. pr. of a bird, Nucifraga hemispila 
R. 210. 

*ta-WO cdk T. Ita-bu Icdg "after the 
manner of a whip" caustic, sarcastic, 
malicious, malevolent, t.-wo cdk mat vb. 
to be malicious, to prosecute, to harrass. 

tak I. s. 1. a spot, tak-kd adv. spotted, 
sur-vo-niin tak-kd kat mat to make one 
spot with charcoal; — tak-kd tak-kd spotted 
as leopard, anything; tak-kd tak-kd lydp 
vb. to be bespattered with spots, as of 
mud etc. — tiik-kd tak-kd spotted, here 
and there, tuk-kd tak-kd diim a spotted 
cloth, tuk-kd tak-kd md-zu-ka pld spots 

*tak— *tat 

to come out on body; so tiik-kd tak-kd yu 
rain fall in drops. — pur-tak-ld variegat- 
ed, spotted, as tiger etc. 

2. the sound of tak; vmk-po-nun a-bon- 
ka tak tak mat the owl claps its jaws 
together. — tak-ka tak-ka the sound of 
tak tak; tak-ka td-kd id.; a-fo tak-ka td- 
kd mat vb. to make such a sound with 
teeth; tak-ka tak-ka zok vb. to fall in 
drops (as blood etc.). 

*tak n. T. brtag{-pa) vb. t. to examine, 
investigate, see also tok. *tak-pyet l.brtag- 
dpyed s. investigation, tak-pyet mat vb. to 
investigate, to examine; generally pro- 
nounced: ta-pyet. — *tak-sik T. brtag sig 
(an examining or a thing examined or 
proved) correct, accurate, definite; tak- 
sik kat a definite positive thing, tak-sik 
kat md-fyo-nd tydt go md-ndn-nd so until 
I hear something definite or positive I 
will not go ; t.-s. mat vb. to be accurate. 
tak ni., tuk-tak-kd adv. right thro', 
t.-t.-kd tydt vb. to cut right through. 

tan vb. to bind together, as separate 
articles, to fasten together, zo cet tan vb. 
to bind sheaf, rip tan 1. vb. to bind 
flowers together, 2. s. a nosegay. 

a-tan s. a bundle of wood, canes etc., 
kd-tan (see kd, kd) a handful. — sd-tan- 
Id adv. puffed out, as stomach. 

taii-ko s. a plate of worked pd-li q. v., 
finely plaited basket-work. 

taii-kd s. appetite, tan-kd luk vb. to 
have appetite; tan-kd cet vb. to lose 
appetite; t.-ko md-nyin-ne to have no a. 
*tan-tse T. sfew-? s. an overdress. 
*tari-tSan T. dan-tsan s. pureness, 
soundness, purity, salubrity, tan-tsan li 
vb. to feel well; t.-tn. tson vb. 1. to be 
in good, perfect health, 2. to be fine, as 
weather, clean, clear. 

*tat 1. T. gtod{-pa) vb. t. to give, to 
entrust, to commit to, or to be entrusted 
with, tat Aydt adj. entrusted with; tat byi 
vb. to give into charge, to trust, a-bo- 
nun a-kwp-rem go-lun fam gun-nd hu kd- 
ka tat byi the father loveth the son, and 
has given all things into his hand J. — 

tat— *tam 


to expose, to betray, su go yo gdii M- 
nun hu-do-mUm tat-byi-mm-bo-rem (yak 
tan ... for he knew who should betray 
him J. — tat byin md-Jcun-ne cannot 
trust him. 

tat 2., a-tat adj. notched, cut in notches 
like a saw. 

tat 3., a-tat i. q. tet, a-tet or tyet, a-tyet 
etc., KH tat to the utmost of one's ability. 

tan 1. vb. to be short, small, tan-Id 
adv. shortly, briefly, tan-Id U vb. to speak 
briefly, concisely; to be too small, td-go 
tan-non the jacket has become too short. 

— tan-Id zuk i. q. tan byi vb. to shorten. 

— tan-bo-re s. the short one. — a-tan adj. 
small, short, a-tan zuk make it shorter. 

tan 2., a-tan s. a butcher's block: san- 
tan or kun-tan. 

tap 1. s. a sort of trap, for catching 
pheasants and other birds; tap-pon (or 
pan) id.; tap sak vb. to set the noose- 

tap 2. T. kd tap s. the fist. 

tap 3. s. an inferior mww: man-tap. 

*tap-nyan or tap-nyen T. gtam-snyan s. 
grace, t.-ny. co vb. to be pleased, to be 

tam 1. ace. W. 65 cut away, truncated. 

tam 2. plain W. 65, suk-dum tam s. the 
surface of earth. 

Comp. tam-bdk s. flatheaded, as arrow; 
li tam-bdk a flat-roofed house, tson t.-bok 
a flat-headed arrow, tam-bdk muk s. a 
spec, of plant; tam-bdk sop s: a spec, of 

Deriv. pd-tam, pur-tam s. a level sur- 
face, a plain, T. snyoms-pa P. 

*tam 3. T. gtam s. a word, a speach. 

*tani 4. T. dam "bound, fast; promise, 
vow", *tam-tsvk T. dam-tsig s. a vow, a 
sacrament, a vow to lead a pure life. 
a-vo a-yu-ka tam-tmk-nun hydk ndn hus- 
band and wife are bound together by 
holy vows; tam-tiCik nan-Id to vb. to keep 
vow faithfully ; tam - tmk nydm vb. to 
break vow, to perjure, tam-nydm-bo (T. 
dam nyams-pa) s. a perjurer, tam-tiuk 
ryak vb. to take a vow, to swear, to 


tam-ku— tar 

"tar— tf 

promise, tam-tmk lyot vb. to release one 
from TOW. — See dom, dam and yi-dom, 

tam-ku i. q. tom-ku. 

tam-c&t s. offerings M. 

tam-pu s. a small shell, a cowrie, 
Cypraea moneta. 

tam-pu cen zo s. a spec, zo (rice) q. t. 

*tam-bo T. dam-po adj. exact, strict, 
chaste, tam-bo mat-bo s. a strict, chaste, 
upright person. 

tam-bdk kd-la s. a spec, tun-brap, see 
tarn 2. 

tam-bly6k incorr. for tam-, see blydk. 

tam-ydii s. a supervisor of fields, etc.; 
a steward. 

tam-ldn (ace. M. T. dam-lans) n. pr. of 
the hill, on which the capital of Sikhim 
is built; t.-l. gri the palace of t. called 
also on du tsu the pinacle of accumulat- 
ed power. 

tam-saii (ace. M. T. dam-sans) n. pr. of 
hill in Sikhim towards -pru; t.-s.-mo an 
inhabitant of t. 

tam-f s. 1. the generic name for para- 
site plants, such as Viscum, Loranthus, 
Thesium, etc.; tam-i-je Dendrobium pie- 
rardi. 2. beautiful golden colour, tam-i 
niim-dak s. a spec, of bird, drongo; 
tam-i bu s. n. of a snake; tow-z pok s. a 
beautiful headdress, the golden crest of 
some birds; kd-su kiip tam-i p6k bim dydt 
mn-klyom pot cuk cuk dok dydt Tbr. : 
my child is getting his golden crest and 
opening out like unto the seeds of the 
s.-kly6m trees (said of youth growing up 
to about the age of puberty or girl fit 
to marry, vide the story of the barbet 
in L. legends. 

tar 1. see tal, td-tar-bo adj. td-tar-ld 
adv. short and broad, as countenance or 
thing, squat as person. 

tar 2. i. q. ta-d see under ta; tar-t'&m-bo 
what is written (on skull) see kin-tsum. 

tar 3. to be level M. see tdr and dar 
("to prosper"), tar-ge adj. great, honour- 
able, — t.-ge — the great, the honourable 
so and so. 

*tar 4. T. dar s. silk etc. *tar-cok 
T. dar-lcog a flag, tar-cok fot vb. to un- 
furl a flag; tar-cok ful vb. to furl a fl.; 
tar-cok pyor vb. to flutter (as in wind), 
see t&r. 

tar-bdk, ta-bdk, far-bdk s. a plate, a dish. 

tal 1. see under ta. 

tal 2., pun-tal adj. short, dumpy. 

tf 1. U-m, T. ce- vb. 1. to be great, 
to be large, to be big; 2. to be grand, 
to be noble; 3. expresses comparative 
and superlative degree "better, greater, 
higher, much, very"; adjly. the great, 
the high, the upper etc. lyan ti the 
upper (hill-portion) of ground. — ti-m^ 
ti-kd great, ti-md ti-kd pd-no gya-ndk pd- 
no-len ti-ld md-nyin-ne of all great kings 
there is none greater than the king of 
China. — ti-ld advly. very, greatly M. 76. 

Comp. ti krdk vb. to be very great, 
to be renounced, celebrated, to be proud, 
ti-krok gdn bu-so if he becomes (or it) 
great he (or it) will burst; ti-krok-kiin 
bu-bam-bo s. one bursting with pride. 
ti hrydn vb. to be great, prosperous, rich, 
ti hrydn-ld bam vb. to live in prosperity, 
ti hrydn-ld nun-nd-o or ti-ld hrydn-ld 
nun-nd-o may you be prosperous, ti hrydn 
pyOk-bo rich, wealthy. 

Deriv. tfm-bo, tim-mo adj. T. cen-po 
a great man or thing; great, large, 
mighty etc. pd-no Um-bo or tim-mo T. 
rgyal-po cen-po a great king, an emperor, 
maharaja P. tim-bo-sd ayok 1. a work 
for great man, 2. important work; tim-bo 
t'u-bo great, high, exalted, important; — 
tim cok or tim co the greatest M. 32. — 
tim-mo see mo id., very large M. 102. 

a-tim adj . great, large, important, weight- 
ly; a-tim-ka si vb. to admire; a-tim-ha 
cin vb. to have a high idea of; a-tim gyu 
bam vb. to play the great man; a-tim 
mat-sdn sak-cin an ambitious mind; a-tim 
rin li vb. to give one's self airs. 

tf 2. adv. only, nothing particular, 
merely, gratis, uselessly, to no end, 
futile, objectless, save for one's own 
object; free, independent, at leisure. 


tf— tin 


free (time); ti-liun merely, imaginary, 
supposed; U-K.un-ka li yh. to speak any 
supposed case, to speak for instance. — 
ti-da 1. only, simply, vainly; 2. free; 
3. so so, indifferently, moderately. — ti 
ham nyi vb. to live independently; ti- 
ham-mun-sd sun s. a story told at leisure, 
a diverting story; ti bam-mun-sd ayok s. 
work done at one's own, on leisure-hours ; 
U hyi vb. to give gratis; ti mak vb. to 
die simply, to die naturally; ti mim-ju-ho 
rather awkwardly, indifferently altogether; 
ti li vb. to speak in vain or merely speak; 
ti lik vb. to call in vain, or to call merely 
for the sake of calling; ti I6m vb. merely 
to walk without any particular object, to 
walk for pleasure; ti lyd vb. to get for 
nothing, to receive gratis; ti vydt vb. 
merely to ask without any particular ob- 
ject; ti-sd siin i. q. ti bam-bo-sd or ti bam- 
mun-sd sun. 

ti-ld or til 1. only, nearly, simply, 
objectlessly, 2. own; til-sd mlo one's own 
property; — til-la adv. 1. only, vainly, 
gratis, independently, at leisure; 2. own, 
one's own, one's self, naturally; i.q^.don 
met without provocation; til-Id pld vb. to 
spring up of its own accord; til-Id bam 
vb. to live independently; til-Id byi vb. 
to give gratis; til-Id mak vb. to die 
naturally; til-Id li vb. to do of one's 
own accord; til-Id lin md-Mun-ne it is 
not in power to do it; (I) cannot willingly 
do it; til-ld-sd man md-go-ne game is not 
to be had for nothing; a-til also a-tyil 
adj. one's own, own, a-yu do a-til-su 
lyan a-re-ka kat Id via-nyin-ne all are 
free men in this country; (a-) til mat vb. 
to appropriate, to keep for one'self, yan- 
Id riim-ka M-do bo til mat-sd hu-do-miim 
rum-sd ran-ro- mat-ren but (said also) 
that God was his father making himself 
equal with God J. 

ti 3., a-tf s. an egg, Mk-ti s. a hen's 
egg; a-ti-rmn gyek vb. to hatch an egg; 
a-ti to vb. to lay an egg; a-ti fok s. the 
shell of egg; a-ti bam vb. to sit on eggs 
(as hen); a-ti Ut s. the yolk of egg; 

a-ti lut a-dum s. the glair of egg; a-ti 
a-ser a rotten egg. 

tf 4. 1. ace. W. abbrev. fr. fyak q. v., 
see under mw* ti tdp-fo; — 2. the upper 
end, commencement of a field lyan a-ti; 
nyot ti, see tdii. 

'■■'tf 5. T. 'degQ-pd) (to lift, to elevate) 
vb. t. to pack as trunk, to place com- 
pactly, to pack closely: klek-ld ti; to load 
as gun: sd-dydr mi ti; to put in ear as 
earring sd-kon ti. 

ti ti onom. a call to fowls. 

ti-pro s. n. pr. of a bird, Dicoeum 
cruentatum (pigmy flower-pecker), W. 
in R. 220. 

tik 1. s. a hornet, Vespa crabro, i. q. 
t'am-bik pd-no; tik-mi id.; tik bdk-dyol s. 
a young one before it has acquired its 
sting; tik sUn-pan s. a spec, of hornet; 
tik sam s. another spec. ; tik pur s. a h.- 

tik 2. vb. to be white at end as tail, 
tuk-sim tik a tail white at end. 

tik 3. vb. to be completed as time, to 
be expired, to be finished, to-tsdt cet-bo- 
re tik-non the stipulated time has ex- 
pired. — a-tik s. completion, sd-dyak kd- 
ti a-tik-ka at the end of ten days. See 
also tek. 

tik 4. s. applied to the shin of leg 
ton tik. 

tik 5., tik-ka tik-ka adv. sparkling, 
flickering (light). 

tik dun-fo or tsdk-d.-fo, ace. Je. tok-dun 
s. the Himalayan cuckoo, Cuculus himala- 

tik va mik zo s. a spec, zo (rice) q. v. 

tin 1. vb. 1. t. to separate, to divide, 
to disunite, to disjoin, tydt tin vb. to cut 
thro', to divide; to mark out, to make 
bounds lyan tin. 2. n. to be in parts, 
to be partially lyan tin-lun so yij to rain 
here and there ; md-ro tin-lun non people 
to separate and go their way. — a-tin s. 
part, division. 

tin 2. s. a stick, a twig, san-tin or 
kun-tin; pd-tin also sUn-tin s. a small 
stick, a switch, pd-tin zo to get a beating 


Mfii— tir, tyir 

ifr, tfr-la— tu-nd ti ti 

(lit. to eat a b.), pd-tin zo-ka no go aud 
get a beating; pd-tiii-sd hruk-re z6n nyon 
vb. to feel as if one was poked with a 
stick inside. 

*tfn 3. T. rtin(^-pa) s. hon. the heel 

tin 4. s. a beam of floor, li tin s. the 
b.'s of floor of house; td-lyd tin sd tim- 
krom s. the joists, beams and floor. 

*tin 5. T. tin s. a small brass-cup. 

tin 6. s. in opp. to rok the hills: the 
plains, flat country; tin sd rok lyan the 
plains and hills, tin-rok tsom s. the 
boundaries between pl.'s and h.'s. tin- 
sd md-rd a man of the plains, Hindii; 
tin kup "a little plain'' n. pr. of a locality 
in Sikhim W. 72. 

*tin 7. T. gtin see kul-din etc. *tin- 
h'ok and tin-Jidk T. gtin and Kag s. abuse, 
wrangling, malice, tin-Icok-sd md-ro s. a 
malicious person; *tin-j6k T. gtin-bzag 
advly. at last, at length, hu ndn-lUn tin- 
jok fi proceeding along he at length 

tin 8., tun-tin i. q. fd-vor see vor. 

tih-rf s. the stone for rubbing or grind- 
ing things with, a sort of pestle, lun-cak 
sd tin-ri the sill and muller. 

*tin-Sd T. tin-sags s. a metal gong used 
in buddhist worship, struck in the morn- 
ing to call the prayers, tin-sa biik-set s. 
the beater of t. made of buffalo- or yak- 

*tin T. sbyin see *wdra tin (to give 


tin-tin adj. dry in the mouth as food, 
tin-tin li vb. to make one's mouth dry 
as when eating hard, dry food. 

tfp vb. n. to be stopped up as nostril, 
pipe, drain, tube and such like; tiik-nom 
tip-non nose to be stuffed as with cold. 
— vb. t. to pour out the water from rice 
after boiling, to strain off. 

tim see ti 1. (great). 

tim incorr. for tyiim q. v. 

tim-bar see tem-bdr. 

tim-bre see tem-bre. 

tir, tyir vb. to move, to shake, to curl, 

as in contempt; bon tyir to curl mouth 
in contempt. 

tfr, tfr-la adv. suddenly, tir-ld Mm to 
fly suddenly away. 

tfl see under ti. 

*til T. 'gril{-ba) vb. to fall down. 

tii 1., tu-t vb. t. to wash as body, clothes, 
anything, to clean, mii tii vb. to wash 
body; diim tut vb. to w. clothes; diim- 
tat-bo s. a washerman, la-de t.-bo s. a 
scullion, a-dyan tut vb. to wash feet. 
See also tat, Mt. 

tu 2., tu-m vb. n. to be inauspicious, 
used in a more unfortunate s. than nyo; 
md-ro mak-ba r'ldk gdn tH-so if you look 
at a man when he is dying, it will bring 
you evil, td-dyu a-kUp bH-bam-bo-ka md- 
zu a-ndk sit gdn a -kup Id a-nok pld-so 
if you blacken a pregnant woman, the 
child will be black. 

a-tum s. an evil effect arising from 
any cause; tv,m-bo adj. ominous, see to. 

tarn tii vb. to be illomened, to be fatal 
to pregnant woman or child; fam-tHm s. 
anything causing evil effects to child 
birth, an omen, a portent. — tii is also 
applied to acute pains to be affected 
with, tiik-bron, tii to have acute p. in hip. 

*tu 3., a-tu T. stu s. pudendum muliebre, 
Tbr. : fam-an., kd-siim kat, man zo po-don 
etc., also td and td- in comp. — tH kyu 
vulva foetida; tii nak incorr. for td-nak 
(see naK) s. praeputium penis; tO, can: 
ta fu-ld nan-Id vulva projectura; tii cak 
OS vulvae; tii mk lingula vulvae; ta cot 
(td-cotf) i. q. dyen cot placenta, secundines; 
til jel V. parva; tii nydl, ta nyel the 
nymphae; tii nyo v. magna; tii pum v. 
alta sita (tal nan-Id)., mens veneris; tii fdr 
i. q. to, kyu, tii for fam-blydk a spec, butter- 
fly; tii bu the vagina; tii byen i.q.tH; 
ta bral the rlymphae; tii mat s. hair on 
pudendum muliebre; tii tsum, tii tsup v. 
trepida; tii riik s. protrusus uteri; tu 
lak-dyen i. q. tii kyu; tii lop v. magna; 
tii hydn, tH-an vulva; tH-un s. sperma 
muliebre. M. 

tu-nu ti ti ace. W. Hunu ti ti" a. n. of 

tu'tsii— tuk 

tuk-gar — tuk-nyil 


a spec, of bird, Cyornis melanoleucus 
K. 216; ace. Je. 483 'Huni ti ti" Erythro- 
sterna maculata. 

tu-tsu s. accounts, calculations M. see 
tu-tsu and dii. 

tuk- prefix. I. i. q. td- q. cfr. See the 
following roots: kdm, kdl, kram, kri, kldk, 
kl6t, gar, gryom, cap, cim, cil, ciik, cum, 
cek, cok, jak, jek, nyer, tyol, fdl, dam, di, 
dim, dun, dop, dyiim, dyol, nal, nok, non, 
ndm, ndl, pyet, pyit, pup, pol, prop, prol, 
plyo, plyok, pyet, fat, fut, fyok (fyuk), fyon, 
fyot, fyol, bon, byap, bram, brol, br6k, bldt, 
blat, blut, blyon, mat, map, mdl, mar, mon, 
myuk, tsar, tsam, tsu, tsu, tson (ts'dn), tsol, 
lup, hap, hdk, hup, sdk, sap, sup, sum, son, 
son, sot, Mm, si (sim), sip, sit, sun, sop, 
sor ; tuk-kdm or td-kdm etc. a seat, see 
under kdm; tHk-kram, i. q. td-kram a 
dancing-festivity, see under kram; tHk- 
nom the nose, see under nom; tuk-fydn-ld 
horizontally, see under fydn; tuk-sim a 
tail, see under sim; tHk-sor a chi-strainer, 
see under sor; etc. etc. — See also tiin-, 
turn-; — n. reduplication of the following 
roots: tdk, tdk, tak, tuk, tek, tok, fik, fuk, 
fdk, fydk, dak, e. c. tiik-tdk-ld promptly, 
see under tdk; tiik tiik a cap, see under tiik. 

tuk Tb. t. to cover over, un-pdn-niin 
Ut-fir-lUn tuk-fat the waters returned and 
covered . . . Ex.; to cover over (as head 
with cap, umbrella); tvik-tiik tiik vb. to 
put on cap; du tiik vb. to hold umbrella 
over head; hO-niin hH-do mim-bam-ba-sd 
dUm-pdn 6t fo-liin td-ryon tiik she put 
her widow's garments off from her, and 
covered her with a vail G.; to cast net 
sUn-li tiik; n. to be overspread, as place 
with clouds, to fall in an overspreading 
manner; pUm-byon-nUn lyan tiik clouds 
to overshadow the land; so lyan yii tHk- 
non-ne rain to fall everywhere over the 
land; tHk-non to roll up (as hedgehog). 

tak applied to earth, saline or other- 
wise (water etc.), which is "sweet" to 
animals, saline-efflorescence fdt tiik, un 
tiik; — sak-cin tiik vb. mind to be over- 
clouded, to be stupid; fi-niin tak vb. to 

faint, to have lost one's senses, to be 
overspread by fi mun q. v.; tak vat vb. 
to be overpowered, fydn-nan tuk vdt to 
be overwhelmed by a superior force. 

a-tuk s. a covering as of pd-tek etc., 
tyak-ydn-sd a-tuk s. the membrane of 
brain, a-fyak tak s. a covering for the 

tuk-tuk s. a cap, a hat, tuk-tHk tuk vb. 
to put on cap, ti/k-tuk fyul or dt or ak 
vb. to take off cap, sd-mdk tak-tuk a 
Lepcha cap (high-pointed); pd-lok t.-t, 
pd-lyon t.-t. two other kinds of caps; — 
tak-pdk s. a turban. 

tuk-gar s. a spec, of black ant: t.-g. 

tuk-cap s. 1. a spec, of earwig tuk-cap 
t'am-bik; 2. i. q. a tree tuk-cap kuit i. q. 
mi cap kun. 

tuk-cf VO ace. M. 1. i. q. tuk-vor i. q. 
2. Tbr.: a drain-ditch, a gutter, also 
tun-ci VO. 

tuk-cfm i. q. td-pii q. v., s. a cup, tvk- 
cim sd-re a-bo-niin kd-siim, bon-bo-ka go 
md-fdn-nd sdn-d the cup which my father 
has given me, shall I not drink? J. 

tuk-cel muk s. a shrub, Phlogocanthus 

tuk-cdh kun s. n. of tree, spec, of Eurya, 
t.-c. k. dan-sd E. japonica, t.-c. k. hlo-sd 
E. acuminata and E. symplocina. 

tuk-jer s. 1. the side of person or thing, 
2. advly. aside, privately; tak-jer tuk-blydn 
s. the side; tuk-jer tuk-blydn bH di vb. 
bring sideways; tilk-jer-ka da vb. to lie 
on side; t&k-jer-ka lyo vb. to take aside; 
tak-jer-ka non vb. to go privately away, 
to go apart. 

tuk-jor rfp s. spec, of Commelina (spider- 

tuk-nyil (W.: "tak-nyel" K. 212) and 
tun-nyil s. wormwood, Artemisia, tuk- 
nyil-len kri to be more bitter than worm- 
wood; tiik-nyil tuk-ayen gryam to be 
blocked up with wormwood: implies the 
winds and rains that set in on the break- 
ing up of rainy season, which renders the 
paths in that state Tbr. — tuk-nyil nyon 



tuk-nydm— tuk-pu 

tuk-puA — tiik-bo 

ace. W. 'Hak-nyel nyon" "the wormwood- 
nyon" a spec, sparrow, Chrysomitris 
tibetana R. 219. 

tuk-nydm s. the genus Gryllus (grass- 
hopper), crickets etc., a few of the names 
of species are: tun-ky6n, tun-gryok, num- 
jit, num-pan, num-plun, num-bon, num- 
brit, num-yo, num-la, num-sok, num-on, 
piir-gyen, fd-lok, mun-kyon^ suk-kyon, suk- 
kyo or sd-kyo, sun-kyon. 

tuk-tak s. a boiled mixture, a decoction, 
gruel, soup; zo tuk-tak s. rice-soup, gruel; 
man tuk-tak s. soup; bi tuk-tak s. vege- 
table-soup; mon tuk-tak s. medicinal de- 
coction; tuk-tak kyok vb. to scrape up 
remains of soup with fingers bent, hence 
tuk-tak kyok kat a span from end of 
thumb to second joint of forefinger when 
bent; tuk-tak nun-n&n-ne to be drenched 
with rain Tbr., to be exhausted, to have 
become weak like unto gruel Tbr. 

tuk-tydl tuh-krdk s. a spec, of fern, spec, 
of Nephrodium. 

tuk-dum s. 1. a tadpole (Gyrinus), tvk- 
dum-sd tuk-sim pdl-ndn the tadpole's tail 
has dropped off; i.-d. tuk-dyol the first 
form of tadpole; 2. big stomach, a person 
with large stomach with a st. like a tad- 
poles body with legs like its tail. 

tuk-dyam s. a small spec, of black ant, 
tuk-fyil t.-d. 

tuk-dyar s. the fish insect so destructive 
to books and papers. 

tuk-dyum etc. see under di, dim. 

tuk-dyol s. first form that tadpole take, 
a young tadpole, see tuk-dum. 

tuk-ndmsee under nom; tuk-ndl see nol. 

tuk-pat s. the knee, t.-p. tuk-lum id., 
tuk-pdt tsdk vb. to kneel; tuk-pdt kiin-lok 
pot s. the knee-pan, patella, tuk-pat kiin- 
lok p6t cit vb. to split the patella, a mode 
of punishment, by which criminals were 
lamed for life; tuk-pdt Ka-lu s. the con- 
dyle; tuk-pdt tydp s. the joint of knee. 

tuk-pf s. n. of tree, Pithecolobium dulce, 
t.-p. kun nyok P. geminura. 

tuk-pu explet. of td-gro, tiik-gro s. evil 
spirit P. 

tiik-pun s. the shoulder, tuk-pun-ka bu 
vb. to carry on shoulder, tuk->pun tik s. 
the shoulder-blade, scapula. 

tuk-pum-fo, tufi-pum-fo^ tum^-pum-fo and 
tdm-puin-fo s. a spec, of owl, ace. Je. 124, 
W. R. 205: '■'■kashi-op tak-puvn!'' Syrnium 
nivicolum (a hooting owl), W. ibd. ^^tang- 
pum^' Glaucidium cuculoides (a spec, 
owlet) and "'■dang tang-pum" Carine 
brama (id.). — tuk-pum fi s. a hawk- 
owl M. 

tuk-po s. string, cord, sd-mon tuk-po s. 
rope made of the black tail of ydk, used 
for binding men for punishment. — ki 
tuk-po cotton rope; kd-zu t.-po string 
made from the nettle; kd-yen t.-po string 
made from Boehmeria nivea; pd-ti t.-po 
hempen rope; cfe t.-po string made from 
the Daphne papyracea. — Tbr. for fik 
q. V. dyen zdn tuk-po tik the bond of 
friendship; bri t.-po fik the bond of 
matrimony. — tiik-po tUn-krok mo s. spec, 
of fern; tuk-po tUn-krdk kup s. another 
spec, of do. ; tuk-po pUk-jik s. n. of plant, 
fern-tree, Angiopteris erecta R. 84. 

tuk-po kun s. a peach-tree, Prunus 
persica; tiik-po pot s. a peach. 

tuk-po fo s. the Indian cuckoo, Cuculus 
micropterus M., Je. 326, W. Q'tak-po'') 
R. 207. 

tuk-pyek i. q. sd-pyek q. v. 

tuk-fyil s. an ant, enmet, tHk-fyil tuk- 
dydm s. id. small spec, tHk-fyil tHk-dydm 
jum s. a large black ant, tHk-fyil tHk- 
dydm pur-mim s. a small ant, tHk-gar a 
small spec, of ant, sd-ku tHk-fyil s. a very 
large spec, of ant. Some other species: 
ki-lim, td-krdl, niim-bol, tso-mit. — tiih- 
fyil pHr or piim s. an ants nest. 

tuk-fyer fo s. i. q. bim-pd yul. 

tuk-bip or tUn-bap s. a shrub, t.-b. rip 
s. the flower of do. 

tuk-bum, tuii-bum, tun-bdm s. a spec, of 
wood-louse; fdt t.-b. s. a spec, of grub- 
worm; a spec, of bee that makes its 
cells in the ground; several species: t.-b. 
nok, dum, pd-dydr, a-hyir. 

tuk-bo (ace. M. the coverer, the over- 

"tuk-bo lun-jik— tuk-men 

tuk-mo— tuii 


spreading deity, see tuK) title of Ta-se 
(Padmasambhava) T. bdbm-ldan-daa; — 
tuk-bo rum fat 1. to make oblations to 
God, 2. the oblation to do. 

*tuk-bo lun-jik T. sdig-pa s. a scorpion, 
litly. "the chief (of noxious insects) living 
under stone", tiik-bo lun-jik tuk-Um s. the 
tail of scorpion, tuk-bo lun-jik a-lim sting 
of sc, tuk-bo lun-jik a-lim tsdt to sting; 
tuk-bo lun-jik a-gon the claws of sc; see 
dig-pa l.-j., dik-po ra-za. 

tuk-bya s. a sort of bracelet, worn on 
left arm to prevent bowstring striking 
wrist, tuk-bya-ka bat vb. to put wrist 
into t.-b.; tuk-bya tsdk id.; t.-b. ak vb. to 
take off do.; ha a-mXem tuk-bya zon •pd- 
bydr-ld giim his face is concave like unto 
a tuk-bya. 

tiik-byit s. a sort of bean, pea; some 
of the spec, are: kd-hla, no-yu, cer, tun- 
ki, tun-kuii, ntim^tsi},, pur-gyen, dum, ban 
pok, sUm-bryol, sim-pyit. Also tun-byit. 

tuk-bram or tun-bram s. a spec, of 

Osbeckia, t.-br. muk s. Osbeckia crinita. 

tuk-brdh s. the hip, tHk-brdn-sd jop-ld U 

vb.. to feel pains in hip as from walking; 

t&k-brdn hrat s. the haunchbone. 

tuk-bryot kuh s. name of shrub, t.-b. 
tamr-blydk s. n. of butterfly. 

tuk-blf, t.-bl. rik s. a creeper, spec. Vitis, 
V. carnosa M. 

tuk-blo s. the wild plantain-tree (Musa) 
species of re-lin (second spec); tiik-blo 
hryu s. a dry leaf of tiik-blo^ tiik-blo lop 
s. the large leaf of plantain (wild), tHk- 
blo-sd Id-hu the patiole-leaves of the wild 
plantain, tiik-blo td-luk s. spec, of frog. — 
See also Mk-blo; tiik-blo tHk-nol a small 
spec, of black snail. 

tuk-mat s. a spec, of fish, no-tHk-mdt 

i. q. mat-no, see mat, mUt (vb. to blow). 

tuk-nicir-kun s. n. of tree, spec, of Albizzia. 

tuk-mdr-fo or tHk-mur-fo s. n. of bird, 

spec, of Muscicapa M. 

tuk-mar s. a leopard, Felis leopardus, 
see mar. 

tuk-men or tun-men s. the white ant 
when they have obtained their wings. 

the flying white ant, spec. Termes; tiik- 
men fam-blydk s. a brown butterfly. 

tuk-mo (see also kUt-nio cfr. T. rkun-ma') 
s. theft, stealing, tOk-mo-sd tarn stolen 
goods, tuk-mo bi so vb. to lay a charge 
against another of theft; tHk-mo mat vb. 
to steal, to thieve, tOk-mo mat-bo s. a 
thief; tHk-mo tsam vb. to accuse another 
of theft, also to prove the charge see 
bi nyot; tiik-mo zdk vb. to be robbed; 
tiik-mo pum s. an arrant; tiik-mo fydn(^-b6) 
s. a robber, a bandit, tiik-mo fydn mat 
vb. to rob, tak-mo fydn pun s. a band 
of robbers, tiik-mo fydn-sd ne s. a cave 
of thieves, tiik-mo fydn-pdn s. a chief of 

tuk-mdt zo s. a spec, of zo (rice). 
tuk-r^m i. q. td-krdm. 
tuk-rel 1. i. q. tUn-hril q. v.; 2. ace. W. 
'■Hak-rdV s. n. of a bird, roller, Coracias 
affinis; ^Hak-rdl vong'" Eurystomus orien- 
talis E. 205. 

tuk-tsdl i. q. tUp-sol q. v. 
tuk-zak buk s. a spec (the best) of yam, 
called also pd-z6k buk. 

tuk-zdii, t.-z. tUn-giit or tUn-zon s. a spec, 
of white pumpkin tUn-zon tUn-giit; applied 
to a naked child with only a belt sus- 
pended from shoulder t.-z. vya. 
tuk-lum an explet. to tHk-pdt. 
tuk-vdr ace W. ^^tak-vor" n. pr. of a 
village, "hook-thread" "fish-hook" W. 72; 
— tak-vor fo i. q. sUk-vdr-fo q. v. 
tuk-sdn bu s. a spec, of caterpillar. 
tuk-sdl bu s. the intestinal worm, Ascaris 
lumbricoides. — tiik-sdl kun s. n. of tree 
spec. Echinocarpus; tuk-sdl rik n. of creeper. 
tuk-§i kun s. n. of tree with white flowers. 
tuk-0-val ace W. "iak-o-waV s. n. of 
bird, Dryonastes coerulatus. 

tun pref. 1. i. q. td- and tHk- q. v. See 
under kam, kal, kul, kyan, kyop, kyol, 
krdn, krdn, klak, klok, gan, gap, gar, gin, 
gip, gap, gap, gor, gyal, gy&p, gron, gryam, 
gryuk, gryon, gry&p, gli, cdp, co, jam, jan, 
mm, jil, jek, jon, nyer, tdk, tek, fdn, tya, 
fyok, dUn, dun, d6h, ddp, ndm, pup, fyuk, 
fri, frot, bam, bar, bal, bdn, bram, brin. 


-tiirt— tun-kun 

iiin-ko— tiW-jer 

blyon, mat, myuk, tson (tion), ydr, ydl, 
yoii, yon, hap (hup), hap, hdn, hrdn, la, 
lin, lyen, vyen, sdn, sup, su, son, son, sdn, 
sit, sun, sen, sen, sop, sor, ip, dydl, ayen, 
dyon, dydk; — 2. reduplic. tun-tin fr. tin 
etc. — 3. incorr. for tan-, ton-. 

-tun postp. -t-un see -iin. 

tuii 1., a-tu,n s. the cushion of hand, 
the heel of foot see tin; kd-tUn, ton-tiin. 

tun 2. T. Itun or fr. tun 3. Tb. to fall, 
generally applied by L.'s to children 
a-pHp-pa i i tun-ndn-so take care! child 
you will fall ! tiin-i-i beware, you will fall ! 

tun 3. onom. redupl. tiin tun sound of 
running, to tun tun di dydt who is coming 

tun-kf f. tun-ki pUn-tydn s. the sparrow- 
hawk, Accipiter nisus M. Je. 51; ace. W. 
'"Hing-kyV^ a spec, hawk, Astur badius or 
a spec.falcon, Cerchneis tinunculusR.204; 
tun-ki pur-cok or tun-ki nok M., ace. Je. 147 
and W. (R. 205) '■Hang-kyi per-chi^oK^ the 
brown hawk-owl, Ninox scutellatus. — 
tun-ki pim-ci tUn-byit a spec, of pulse, 
litly. : "the hawks claw". — tim-ki kun 
n. of tree, spec, of Casearia. M. 

tuh-ku muk s. n. of a plant. 

tun-kuii or tim-kun tun-la s. a rain- 
bow; tu,n-kun din a r. to appear (litly. 
"to stand"); tun-kun din nyi there is a 
rainbow; tun-kun pld to make it's appear- 
ance; tun-kun ya (or gdV) ndn the r. has 
disappeared. — tun-kun td-klak a circular 
rainbow. — tim-kun mit s. a water-spirit, 
tun-kun {mit) tun-la mit s. nymphs, i. q. 
yet tun-kun mit; tUn-kun mit zdk to suffer 
under displeasure of t.-k. spirit, to have 
fever; yet tun-kun mit md vb. to pray or 
solicit the good influence of the t.-k. mit 
while the yet fish-trap is set. — varie- 
gated colours, tUn-kun tHk-byit s. a 
spec, of bean; — t.-k. t'am-blydk a. a spec, 
of butterfly; — t.-k. diim rip s. coloured, 
bordered cloth; t.-k. diim rip v6k vb. to 
make do.; ■ — t.-k. nUm-dak s. variegated 
grain of the n.-d.; — t.-k. rik s. Basella 
alba; t.-k. bi s. the leaves of B. a. used 
as vegetable, see kOn-zom; — t.-k. lop s. 

an ornamented shield made of plaited 

tun-ko incorr. for tan-ko q. v. 

tun-kydn 1. incorr. for tHk-nydm q. v. 

tun-kydn 2. s. the stick-insect, see miin- 
kyon, tuk-nyom. 

tun-krdm s. floor of house, li tUn-krom. 

tuii-krdl adj. longlegged. 

*tun-gan or tun-gon T. sten-Kan s. an 
upper room. 

tun-gan i. q. nm-gan q. v. 

tun-gil mun: " tiTigilmung" s. a thar of 
the L. people H. H. Risley, Tribes 2, 88. 

tun-gut s. a pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo, 
tUn-giit rik s. the pumpkin-creeper; tUn- 
giit zon pumpkinlike; specc. : tim-zdn twh- 
giit; jon-go. 

tun-guii 1. i. q. tUn-fri see fri; 2. s. a 
bamboo plank (bamboo with the outer 
part shaved off and the inner part pressed 
by beating etc. out into a plat surface). 

tun-gdm rik s. n. of creeper, Roydsia M. 

tun-gyen s. a bamboo, used as a drink- 
ing vessel. 

tun-gren s. a cloven foot, hoof, i. q. tori- 
gren, tUn-gren ik vb. to spread out hoof 
as cow when on uneven ground. 

tun-grydk see tOk-nyom. 

tun-glu s. the n. of a tree Bombax ceiba, 
B. malabaricum; also' n. of a hill, bearing 
that name: tUn-glu hlo NW.of Darjeeling; 
— t.-g. buk s. a spec. Arum. — tUn-glu 
mik vun s. giddiness from biliousness, 
t.-g. m.-v. tv, vb. to suffer from do. suppos- 
ed to be the effect of the Bombax tree. 

tun-cf tun-krdk s. a spec, of fern; tiin-a 
also a spec, of pea. 

tun-cen i. q. mar-cen rip q. v. 

tun-ji mdn s. a spec, millet. 

tun-jin s. applied to the shrew species, 
t.-j. kd-li a spec, of small squirrel, Soiurus 

tuh-jil kun i. q. nd-jil-kun. 

tun-jer see jer; tUn-jer kun s. n. of tree 
Picrasma javanica; — tUn-jer no mnt s. 
spec, of fish; — tim-jer mun s. overclouded 
weather; — tun-jer Idn s. talk, mica; — 
tun-jer vi s. spec, of small noisy cicada. 

tuh-daA— tun-bo 

tun-bol hop— tun-sdt kun 


tuA-dan s. a sort of basket, reticule. 

tun-ddm s. a peculiar spec, of fungus 
like the half of a rdo-rje with highly 
offensive smell like rotten meat, spec. 

tun-dar s. a drum, tun-dar lun-min id., 
tun-dar pd-tin s. the stick; tiin-dar pap 
rh. to roll drum, to beat a rolling sound; 
tun-dar huk vb. to beat d., tiin-dar buk-bo 
s. a drummer. 

tun -din bik s. a spec, of coleopterous 
insect, Calandra. 

tun-ddk for tdn-dok, tiin-ddk q. v., tun- 
dok mat vb. to serve, to assist, to bene- 
fit, see tan. 

tun-dyar s. a cricket, the house-c, 
Gryllus domesticus; tun-dydr pd-lydn s. 
a large spec, of c, tun-dydr mi-top-ka 
the c. on the hearth. — tim-dydr rip s. 
a bush, spec, of Hydrangea, the smell 
of the leaves and flowers is said to 
poison and frighten away the crickets 
from the houses and for this purpose 
they are sometimes spread in houses. 

tun-dyu s. 1. a Jew's harp, tUn-dyu (op 
vb. to play on do., 2. a spec, of spider, 
zo tim-dyu. 

tun-dyen s. 1. a small spec, of squirrel, 
Sciurus macclellandi, 2. i. q. nixn-dyen 
applied to a spec, cowitcb, td-kryiip t.-d. 
spec, of small cowitch. 

tun-dydh i. q. tun-gryoh s. a large basket. 

tun-num to dyok rik see fo nUm f. d. r. 

tiin-pu i. q. tam-pii s. cowrie, money. 

tun-l)dm, tUn-bUm see tuk-bimi. 

tun-ban explet. to tUn-aydl, t.-d. t.-b.-mo 
the fire-queen Tbr. 

tun-bfk s. time, season, Id-vo tiin-bik 
all times, all seasons, hence every one, 
every person. 

tun-bum cf lak rik s. a creeper, the roots, 
used sometimes as ferment for chi. 

tun -bum pa- la s. a spec, of Alpinia; 
ace. M. also a spec, of zo (rice). 

tun-bo 1. adj. compact, compact-shaped, 
square, opp. to pun-fyet oblong; li tun-bo 
a square-shaped house; — 2. s. a box of 
bamboo or other material for holding 

rice etc., containing about two fri q. v.; 
tak tuk tUn-bo s. a hat-box; — tvn-bo tek 
s. a similar box but smaller; — in its s. 
as a measure is used metly. for constant 
supply, blessing: jer tiin-bo kdm tUn-bo 
a m. of gold and silver, said when a 
daughter is born as she will be a blessing 
to the parents and bring industry and 
marriage-portion to the house. — tiin-bo 
lik (fr. 1 ?) a noose-slip for catching fish ; 
t.-bo I. sak vb. to set the noose-slip. 

tun-bol hop s. ace. M. litly. "a plougher 
in the hollows of the ground", the 
elephant-beetle, tUn-bol hof-pUn ku mat 
vb. said of the head of maize when the 
grain has acquired some firmness and 
colour, see pd-tyu td-ji. 

tun-bdm rfp s. a bush. 

tun-brap s. a spec, of tam-bok sop Amo- 
mum; kd-la t.-b. a spec. A.; — tun-brap 
pd-ti s. a spec, of reed, Scytalia; — tiin- 
brap pd-la i. q. tun-bum pd-la. 

tuii-brip fo s. n. of bird, two specc. un- 
sd t.-br. and fat-sd t.-br.; kd-hryak t.-br. 
ace. Je. 493 '■'■karriak tungbrek pho", ace. 
W. (K. 212) "kar-rlok tung-brek" a small 
babbler, Eimator malacoptilus. 

tun-brum kun s. n. of tree, t.-b. muk s. 
n. of plant; t.-b. rik s. n. of a creeper, 
Celastrus monosperma. 

tuh-bret fo s., un t.-br. fo s. a spec, of 

tun-ffm rik s. a spec, of creeper, Piper 

tun-fyum nydm s. a n. of grass with 
large leaf, spec, of pHr-fyek; — tun-fyum 
dor s. a spec, boletus (edible); — tUn- 
fyum fo s. n. of bird. 

tun-fram s. n. of plant. 

tun-mel pdt s. a melon, a musk-melon, 
un ti/n-mel pot a water-melon. 

tun-ram incorr. for td-nrem. 

tun-lfn s. Coix lacryma. Jobs tears kim- 
dap tiin-lin. 

tun-suii s. a stockade, ace. W. n. pr. of 
a L. village. 

tun-sop kun s. a tree, Wightia tinctoria. 

tuii-sdt kuii i.<{.svn-s6t k. s. spec.of Ficus. 


tun-Si— tun-rot 

tup— tur-ca 

tun-Si ace. Hooker 2, 45 '■Hingschi" Taxus 

tun -Sin kun s. a pine-tree ace. Hooker 
2, 45 Pinus exeelsa, see dun-s. 

tun-Sun din incorr. f. pan-s. d. q. v. 

tun- a i. q. niin a-rik q. v. 

tun-f i. q. tam-i s. n. of plant. 

tuii-oh s. a large spec, of drone. 

tut, a-tut s. the knuckles of hand: (a)- 
kd tut, the hoof as of horse, goat, cow 
etc.: on ton tut, sd-ar tut. 

tiit see under tu. 

*tut i. q. *tdt q. V. 

-tun 1. ace. M. Gr. postp. of neg. imper., 
when proceeded by a vb. ending in the 
final t forms with the proceeding md- 
(q. T.) a neg. imp. e. c. md-mat-tun i. q. 
md-matrnun. — 2. also for -nun postp. of 
the agens (instrument.) proceeded by a 
final t as a-lut-tun i. q. a-lut-niin [more 
correctly: the n of -nun 1., 2. is changed 
into t by optional assimilation]. 

tun- reduplic. of tyen, dan, dun, don, 
dydn etc., see also td-, tuk-, tun-, turn-; 
e. c. tun-tyen-bo adj. short and stout as 
person; tun-dydn-ld ady. sickly, infirm. 

*°tun i. q. tan, T. don; tun-dok i. q. tdn- 
ddk etc., see under tan. 

*tun T. stunQ-pa), see also (un, vb. to 
agree, to be at peace, to be in harmony, 
su go yo gdn dy.-sdn s.-mo-sdn-sd md- 
tun-ne for the J.'s have no dealings with 
the S.s J.; yuk mun gun-nd-tun-ld nyi- 
md-o the priest all came to one con- 
clusion P.; tun-ld bam vb. to live at peace; 
tun-ld mat vb. to make reconciliation; — 
tun-ydm-bo s. a conciliator. — a-tiin s. 
peace, explet. to a-cdm q. v. 

*tun-ce T. rten and cas (a thing pre- 
sented) s. a present, tiin-ce ndn vb. to 
give a present. 

*tun-jd (possibly from T. gtan-du) ever, 
always, tun-jd-niin always, constantly, 
ever; t.-j.-n.-bam-bo s. a constant, per- 
manent resident. 

tun-ret fo s. a spec, of bird. 

tun-rot s. a vine, Vitis; a grape: tun- 

rot p6t id.; tun-rot rik s. the v.-creeper; 
tun-rot sin s. a vineyard. 

tup reduplic. of dup, tup-dup-ld i.q. tuk- 
dup-ld; tup-dup-ld siip-sip-ld adv. closed, 

*tup T. gtub{-pa), btub(-pa), see also: 
fup vb. 1. to be able, to be good,, con- 
venient, fit for; tup-pd T. btub-bo it is 
good; md-tup-ne it is not good; to be 
right; 2. to assent, to please, to will, to 
wish, md-tup-ne not to wish; a-do tiip- 
ka nyi gdn buk-kd-o kd-m-ka fcyet md- 
nyi-ne you may if you like beat it is 
all one to me, md-ro do tup-sd nyi gdn 
md-do-ne if they please themselves never 
mind, M dit md-tup-ne he refuses to 
come. 3. s. pleasure, will. 

*tup T. gtub(-pa) vb. t. to mince small, 
to cut in small pieces, man tup vb. to 
cut meat. 

turn 1. redupl. of tydm, dum, dam q. v. 
2. prefix incorr. for tiin-, tuk-, td- q. v. 

turn affixed to a-kd implies to be with- 
out any necessaries, to have nothing at 
all, kd turn nun-ndn-ne to have no ban 
or any necessary of life. 

*tum T. btum(-ba) vb. to cling to tree 
as creeper, to climb as climbing plant, 
to embrace kun-rik kun-ka tum-bam. — 
tum^bo s. a climber. 

tum-hyor adj. white applied chiefly to 
birds; hik t.-h. a white fowl. 

tur- pref. i.q. td- 1.; see under klak, 
gap, gon, nam,, jam,, jon (^jun), din, fam, 
fyan, mom, zut. Met, vdp, vok, Sep, sok, um; 
also incorr. for tdr-. 

tur 1. see tdr (to be diffused). 2. see 
tdr to prop, to support. 

tur, tiir-rd tur-rd lukewarm as water, 
also mild warmth of weather, so t.-rd 
t.-rd a weather to be mildly w., un t.-rd 
t.-rd hru lukewarm water, un t.-rd t.-rd i 
w. to simmer. 

tur- ham (i. q. td-nram), tur-nydii dor, 
tur- Sep dor, tnr-mum-dor four specc. of 
tree-fungus (boletus), edible. 

tur-ca s. a spec, of small mushroom; 

tur-ci dor — tur-'ayert 

tul— *tu 


tur-cd tur-tdn s. spec, of mushrooms 
(larger, edible), iur-ca tur-tdn ku-p s. 
applied to a child who does not know 
its own parents, who sprouts up of itself 
like a mushroom, a wayward child like 
a fungus without any cultivation and 
different from other vegetation. 

tur-ci dor s. a spec, of tree-fungus 
(edible), Idn t.-c. d. another spec, on 

tur-jf, tdr^i s. a small sort of bell worn 
as ornament, t.-ji tur-bum s. tinkling bells. 

tur-idh see tur-cd. 

tur-idn s. fungus (boletus) that sprouts 
from trees (not edible). 

tur-tyuk dor s. a spec, of tree-boletus 
(eaten but not good). 

tur-bat dor s. a spec, of tree-fungus, 
edible even when raw. 

tur-bf or tur-vf s. the regions beyond 
the earth; tiir-vi tur-sok s. the extremities 
of the earth, the junction of the e. and 
regions beyond. 

tur-bu s. a lazy glutton who thinks of 
nothing but eating and drinking, d t.-b. 
zo t.-b. s. a wine-bibber and glutton. 

tiir-bum s. a small tinkling bell worn 
as ornament by woman or cattle etc., 
larger than tur-ji q. v. 

tur-fdn fo s. a spec, bird, ground-thrush. 

tur-bdn see tar-. 

tur-mdm see tdr-. 

iiir-zdk ace. R. ^Hdrzuk mung''' s. a thar 
of the L.-people H.H.Risley, Tribes 2, 88. 

tur-lyun dor s. a spec, of boletus, dark- 
coloured (tree-b.), edible. 

tur-ve n. pr. of the first L. king, see 
M. Gr. X, Journal of the Buddhist Text 
Soc. IV. 96. I. Appendix. 

tur-vf see tur-hi. 

tur-safi n. pr. of a L. king M. X. Note. 

tur-sun-dor s. a very large species tree- 
boletus, edible. 

tur-§ok see tiir-bi. 

tur-'ayuk dor i. q. td-hryuk dor. Qiryiik). 

tur-'ayek n. pr. of a Lepcha king M. Gr. 
X. Note. 

tur-'ayen a L.kingM.Gr.X.Note. 

tul (see ta, tal etc.) adv. above, upper, 
high, upwards, tiil non vb. to go upwards, 
tul-bo Q-re) s. the upper; tul-mo s. in- 
habitants of upper country, tul-mo cul-mo 
the upper and lower people; tiil lyan the 
upper country, the high-land. 

tul-ld adv. above, upwards, tiil-ld non 
vb. to go upwards; a-do fijdt-re hu-do 
fam-cdn-ka a-myal hyip-sdn-ka tiil-ld non 
dydt thy father-in-law goeth up (to T.) 
to shear his sheep. G. tul-ld tiil-ld adv. 
far and high above, tul-ld tul-ld lot non 
to return upwards. 

till kon or tul yan adv. upwards. 

kiim tul adv. backwards, the head turn- 
ed back, kum tiil-ka byi vb. to give back- 
wards, k. t.-ka ndk vb. to look b.; k. t. 
dydk dam vb. to tie (hands) behind back. 

tu 1. vb. n. to be callous, hardened, to 
be indifferent, to be apathetic, a-bo-nun 
buk-ba tu-non-ne his father used to beat 
him, he has become hardened to blows. 
a-nyor tu vb. to hear but not attend to, 
to be deaf to, a-lut ti a-nyo tu vb. to 
be haughty and regardless; a-mo mak-bo 
hu md-hryop-ne tu-non-ne when his mother 
died, he did not cry, he had become 

tu 2. vb. n. to become mouldy, pur- 
mo tu to become mouldy. 

tu 3. for T.'du going; in L.: direction 
ndn tu direction of proceeding. 

*tu 4. T. bdud s. evil spirit, tu kl6n 
vb. to cause evil spirit to enter person, 
see t'u. 

*tu 5. T. dv^ s. time, season, see to; 
tu-tsdt or frequ. to-ts'dt T. dus-tsad s. 
period of time, season, time, tu-tsdt fi 
the time is come; tu-tsdt md-fi-nd tet 
md-mak-nd so will not die till (his) time 
arrives; tu-tsdt mdk tet till time expires: 
tik tet; tu-tsdt sd- fa-Id ever, eternal; tu- 
tsdt-ka at the time, a-re tu-tsdt-ka at this 
time, o-re tu-tsdt-ka at that time; tu-tsdt 
tu-tsdt-ka at times, sometimes. 

*tu-tsu also tu-tsu T. du^-rtsis s. cal- 
culations, accounts, tu-tsu kyop vb. to 
take accounts. 


tuk — turn 

tur— *te 

tuk 1. ace. Hook. 2, 7 "tooA" Hydnocarpus. 

tuk 2. Tb. to be white, applied to 
marks on forehead, as on horse, also to 
eyes as light eyes of Europeans; a-mik 
tuk i. q. see fuk. 

a-tuk s. a white mark on forehead of 
pigs, mon a-tuk a pig marked with white 

-tun postp. of the vb., it forms an im- 
perfect subjunctive tense M. Gr. 51. yo 
md go nd gdn go-nun a-yum U-tun if it 
were not so, I would have certainly told 
you; su gd yo gdn kd-yu lyan a-td-ka 
mak-sdn len mi-zdr-mo-swn-sd vyet mat- 
tun-re ryu-tun for it had been better for 
us to serve the Egyptians, than, that we 
should die in the wilderness Ex. 

tuii 1. vb. to rest on stick, pd-tun tun; 
pd-tun s. a thick stick, a walking, stick, 
a staff; pd-no-sd pd-tun re Idn-bo-sdn the 
kings ministers are his stafP. 

*tun 2. T. dun Skt. mhkha s. 1. a conch, 
a shell esp. Turbinella rapa; tun mat vb. 
to blow the shell; tun-sd f am- can s. a 
shell-animal, a large molusk. 2. China- 
porcelain; tun la-de a China or crocking- 
ware-plate; tun-len du to be whiter than 
porcelain; tun tson s. anything very white 
or pure Tbr.: milk, a virgin. See also 
tun-ydn under ydn. 

tun-kut see ton-kut. 

tun ace. W. 64 "<m«" vb. to heap or 
rise up, adj. a-tun upper, above, tun-kon 
the upper direction; md-rd a-tun applied 
to the people of Tibet; rin a-tun the 
Tibetan language. 

tup, a-tup s. OS femoris, os humeris, 
tup brdn fik s. the head of the os femoris, 
man tup the flesh on do. or the fl. and 
bones of do.; td-luk tup the thigh or 
thigh-bone of frog; see under td-luk. 

turn (obsol. when uncompounded) s. 
time, season, turn tiir-zut md-lun-nd pa- 
ka time of daybreak had appeared; turn 
lan-^uk CO lem at time of writing and 
reading give your attention, attention to 
be abstracted from the subject; explet. 
to nam a year M. 137. 

tur vb. 1 . to flow back, to flow towards 
the source from whence it came un tur; 
2. Tbr. i. q. dop q. v. M. 132. 

tul tul short, stumped as tail tuk-sim 
tul tul. See also tal 2. 

te 1. a particle which affixed gives a 
potential mood, may, might, would etc. 
M. Gr. 92. see also jjm; td-se fin-re: "a~ldn 
go sd-ba ndn-ba ryu fe" ydn sak-Mn-yam-o 
i. q. a-ldn "go sd-ba n&h pu" yo sak-cin- 
yam-o P.; sd-lom mat-sdn-ka ryu te what 
may be the best to be done; m kd te 
what is it, what may be the matter; hi 
mat^twh go te what might he have done; 
a-re su nyi te what may this be; su mat 
go a-dom a-ldn ryak md-Kun-nd te why 
cannot I follow you now; nd-han M kd- 
siim pyok-tsa te ydn sak-cin-yam-o he (i. e. 
Padmasambhava) thought: he must first 
salute me P.; kiit-mo mat-te ydn frdm- 
lun jum-sd nan sitting on thorns trembling 
for fear of theft; — with sdn: to be done, 
up to, thus far, yet, su go yo gdn o-tet 
sdn-te dyoana-mv/m tsdn-don-ka md-tap-ne 
for J. was not yet cast into prison J. 

te 2. vb. to fidget with, to move about 
idly as hand, fingers, to rattle as tongue, 
a-kd te to keep one hand in motion, 
a-bon te to keep one's tongue rattling, 
to jaw; — te-te (soothing a baby) take 
take, see pd-pat under pat. 

*te 3. T. stegs s. the basis of pillar, 
the lintel of door, see *k6n-te (footstool 
T. rkan-stegs), *sap-te; *sin-te the found- 
ation of anything. 

*te T. dadQ-pa) (vb. to believe, s. faith). 
*te nen ill faith, dishonour, disgrace; — 
*te-bo T. dad-pa (faith, creed) used by 
L.'s as respect, honour, loyalty, te-bo mat 
vb. to place faith in, to respect, to honour, 
as co-bo to his lama's. — *te-md T. dad- 
mos s. reverence, veneration, tx-md mat 
vb. to revere, to venerate, to adore, to 

*te T. de; *te'jin T. de-bsin in L. used 
in sense 1. of one's own accord, 2. after 
the manner; te-jin bam -bo s. an inde- 
pendent person; te-jin lorn vb. to walk 

te-nen — tek 

tek— tet 


for one's own pleasure, without any par- 
ticular object, te-ji7i md-ro do mak vb. to 
die a natural death; sd-na te-jin zo vb. 
to eat after the manner of bear. 

te-nen juk rfn fo the yellow-bellied blue 
magpie, Urocissa flavirostris; ace. Je. 2, 310 
' ' tying-jong-ring' ' . 

tek 1. (see also tik, tek, fyek and dek) 
vb. to be finished, to be ended (as day, 
month) ace. W. 74 gone see rum tek; — 
sd-ayak tek the day when funeral ob- 
sequies are completed; sd-ayak a-tek a-tek- 
ka ayok mat md-ydn-ne days on which is 
not proper to work: they are the 4th 
and 8 th day after death of male relative 
the 3d and 4th after death of female. — 
tek-bo s. the last, ayen tek-bo the last child. — 
tiik-tek s. the end, the last, pd-pal t.-t. the 
end; ending, finishing, termination; see paZ. 

tek 2. vb. to serve, to be of service to, 
tek han vb. or tek han aiat vb. to attend 
upon, to assist P.; tek han-(ma{)-bo s. an 
attendant, a servant; J. — a-tek or a-tek 
a-han s. service, a-tek a-han le gyo vb. 
to do service, to serve. 

dar tek s. a god, a good man. 

tek 3. I. vb. t. T. teg{-pa), '(egs{-pa) 
to pack up, to put up, to put into, to 
keep, to preserve, to put by as into safe, 
to deposit, a-tek-ka tek to put by into 
safe, on cupboard etc.; hon. i. q. L. lap 
to bury fun tek, Id-zii tek to bury a corpse 
J. M. — tek fo vb. i. q. tek I; tek fom-bo 
a place for laying by anything, a re- 
pertory, a cupboard. — tek nydn vb. to 
preserve, tek nydn fo id., /lu-nun fam a-re 
kd-sii fun tek-sdn sd-ayak tet tek nydn fo 
against the day of my burying hath she 
kept this J. — tek Ion vb. to keep, to 
preserve, ho-nun kun-can a-ryum ik-sdn- 
te tek Ion-bam thou hast kept the good 
wine until now J. 

a-tek s. a safe, depository; burying. 

II. s. bowl, a small bamboo-holder for 
food, tek vam "a scooped-out holder", a 
wooden bowl, a bamboo-holder; tiin-bo 
tek i. q. pa- tek. — pd-tek s. a vessel or 
holder for nnything, un pd-tek s. a water- 

holder, num pd-tek s. an oil-vessel, zo 
pd-tek s. a rice-holder; i. q. don, don-mo. 
tek 4. twi-tek, tdn-tek i. q. tun-tok s. a 

*tek 5. T. rdeg{-pa to beat) vb. t. to 
knock against, to stumble against i. q. 
gok; to ram a stake; obsc. fam tek bv 
feminam subigere; — tek-bo s. a stumbling- 
block, an obstacle. 

*tek 6. T. 'degs(-pa, see tek 1.) vb. to 
lift up, to raise, to support, to exalt pd- 
no pun-di tek to exalt king and queen; 
to weigh son tek (with scales); by 6m tek 
to mark out (field), to commence. — fi 
kun tek great- great -great grandfather; 
tek-nal s. progenitors, founders of a race. 
tek bar mik zo s. a spec, rice (zo). 
ten 1. vb. t. I. to cut square or even 
as end of post etc., to circumcise, cok- 
fun ten (he) was circumcised in the flesh 
of his foreskin G. — a-ten adj. divided, 
cut off, s. incision. — II. edge of pre- 
cipice sd-gor ten. See also tin. 

*teri 2. T. steh advly. above, ten fok s. 
an upper story of house. 
*ten-Sd incorr. for tiii-sd. 
tet I. vb. t. to place a mark so as to 
be able to recognize place, II. s. a mark, 
a sign, a token, a scar of wound, co-ka 
tet kyop or fo vb. to place a mark in 
book; CO tet s. a bookmark; kun-ka tet 
mat vb. to make a mark on tree to re- 
cognize place or as sign for it to be cut 
down; Idm-ka tet fo or kyop vb. to place 
a mark to recognize road. 

tet, tyet vb. to flee, to run away, to 
desert, tet non to run away, tet kon vb. 
to put to flight, to let flee; tet-bo s. a 
deserter, one who flees, a fugitive; Tni- 
zdr-sd pd-no-ka lok-re tyet non ydn dun- 
nun-sd . . . and it was told the king of 
E. that the people fled Ex. 

tet (also tydt and tyet) particle; till, 
until, thus many, thus far, so much, see 
under a (a-tet), o (o-tet), sd (sd-tet); I'u 
tet as much as possible, yiit tet for a 
moment, momentarily, a-bo tet a-kup md- 
zuk-ne the child is not as good as the 



*tet-mo— *ten 

tep— tel 

father; yd tet sak-cin md-Ku-ne as far as 
my knowledge of the matter goes, it is 
not so or I cannot recollect it as such; 
sd-ron tet md-U-ne have not seen it up 
to day; ndk tet md-U-ne not to be seen 
within sight; li tet tdm md-ga-ne as far 
as evidence goes, there is no proof; td- 
dyan tet md-zdn-ne it is not so (cold) as 
last year; go lot md-di-nd tet ho md-no- 
nun do not go until my return. See 
nyi dok. 

*tet-mo T. Itad-mo s. spectacle, show, 
play, theatre; a wonder Ex.; tet-mo ci 
T. Itad-mo gzigs (-pa) vb. to behold to 
look at a show, tet-mo ndk id.; tet-mo 
nydt vb. to show a spectacle, a wonder. 

ten 1. vb. n. to be short; adj. short; 
vb. t. to shorten i. q. ten-byi vb.; fan ten- 
non to have leg become short; a-so ten- 
non muscles to be shrunk up. 

*ten 2. 1. T. bstan(-pd); "sun-ten (in- 
corr. : sun-tydn) T. gsun-bstan s. command- 
ments. — *pe-ten T. dpe-ten s. a precept, 
a moral doctrine; apologue. — *tem-po, 
tem-bo also incorr. tyem-bo T. bstan-ba s. 
law, rule, doctrine, regulation, govern- 
ment, sdn-gye tem-bo s. the Buddhist 
religion; tem-bo tsam vb. c. c. -ka to rule 
Gren. tem-bo tsdk vb. to establish a law, 
a government; t.-bo-sd ko s. the order 
of government. 

2. T.,rten s. a hold, a support; repre- 
sentative *sdm-ten T. sems-ten a r. of the 
will or mind; a visible representation; 
*ku-ten T. sku-rten a statue, a figure; 
abode, residence, "^Ma-ten T. hla-rten s. 
an idol, shrine; a symbol, token; *lun- 
ten T. lun-rten s. prognostication, pro- 
phesy; tem-bre T. rten-brel s. omen, sign, 
auspices, t.-b. a-ryum good efPect, adj. 
auspicious, t.-b. a-jdn evil effect, adj. 
inauspicious, t.-b. nye-wiin-sd sut evil 
tidings. — T. rten(-pa) vb. to depend, to 
rely on, s. that which supports, that which 
holds, 16m ten vb. to guide, to in- 
struct, in L. used in s. of direction 
sd-lem ten whither (is he going). 

a-ten adj. permanent, fixed, settled, 

established, a-ten bam-bo s. a permanent 
settler, one who resides always in the 
same place, mlo a-ten s. a fixture; I6m 
a-ten s. an established road, public road; 

tep 1. incorr. for fyep q. v. 

tep 2. vb.. 1. to dam up water ur'i tep, 
dyuk tep spittle to collect in, mouth; 
2. s. a contrivance for catching fish by 
stopping up the water forming a fall 
and placing nets thereon; tep tsdk vb. 
to catch fish lit. to guard as they fall 
over the current formed by t. 

*tein T. ItemQ-pa full, see also Itam-pa) 
in L. vb. t. 1. to stufP as mouth, basket, 
2. to fill to the mouth (as pit), 3. n. to 
be stuffed up, to be bound, .to be costive 
as bowels; td-bdk tern; pd-hdn tern ndn 
hole to be filled up; tem-Mn mon s. 
binding medicine; confused with fern 
q. V. fdt tem-ld zuk. 

a-tem s. stuffing, thrusting into, press- 
ing into. 

*tetTi-po, tem-bo see under ten 2. 1. 

*tem-pdn also tani-p6n T. tem-pa M. s. 
1. a threshold, 2. flights of steps. 

tem-bar {a-^kun s. n. of a tree, Xantho- 
xylum acanthopodium; miin-gu t.-b. s. 
another spec. i. q. sd-fi rik q. v.; t.-b. nyok 
s. n. of a large shrub Skimmia laureola. 

* tem-bre see ten 2. 2. 

tem-gyen to s. ace. Je. 2, 259 a spec, 
fiowerpecker, Ixulus occipitalis Q'-tem- 

*ter 1. T. gter s. treasures, hidden 
treasures, the treasures of the earth, ne- 
ter-sd lyan s. a place of hidden treasure, 
ter ran-bo ma-ra mun Mara as guardian 
of treasures P.; ter-sd mlo used in sense 
of all the works of God: rum-sd ter the 
blessings of God. 

ter 2. s. a spec, kingfisher. Halcyon 
coromandelicus. W., R. 205. See also 
siin-kydn pd-lan. 

tel 1. i. q. tydl see under tdl. 

tel 2. (see also let) vb. n. to be ended, 
to be finished, to terminate; tel-bo s. the 
end, the final. — a-tel s. the end, the 
extremity, the horizon, a-tel lyan s. the 


to— toh 


confines of a country, the frontier; rh'i 
a-tel the end of speaking, co a-tel the 
end of a book, li a-tel the extremity of 
a house. 

to 1. adv. (see also to) up there, up, 
above; to to high above, there; to fu high 
above; to-ba there above (distant) less 
definite than to-bi there above (near); 
to-o there above; to-lon upwards, straight 
upwards M. 73. — to-re adj. s. that above, 
that up there. See ton 2. 

to 2. pron. rel. interr. who, which, what; 
it is sometimes used for things as well 
as persons, sun-mut pum-byon to con- 
nun-go the wind or the clouds which is 
the swifter; to-lta to whom, whom, to- 
ka-ld 1. whom, whomsoever; 2. any one, 
every one, to-ka-ld md-tydn-ne it has 
happened to no one; to-ka-ld vydt gdn 
Kyet md-nyin-ne ask whomsoever you 
please, nothing to me; to-ka-ld sd-re 
gat-re to every one what he wanted; to 
kd-ka Id md-non-ne kd-ka non-so tho' he 
may have escaped others he shall not 
escape me; lit. into whosoever power he 
may not have gone (or fallen) he shall 
into mine, to-nun from whom, who, to- 
nun-ld mat-bo md-nyin-ne without cause; 
to-nun to-ka pon yd Id mat-td-o do ]nutual 
service let every one do good one to 
another; — to-ld every one, every body, 
to-ld m,d-nyin-ne no one, no body, there 
is no one, to-ld md-si-ne no one has seen, 
tyol to-ld md-lon-ne mat-tun bring no one 
along with him; — to-sd whose, to-sd 
a-kup whose child, to-sd a-kup gdn-ld ho 
m mat-sdn-go what business is it of yours 
whose child I am; to-sd nyi go-run whose- 
soever it may be; to-sd-re whosoever, 
whatsoever; to-sd re U-wun-re whatsoever 
any one may say; — to gun-nd whosoever, 
anyone, every one. to gdh-ld whoever; 
to go-run whoever, whosoever, anyone; 
to zdn like whom; to lyan with whom,, 
along with whom. 

*to 3. T. das s. baggage, burden, to bii 
vb. to carry b., to bun-bo s. a carrier of 
burden, to -bo s. a porter; — to ka s. a 

piece of wood fixed in baskets etc. to 
strengthen the frame-work. 

to 4. see pan to, negat. pan md-to-ne. 

to 5. see cok-to a flat tomb. 

*to 6. T. rtogs(-pa') vb. to understand, 
to know, see under nan to, tan to. 

*to-ddt T. dod (equivalent) s. equality, 
uniformity M. 138; /cat tet to-ddt mat vb. 
to do as much as one is capable of; to- 
ddt fak vb. to equal, to reach to; to-ddt 
md-fak-ne it is not equal to. 

*to-mo T. dor-ma s. pantalons, trowsers, 
to-mo 6t vb. to take off trowsers, to-mo 
suk vb. to put on trowsers. 

to-tsu s. account, to-tsu kyop vb. to take 
account, as of money, to call a person, 
to account as for actions. See also tu-tsu. 

*to-tsdt frequ. incorr. for tu-ts'dt q. v. 

*to-t§(}n T. Ito and tsan s. a companion, 
a fellow-lodger. 

to-rd J. i. q. td-ro q. v. 

tok 1. vb. 1. to be respectful, md-tok- 
nd li to speak disrespectfully. 

tok 2. vb. to sound wrongly, to have 
impediment in speach, to speak wrongly, 
to mispronounce; to be out of time as 
voice from cold. 

tok 3. Tjdog vb. to be narrow; to be 
too small to obtain (as box), to be ob- 
structed as road (see tok 2?); to be in 
distress, to be in difficulty. 

*tok 4. T. rtog{-pa) vb. to judge, try, 
prove, examine, rin tok to investigate an 

*tok 5. T. dogs(-pa) vb. to fear toknydn; 
s. danger, fear, dread for, a dangerous 
crisis, tok-ka ti vb. to reach a dangerous 
cr.; tok-bo dot vb. to recover fr. danger, 
to remove cause of dread. See under nam. 

*tok 5. T. gtog(^-pa) vb. to pull out, 
to pull up as roots, to extract. 

tok s. the head. Hooker 2, 33; the 
top of anything, top-ornament etc.; the 
chief, the great, tok pd-no the great king; 
tok td-lyd dd the chief of waters; tok nd- 
li nd-z6n nyo the great goddess of pro- 
creation; mk-tok (abbrev. also tok in 
comp.) tlie neck, tok lin s. the cervical 


to k—* ton 

ton— tpr 

vertebra; tiik-tok cak s. id.; tuk-tok tin 
vb. to cut off head with one stroke, to 
behead, to decapitate, tuk-tok-ka ti vb. 
to be at point of death Tbr.; tuk-tok-ka 
zdk yb. to be dead Tbr. 

tok 6. s. a vessel for ghi woV tok; — 
pd-tok (see M) a bamboo -platter, a 
wooden platter. 

a-tok s. the red Khododendron a-tok 
kun; a-tok mot the white Eh. 

*ton 1. num. T. ston thousand J., see 
ha-zar; *ton-hr6k T. ston-prak id., ton- 
nydt 2000, ton-kat-sd kd-ti 1010, ton-gyo 
a hundred thousand. 

*ton 2. (T. don gone) to be extinct, 
as race; to be obsolete, as word; a-gyit 
ton-non race or family to be extinct; 
nrl ton-non language to be extinct; tmk 
ton-non word to be obsolete. 

*ton 3. T. ston{-pa) 1. empty, void; 
unpopulated, uninhabited, set ton T. set- 
stor't void of strength, nyot torfi an open 
place for cultivation, ton-s6 T. ston-sa 

1. an open place of ground, t.-so snt vb. 
to make a clearance, to clear a space 
of ground from trees; 2. n. pr. of a lake 
below sd-ton; — ton cet T. ston cad (a 
broken pledge) an empty, void contract, 
ton cet mat vb. to forget; cet-ton T. cad- 
ston a void contract. — 2. broad, as road 
ton lorn or lorn ton s. a highroad, a high- 
way T. ston lam. — ton-lem straight in 
direction of. 

*ton 4. T. ytohi^ha) 1. to let go, to 
depute; 2. to give, to bestow; ton cak 
ton fat to propitiate T., it was done 
chiefly by offerings of gold, silver or 
jewelry more than by the usual fowl-offer- 
ing; 3. a fine, a compensation for man's 
slaughter, t. zdk vb. to be fined for do.; 
t. Mk vb. to pay do. 

*ton 5. T. don s. 1. a pit, an abyss, a 
profundity, ton h&fi s. id.; ton-dek see 
tdn-dek the regions below td-lyd da. 

2. a tube, hollow cylindrical vessel, *ton- 
cun T. don-cun s. a small tube, percussion- 
cup or anything of that sort, td-kli ton 
the colon, great gut; 3. a granary zo ton. 

(1) reduplic. sun-tori lyan siin-ton zon 
a place full of ravines; (2) sun-ton fya 
dot to dig for deep buk Tbr.; sun- ton 
cuk-sd su t'o to cork up. M. 

ton 6. i. q. tan (to bind), a-toh (a-tan) 
a sheaf of corn. 

(ton) 7. reduplic. siin-ton, a-nyor sun- 
ton deaf, sun-ton tek bam to be deaf Tbr. 
*ton-kut s. (T. skud see ku£) thread, 
wire, tm- tmi-kut s. silk-thread, jer ton- 
kut s. gold-wire, kom ton-kut s. silver- 
wire, pun-jen ton-kut s. iron-wire, ki to/'i- 
kiit s. co.ttou-thread. 

ton tik-fo i. q. kum-si bon-fo, Geocichla 
citrina see under si. M. 
toii-de see under fon-de. 
ton-mik s. a light repast before bed- 
time, zo t.-m. tu-tsdt supper-time. 

ton-mun s. n. of evil spirit, represented 
as an old man, ton-mun zdk vb. to suffer 
under influence of t; swellings, as cold 
in the eye or face etc., used to be attri- 
buted to him the victim considering he 
had received a blow from the staff of 
this mun. 

*ton-'ayuk T. dbyug{-pa) (to cast, to 
fling) s. powder Tbr. for *ze q. v. to/i- 
ayiik op vb. to fire off powder (as gun 
without bullet). 

tot vb. to be rough, to be unpolished, 
coarse; tot-ld adv. i. q. pd-tot-ld or piir- 
tot-ld rough, rugged, unpolished M. 67; 
td-fap tot vb. "to wrinkle the mouth", 
to grin Tbr. 

top vb. to rest upon, to lean upon 
(lightly), to lay hands on, top-lu/l din 
to stand with hand resting lightly on 
anything. See top 1. 

"top T. stobs s. power, force, t.-nyim-bo 
s. a powerful man, a great or wealthy 

torn, reduplic. tum-tom-ld swelling, 
puffed out. 

*tom cot T. Ito mcod s. a thanksgiving, 

a grace before meals, torn cot mat vb. 

to render the thanksgiving; see also 

tarn- cot. 

tor 1. vb. to run away, to flee, to 

tor— *td 

'td-mo— *tdk 


escape, to desert, tor-non fled, deserted. 
See td)\ tyor. 

tor 2. a) Tbr. vb. to be burned as 
house a-do U tor non. b) see fyuk tor 
s. ambuscade; fr. T. gtor{-ba)l. 

*tor 3. T. gtor, tor-mo T. gtor-ma s. 
an offering and ceremony of casting out 
evil spirits tor-dok T. gtor-zlog s. id.; 
tor-dok njak s. ceremony of casting out 
evil spirits; tor-mo ton vb. to offer offer- 
ing; tor Icuk s. a bag for containing the 
articles of o.; tor t'ep s. a small dish for 
holding oblation; tor bum s. the vessel 
for holding wateroffering. 
*tor-mo see to-mo. 

tol, a-tol adj. heavy-rumped, slow to 
move, inactive, used with tHk-cek: t.-c. 
tol-bo a heavy lout. 

-td should be -t-6 see under 6. 
td l.s. buttermilk. '^QeT:.dar{-ba),da-ra. 
*td 2. T. gtar(-ba) see *hrdk to T. 
/i'rag gtar. 

*td 3. T. 'dogs{-pa) see kyon td s.v. kyon. 
*td 4. 1. T. rtags s. a mark, sign, 
token, characteristic, an evidence of, in- 
dication of, mo-sd to the scar of wound, 
go-nun a-dom kldn-nuii-sd to a-re gum 
this shall be a token unto thee, that I 
have sent thee Ex. ; a-kd-sd to a person's 
mark in place of signature; a-liit-sd to 
a-mlem-ka pld the workings of heart are 
written in face; *t6 tydn (T. rtags bstan) 
vb. to show sign, to tydn-bo a mark as 
in order to know a thing again, a sign, 
a signal. — 2. T. rtogs{-pa) or Itos, mik to 
vb. to recognize; — 3. T. Itas s. portent, 
omen, prodigy to nyo, bik dum-pu-ka tuk- 
sim myil gdn to giim if a cow winds its 
tail round post of house, it portends evil; 
li dum-pu du-ba aii gdn to gum when 
digging a hole for house-post, if a hole 
is found it is ominous; so-nap-ka hik ryan 
gdn to gum if a cock crow at night it is 
ominous; kd-ju yoJi gdn to gum if a dog 
howl it is 0.; hik-mot ryan gdn to gum 
if a hen crow (at all), it is a bad sign; 
han-la klo 9^^ t^ 9'«-'m if a thunderbolt 
falls, it is ominous. 

Deriv. (1) tot, a-tot s. 1. a sign, in- 
dication; moh tot s. the indications of 
dream; so yu-sdn-sd tot a sign that it 
will rain, so r yu-sdn-sd tot a s. of good 
weather, 2. a ledge (as in rock Idn tot), 
a furrow (of earth), a step (as of stairs 
pd-kyo tot), a notch (in wood) a-tot nyi 
nan to be notched; tot tdt hron vb. to go 
up step by step. 

tot mat vb. to make mark, to indicate. 
tot den s. remarks, observations, the 
result of indications. 

*td-mo T. gtd-rna s. a pledge, a pawn, 
a surity, to-mo to or fap vb. to place in 
pawn or pledge, to give as surity (person 
or thing); to-mo pli vb. to repudiate one's 
responsibility; to-mo lut vb. to redeem 
pledge; mi-sd to-mo s. personal security, 
bail; gi-c6-sd to-mo s. hypothecation of 

tdk 1. ononi. dropping from tree so tok 
glo. tok tok drop by drop M. 68; cfr. 
T. btig{-pd). 

tdk 2., a-tok s. a hollow in which birds 
chiefly make their nest, fo tok s. a birds 
nest; md-rd mun tok s. the abode of 
Mara in hollow of rock. 

tdk 3. (see 2?) vb. t. to insert as stick 
into hole, to stuff up hole by inserting 
anything into it aii tok; obsc. vb. copulare, 
s. lustful dalliance. 

*tdk 4. fr. T. pf. bfags fr. "fag {-pa to 
grind) grinding, lun-tok a handmill. 

*tdk 5. T. rtog(-pa) vb. t. to try, to 
examine, to investigate. See tok 4. 

*tdk 6. T. 'dag{-pa) vb. n. to be pure, 
clean, t. to purify, to cleanse, md-z-ii tok 
to purify body; Id-yo tok-non the sin is 
washed out; — tok-bo adj. pure, justified; 
— tdk-ld purely; tok-ld ii vb. to speak 
purely, correctly, tok-ld mat 1. to cleanse, 
2. to excuse, justify; — tok-lu s. purify- 
ing, o-ba Idn za-din td-rdk rel-ld-ka pd- 
tek nydt sam zon su-wun-sd dyodi-sdn-sd 
tok-lu-sd po-ld nydn fo-ivun nyi there 
were set there six waterpots of stone, 
after the manner of the purifying of the 
Jews, containing two or three firkins 



apiece J. — tok-ldt s. purity, chastity. — 
a-tok adj. pure, clear, holy, virtuous, mu 
fdt-re a-fon man-po com md-gat-ne yaii-ld 
Im tydn-nd tok bam un a-yu a-tok gum 
yaii-ld gun-nd a-tok md-go-ne he that is 
washed needeth not save to wash his feet, 
but is cleau every whit: and ye are clean, 
but not all J. 

tdn see tdn; ton (thousand). 

t6n 1. a-t&n 1. the beginning, the be- 
ginning of a field, a-ton z6n as at first, 
as before; 2. the chief root of ginger, 
bamboo, the rhizome of plantain, the 
lower part of tree. 

tdn 2. vb. n. to be covered with dirt 
md-74 ton ham; a-tdn adj. dirty. 

*t6h 3. T. gton(-ba) vb. t. to let have, 
to give, to make, to cause, jiim-bo ton 
vb. to give alms; mi rek ton vb. to give 
to the flames (as country); hrim ton 
vb. to inflict punishment; son ton yh. to 
confer purification, to purify; mi ton vb. 
to compensate for man's slaughter, s. com- 
pensation for do.; led ton vb. to abuse, 
see Mo, s. abuse. See also ton. 

tdt 1. see (6 4. 

tdt 2. vb. to hold between teeth, tot 
bu non vb. to go along holding between 
teeth as dog carrying anything, a-U tot 
to get tongue between teeth. 

tdn 1. vb. to become barren a-kup ton- 

tdn 2. above, upper, superior, ton myin 
above and below; met. brow-beating t6n- 
nun-sd rin brow-beating language; — 
a-ton adj. upper, above a-ton kon s. the 
upper side. See also to 1. 

tdp 1. vb. t. I. to support, to sustain, 
to press up, to rest on, tdp to vb. to 
place support; II. to assist, to supply, to 
nourish, md-rd kom-sd tdp to help a man 
with money, t6p-ld mat vb. 1. id. krit- 
idn-bo-sdn-ka top-Id mat to provide for 
the poor P.; 2. to administer to one's 
wants; sak tdp to uphold the mind, to 
encourage, to comfort; III. to enjoy, to 
employ c6 top to make tea, gan Ion 
tmm-sdn mim-lom top-so there hereafter 

*tdp— *tdm 

you will enjoy the blessing of meeting 
me P. 

top-bo s. a prop, a support, a stay, a 
supporter; tdp-sdn &. 1. id., 2. subsistence. 
— a-top s. 1. a support, li top a prop of 
house, 2. explet. to a-pyil q. v. 

Deriv. pa-top s. the neck, also put- 
tdp. — pUn-tdp s. assistance, help: pun- 
tdp piin-jd; U pun-top props to a house; 
pun-tdp mat vb. to help, to assist. 

Cans, tydp to lean against, to recline 
against, tun-gron tun-gryop-ka tydp ham 
the ladder is resting against the wall; 
tydp da vb. to lean J.; tydp(-Mn) fo vb. 
to place in a leaning position; tydp ham 
1. to be reclining, to be asleep, 2. Tbr.: 
to be dead. — a-tydp a. leaning, a-tydp 
lyar'i place to lean on. 

*tdp 2. T. stobQ-pa) vb. to give, to 
bestow, to grant, to offer, to present. 

tdm 1. vb. (cfr. T. rtan-po adj. firm) 
to be firm, to be strong, stedfast, to be 
unyielding, resolute, to be constant, tdm- 
liin hrim vb. to punish severily; to get 
fixed in running stream as tree, jungle 
kun uA-kyon-ka tdm-ndn the tree has be- 
come fixed in the stream when before 
floating down. — tdm kdn vb. to harden, 
hu-nun lok-rem ndn md-knn-nd sdn-ka 
go-nun hit lut tdm kdn-so I will harden 
his heart, that he shall not let the people 
go Ex. — tdm-bo adj. strong, firm, solid, 
inflexible, tdm-ld adv. strongly, firmly, 
tdm-ld dam vb. to bind firmly, tdm-ld li 
vb. to speak firmly; tom-ld zuk vb. to 
work strongly, a-lUt tdm-ld mat to 
strengthen the heart. 

a-tdm adj. strong, severe (as punish- 
ment), a-kd a-tdm 1. a strong arm, 2. a 
miser; rin a-tdm li vb. to speak decidedly. 

tdm-ldt s. strength, power, firmness, 

tdm 2., tUm-tdm-ld broad (as face), 
thick (as neck). 

tdm 3., dUm-tdm s. the loom or rather 
part of the loom over which the warp 
is stretched, the upper frame-work. 

*tdm 4. T. Itam full, t.-ld blydn to fill 

tdm— tyak, a-tyak 

tyak, ka-tydk— tyat 


full; — hon. to be born fa-no tom-non 
the king is born. 

tdm 5. Tb. to charge with, to give in 
charge, to commission dyok t. byi vb. to 
c. with a business; gi-c6 t. byi \h. to give 
property into charge; torn lyd to receive 
charge of; t. lyan a place of deposit; 
torn -bo a depositary. 

*tdm 6. T. gtam s. speach, talk, dis- 
course, used also in s. of evidence, verbal 
instruction. — tdm-ydm-bo s. one acquaint- 
ed with speach, eloquent; tom-nyim-bo 
speaking, able to speak. — pe torn s. 
a proverb, a saying. — torn to s. lit. a 
characteristic of teaching, discipline, sub- 
jection, subjugation; torn to mat vb. to 
correct, to teach one a lesson by chastise-, 
ment, to tame, to humble, to subjugate. 
*tdm-ku T. fa-ma-Ica s. tobacco, tdm-kii 
cop vb. to chew tobacco, to spit it out, 
tom-kii fan vb. to smoke t., tom-ku f&ni 
vb. to chew t. See also tam-ku. 
tdm-co i. q. tom-cot. 

tdr 1. vb. to ward off, to guard against, 
to fence off, pd-tu tor to ward off a blow, 
fydn tsok tdr to guard against the enemy, 
so-z6n tor to to take precautions against 
cold, un tsot tor to guard against a flood 
by making embankments. 

*tdr T. dar s. silk, see tar 4.; tor rip a 
flowered silk-cloth; sail of boat, perhaps 
from the above word silk, or should be 
perhaps more correctly written tor q. v. 
tdl, a-tol 1. s. a block of wood, kun 
tol, san tdl, 2. i. q. tol. 

tdl tdl- adj. short (dress), tdl-ld tdl-ld 
short as clothes; tdl-ld tdl-ld dydm to 
wear short clothes. 

tya, tyd-ld tyd-ld or td-tyd-ld adv. 
appearing small as from a distance also 
small, not full grown, a-p6t td-tyd-ld pot 
nan fruit to . hang far at extremity of 
branch; td-tyd-ld si to seem small from 

tya-kat in great numbers, innumerable, 

tyak, a-tyak adj. small, minute, little, 
nyot t. a small cultivation; tydk-bo small. 

little; tydk-pdn or a-tydk s. nicknacks 
(applied to any little domestic furniture), 
also applied to a field and a few other 

tydk, ka-tyik s. 1. white star or mark 
on breast as of bear, kiir-gv, tyak a white 
star on breast; sd-na kd-tydk s. the white 
.mark on breast of bear. 2. s. palpitation, 
fluttering kd-tydk-ld li vb. to feel palpi- 

tydk-ld or tydk-kd tydk-kd adv. agitation, 
palpitation of heart, tydk-ld or tydk-kd 
tydk-kd li vb. to feel agitation or palpi- 

tydii s. adj. the whole, the total; all, 
every, tydii mak-bo all the dead, a-yu- 
nun kd-sum go-nun 7nd-r6 tydii a-kydt 
sd-uyak-ka sd-ld mat-ren sak-lyak-kun-d 
are ye angry at me because I have made 
a man every whit whole on the sabbath- 
day? J. — tydit-iid adv. altogether, en- 
tirely; tydii- nd sd-tet nyi-wuri-go how 
many are there in all, what's the total. 
tyan, a-tyuii adj. young, small (applied 
only to children) o'« a-tydii, nikn-lyeii 
a-tydri; tydii enough for a child tydn-nd 
tydii-iid inquiringly; small, just enough 
for a child, tydn-nd tydn-nd 16m vb. to 
walk looking carefully at one's steps as 
child when first beginning to walk; bon 
tydn-sd a-z6m a mouthful of food, uyeii 
bon, tydn-iiu. tydn-nd a child just able to eat. 
tyan vb. 1. to be steep as descent, 
2. to be topsy-turvy i. q. tyiiii, tyuk. 

tyat 1., a-tydt, sd-tydt etc. see under 
tet] see also tydt 2. 

tyat 2. vb. t. 1. to touch, kd-sum md- 
tydt-tUn do not touch me; to feel, to try 
go tydt ndk-so I shall feel it, I shall try 
it; 2. also tydt to be finished Id-vo tydt- 
non month to be completed; rin tydt-ld 
li vb. to finish speaking; nyen con tydt 
vb. to complete negociations for the price 
of bride; tydt zuk vb. to finish kd-sHm 
kl6n-bo-sd fu-sdin tydt zuk-kuH-sd M dyok 
lel-Mn-re kd-su a-zom gii.m my meat is to 
do the will of him that sent me, and to 
finish his work J. 


iySt— tyap 

tyam— tyal 

ty4t (see also tydt) vb. t. to hack, to 
hew as wood kun tydt; kd-lok-nun tydt- 
non gnawed by rat. 

tyan 1. vb. to fall in with, as with the 
enemy fydn tydn, to meet with, as with 
calamity sd-fi tyan, to happen, ka non-so 
fi sun-miit di-wun-sd tyan sd-ld as soon 
as we meet with a favorable wind P.; 
to obtain a-jdm tyan to obtain the fruits 
of one's acts; to be seasonable, opportune. 
— tydn-lun 1. happening, occurring; 
2. accidentally, tydn-lun gal vb. to break 
accidentally. — tydn-ldt s. occurrence, 
event, incident, casuality. 

a-tydn s. season; occurrence, event, 
opportunity P. a-tydn-ka md-mat-nd gdn 
mat md-liun-nd so if you do not take the 
opportunity you will not be able to do 
it; a-tydn zdk-liin accidentally; — a-tydn 
ryu a fortunate time, a-tydn md-ryu-nd 
an unlucky time. 

tyan 2. cans, of tdn, ton to drink q. v. 

tyan 3. vb. t. to stop, to stay, not to 
permit to go, a-kup-nun a-mo tyan the 
child stops the mother. 

tyan 4. i. q. tdn, ten. 

tyap 1., tyip (see also tydi) 1. to touch 
lightly, gently; 2. to be concluded, ended, 
finished as speach a-ldn kd-su rin tyap 
now my saying is finished; cognated with 
Liishai tap: d-tap-td "it has ended" Brojo 
Nath Shaha, a grammar of the L. language, 
Calc. 1884. 87. — a-tydp, a-tydp a-nat (2) 
s. meaning as of word. 

tyap 2. vb. 1. to knot; 2. to be over- 
whelming in power, to be extreme in 
anything; 3. to be perplex, embarrassed, 
4. to be inexorable, selfwilled a-tyak-kun 
tydp to be headstrong, 5. to be intricate 
in speach. — s. a-tydp (also adj.) s. 1. a 
knot kun tydp a knot in wood, tuk-pdt 
tydp joint of knee, can tydp lumbar verte- 
brae, adj. tough, hard (said of wood), 
2. s. the extreme of anything, a whirl- 
wind, see also under cdp and sun-mut 
(mdt^, muk-sd a-tydp thick ]ung\e, diik-sd 
a-tydp great difficulty, u/l a-tydp a whirl- 
pool, 3. adj. a-tydp perplexed, s. the ex- 

treme of badness mun-sd a-tydp arch- 
fiend; 4. s. nurn-sim-nyo-sd a-tydp a con- 
founded person with whom one cannot 
reason, adj. implacable, inexorable, 5. adj. 

tyam 1. vb. 1. to wind a ball as of 
cotton ki tydm^ 2. s. the ball of cotton, 
3. with a-kd, kd tydm s. the wrist. 

(tyam 2. see 1.) reduplic. tum-tydm-ld 
low, small as tree, bushwood: sd-ryo t- 
t.-ld; a-pyun t.-t.-ld a low heap. 

tydm vb. 1. to have convulsive motion, 
to have fluttering motion, to have spas- 
modic m., to tremble, mak-(dydi)-ba tydm 
vb. to be convulsed when dying, sak-lyak 
(lun) tydm vb. to stamp with, to be con- 
vulsed with rage; 2. to be moved as the 
spirit directs to keep time in — : I6k t. 
in dance; rap-nydn-ka t. to music. 

tydr vb. I. to be opposite, to be vis a 
vis, face to face, fydr nan vb. to sit face 
to face etc., tydr-ld adv. vis a vis. — 
2. to accord with, to coincide mlem tydr 
to be face to face, to coincide, to corre- 
spond, Mam-cu-sd rin sem-ban mlem tydr 
having examined the evidences in the 
litigations the statements agreed. — 3. to 
be in time, to arrive at the age of ma- 
turity (as youth), to be in season as fruit 
etc., num-lyen fd-lyen tydr for youth to 
arrive at age of maturity, a-zom zom 
tydr tet md-fi-ne it is not yet dinner-time; 
tydr-run-ka U vb. to arrive in proper or 
full time; so-yiit tydr ti the rainy season 
has arrived; fam-pot tydr fruit to be in 
season; — tydr non adult, hu tydr nm 
hum vydt-td he is of age, ask him J. 

tyar, also tyer and tyir vb. 1. to shake, 
as earth, liouse; tydr-ld, tydr-rd lydr-rd 
shaky, quivering, trembling, tydr-ld li vb. 
to feel shaky or tremulous motion; 2. to 
move, as heart, affection, riit li bam ydn 
tydr-ld md-yd-ne tho' I speak, he will not 
stir, or it makes no impression on him. 
tyal see under tdl. 

tyal vb. t. to roll down, as stone; to 
throw, cast down, as tree; Tbr.: to send 
as rtiessage; to overcome, to vanquish. 

tya — tyii 

*tyu — tyum 


tya vb. t. to feed child as with gruel, 
ayen bon tya vb. to feed child. 

tyak, a-tyak s. glans penis, fik tyak. 

tyan 1. adj. complete, universal (ob- 
solete), hon tyan a complete fool. See 

tyaii 2. reduplic. sun-tyan attached to M. 

tyan 3. vb. to be dark, to be black, 
adj. dark, tyan dum dark cloth, cok tyaii 
dum s. a pall; tyan-ka in the dark; tyan- 
Id adv. dark tyan-ld nun vb. to become 
dark. — mik tyan to close eyes Tbr. — 
tyari ram s. pitchdark, tyan-nd ram-md 
so-nap a pitchdark night. — to be black, 
said only of pigs mon tyan. 

a-tyati adj. black, said only of pigs 
mdn a-tyan. 

tyafi-mo ace. M. "a dark mass" s. an 
elephant; tyan-mo Ion s. a male e.; 
tyan-mo mdt s. a female e. ; tyan-mo fo- 
16m litly. the molar teeth of e., a spec, 
of kur-gok wild plantain; tyan-mo sun-gi 
s. the proboscis, the trunk; tyan-mo vik 
s. ivory. 

tyap vb. 1. to touch, to feel, tyap-luii 
da to be touching, see tydp; 2. to dip as 
pen into ink etc., to moisten, to madefy, 
nyo-gu ndk-tsd-ka tyap vb. to dip pen 
into ink, ci-ma-ka-ru-ka tyap vb. to dip 
anything into sugar; un-nun mo tyap to 
moisten sore with water. 

tyam, M-tyam and kd-tyam see tydm, 
see also tyum. 

tyam vb. t. to take or apply medicine : 
m6n tyam internally or externally. 

tyir see tyur and tyur. 

tyil, a-tyil see til under ti 2. 

tyu, tyu-m vb. t. 1. to move up and 
down, a-bon tyu vb. to move the mouth, 
to jaw, a-re cu-ts'dt tyum mu-M-ne I can 
not move this clock; to shake, to stir; — 
n. to vibrate a-nyom tyu a leaf to shake, 
tyum kon vb. to cause to shake; 2. to 
train, to break in, to discipline as horse: 
on tyii; to discipline as cliild: on tyu; 
to convert, to correct T. 'dul-ba, Skt. 
ni c. vi P.; to subdue evil spirits: mwi 
tyu; to bring into cultivation as forest, 

jungle: pd-z6k tyu; tyum, kon to cause 
to bring into subjection, cultivation. — 
tyum-ho s. 1. one who moves, a sub- 
duer, 2. motion, movement. — 3. s. axle, 
axle-tree, lior-lo tyu the axle of the wheel, 
the pivot as on which millstone turns 
vun tyii lyan an axle, pivot, lun-tok tyu 
the pivot of millstone; the axis of motion 
m/ik tyii. s. eyelids, mlo tyu s. an earth- 
quake fat tyil. 

a-tyum s. a shaking, fluttering motion 
a-tyvm si to see a shaking, as of reeds 
indicating the presence of game; tyUm 
kon s. the direction of the motion. — 
tyiim or tyiim mun s. an evil spirit, tyiivi 
zuk vb. to suffer under influence of ty., 
vid-ro kHm-dun-sd a-yii hlok gun a-kup- 
mum tyum viun zdk-so if a man commits 
adultery, the child will suffer under in- 
fluence of the evil spirit ty., the limbs 
of the child will wither away. See tyiir. 

*tyu T. rteu see on-tyiX s. colt. 

tyiik I. vb. to jump, to leap, to spring, 
fo tyiik the bird hops; tyiik lot tyak to 
bound and rebound; tyiik hron to rebound, 
to rise upwards, to jump upwards; tyuk 
yon noil to go along leaping. 

tyuk 2. and tyun vb. to turn upside 
down, to be upside down, tyu.n(-liin) fo 
vb. to place topsy-turvy, rin tyiin(-lint) 
li vb. to reverse one's words, to contra- 
dict one's self; tyii/iQ-luri) van (or non) 
vb. to turn head over heel; tyun. kyol to 
make a blundering error. 

tyut s. a mark, a scar as from wound; 
— pur-tyiit-ld marked, scared as by 

tyup vb. t. to destroy, to demolish, to 
ruin, to lay waste, to make desolate, 
fydn-niin lyan tyup the country to be 
ravaged and laid waste by the enemy; 
md-rd hii-do fyak-kiin tyup a person to 
bring ruin on himself; td-dyH-miim tyup 
to debauch woman; sd-ryo tyiip to anni- 
hilate forest; — a-pil tyiip vb. to be dead 
Tbr., to be annihilated, to be dissolved 
into shade. 

tyum see under tyi(. 



tyur— tyok 

tyom— tydt 

tyur (see also tyu) vb. t. to subdue, to 
discipline, to bring into subjection, to 
train, sd-fdn tyur vb. to bring tiger into 

*tyu T. dm s. time, ^tyu-gi/ur (T. dtis 
'gyur-ba times to change) s. unfortunate 
times, *tyu-cen T. dus-cen s. an epoch, a 
festival, solemn or holy time; *tyu-1:o 
i. q. da-t'o s. an almanac, *tyu-z6n T. d.- 
bzan a fortunate time, auspicious season. 
lyah tyu vb. misfortune to fall on country 
s. a time of general calamity, I. tyu gyur 
for the c. to become so. See tu. 

tyuk vb. t. (see also dyuK) to spit, to 
expectorate, o-re-pdn li-wun-sd fdt-ka 
tyuk-lun dyuk-sd fdt byor when he had 
thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and 
made clay of the spittle J. — no tyuk 
to perform an incantation for the healing 
of wounds etc., performed by priest by 
spitting on the sore or person. 

Deriv. tur-tyuk dor s. a spec, of tree- 
mushroom (inferior, but edible). 

tyum, a-tyum s. a cluster, a bunch, tiin- 
rot pot tyum s. a bunch of grapes; tyum- 
Id nan or hydn to hang in clusters; see 
also tydm, tyul. 

tyul vb. to conglomerate, to agglomerate, 
to comprise, to embody, to bring together, 
to epitomize; to be in clusters, tyul-h)/t 
hydn vb. to hang in clusters, tyul t'ik 
vb. to place one thing above another, 
rin gun-nd tyul-QiiA W) vb. to sum up 
one thing above another. — s. a cluster, 
a flock, fo tyul a flock of birds; see tyum. 

tyet see tet. 

tyer vb. t. to abridge M. i. q. iyulf. 

tyer see tydr. 

tyel see tydl. 

tyok vb. t. 1. to cast, to throw, to dart, 
to fling, sun-Mo tyok vb. to cast spear; 
Idn tyok to fling stone; hur-do vun-luh 
tyok to sling a stone, to let fly with sling; 
tal-van tyok to throw up, myil-van tyok 
to cast down; 2. to beat, to pound, to 
thump, to bray md-rd tyok to thump a 
person, sun-kar tyok to pound capsicum; 
is also used in s. of "being cast down" 

"prostrated" with grief, sak-ddk s6t tyok 
to be cast down and overwhelmed with 
grief P. 

tyom vb. to be hairy, to be hirsute, 
shaggy with hair (on face and body of 
man), md-rd a-mlem tyom-tyom-bo a hairy, 
hirsute person. 

tyor vb. 1. to be slack as bowstring, 
to 1)0 loose, to be lax, to be in ruffles 
as cloth, to be flabby as flesh, to tremble, 
tyor nyon vb.t. to loosen, to slacken; tyor- 
rd tyor-rd loose etc., trembling as from 
cold: tyor tyor vyen; 2. to be imperfect, 
to be defective, tyor-ld (or -lun) hlap vb. 
to learn imperfectly, t.-liin dyok zuk to 
do work loosely. 

a-tyor adj. slack (as bowstring), adv. 
imperfectly, a-tyor hlap vb. to learn im- 

tyol vb. n. to be callous, insensible to 
pain as flesh, to be hardened, tyol-ld nun 
vb. to become insensible to pain; — 
tyol-bo an insensible person, i. e. to pain 
i. q. tu (more frequently). 

tydk vb. t. to come in collision with, 
to hit against, to fall against, to knock 
against, kun-ka tyok to strike against tree; 
a-lut-ka tyok-lun mak vb. to strike the 
heart and die; hik ti Idu-ka tyok-lun gram 
break the egg by hitting, it against a 
stone; md-rd tuk-pdt tydk the wife of an 
impotent or incapable person to be with 
child Tbr. 

tydk, a-tydk s. the last, yan-ld sd-ayak 
a-tydk-ka Idt luk kdn-Mn-re but should 
raise (it) up at the last day J. ; the dregs, 
the remnant; — a-tydk-bo the last person, 
a-tydk-ka at last. 

tydt (see also tydt') vb. t. to chop, to 
mince in numerous pieces as meat, to 
turn over, to hew, to cut down in num- 
bers (as men, trees etc.), to do anything 
in numerous scale, to propagate, man tydt 
vb. to mince meat; kun tydt vb. or nyot 
tydt to cut down numerous trees, as when 
preparing cultivation; fydn tydt to massacre 
the enemy, to cut them to. pieces; rii'i 
tydf{-lun) li 1. to speak on numerous sub- 

tydp— tydl 

fa— fan 


jects, 2. to speak on subjects effectively; 
suii tyot dun Tb. to relate numerous stories, 
siin tyot dun-bo s. a story-teller. 

tydp vb. to place anything in a slanting 
position etc. hu-do diim dydm-liin lot 
ty&p nan-lun after he had taken his gar- 
ments and was set down again. — a-tyop 
s. a resting position, sd-dydr mi a-tydp- 
ka to to place the gun in a resting 

tydp caus. of top q. v. 

tydl, td-tyol-ld incorr. for td-dyol-ld see 

tydl vb. to be in company, to associate, 
to accompany, to join with, to coalesce, 
to fraternize, to aid, to cooperate, s. tydl, 
a-tyol 1. companionship, help, assistance, 
a place of assembling; an adjunct, tyol-bo 
or tyol-zon s. fellow-companion, associate, 
bam-tyol s. a fellow-companion, a concu- 
bine; tyol di vb. to come to assistance, 
tyol-nmi, vb. to accompany, tyol-mat vb. 

to help, to aid; to accompany, mik-jit- 
bo-sdn-sd tydl mat to join unto the ene- 
mies Ex.; to compare, a-re-sd mut tyol 
mat-td-o consider this as analogous to 
wealth. — tyol-mat-bo s. a companion, an 
aider, td-ayil tyol s. a female companion, 
2. "adjunct to female" Tbr.: td-dyii tyol 
s. the menses, ayeii tyol or kiip tyol s. 
placenta, secundines; see also cot; tyol- 
mat-bo s. a midwife, iin gyek dydt-ba kat- 
nun a-kd dot- sen tydl-mat-bo-re-nun ki 
a-hyir hu kd-ka lyo dam-luh li it came 
to pass, when she travailed, that the one 
put out his hand; and the midwife took 
and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, 
saying G. 

tydl: tuk-tydl lying backwards in opp. 
to td-gryom, see gryo(r)i); tuk-tydl lyah da 
to lie on back; tuk-tydl lydk vb. to turn 
over back; tuk-tydl td-gryom lydk-luA zo 
to bully and take one's goods; tuk-tydl 
til-ndn vb. to fall backwards. 

fa the tenth letter of the L. alphabet 
T. ^, it is pronounced as t aspirated. 

fa see fi and nyi-t'd s. a grand-child. 

*fa-bo ca [fr. T. mt'ol-ba byed{-pa) or 
bsags{-pd) to confess] ace. M. vb. to re- 
pent, more corr. to make confession, see 
also *tdl. 

fa-rd i. q. fa-ro, t'dk-rd s. a loom. 

fak 1. onom. vb. to chuck, as hen after 
laying egg. 

fak 2. or fak 2. vb. to long for, to be 
anxious after, generally preceded by sak, 
a-bo a-mo sak t'dk to be anxious to see 
parents, to long for home. — fdk-kd t'dk- 
kd fluttering as heart, agitated, as mind, 
quickly, hurredly, fdk-kd fdk-kd K vb. 
1. to speak hurredly, 2. to feel heart 
flutter, to be agitated. — fdk-kd hryak-kd 
quickly, fdk-kd hryak-kd li i. q. t.-kd f.-kd 

li; t'ak-kd hryak-kd ciyok zuk vb. to work 
quickly. Also fdk. 

*fak-rin T. fag-rin s. a long distance, 
a great way. Also fdk-rin. 

fan and fdii ger. fan pt. fydn-fat caus. 
tydn (incorr. fydn') neg. -fdn- cfr. T. ^fun 
(-pa), Newari ton vb. t. 1. to drink, to 
drink out, to swallow as liquid un (water), 
ci (marwa-beer) etc., zo zo ci tan to eat 
and drink i. e. to give a banquet, to hold 
a feast P. ; td-se-fin-niin a lyo-Mn tcm- 
fat-yam-md-o Padmasambhava consumed 
all the marwa he could receive P.; 'Y.'dren- 
pa — 2. to smoke, tdm-kH fdn to smoke 
tobacco, tdm-ku md-fdn md-fdm-mun sd 
pi- Iin md-fdn-ni)n do not smoke, snuff 
or chew tobacco M. 143; — fdn neg. and 
ger. go fdn md-kun-ne I cannot drink; 
hiovi fdn (or fd//) kdn let him drink; fdfi 



tat— tar 

c6k adj. potable, drinkable; — t'dn-bo s. 
an imbiber, drinking-, ci-fdn-bo s. a wine- 
bibber; tdn-bo pd-tek s. a drinking-vessel. 

a-fdn s. fluid, water, anything to drink, 
drink, a draught, a-zom a-t'dn s. meat and 
drink i. e. food; — t'dn-mlo or tarn fdn- 
mlo s. a drinking-vessel. 

Cans, tydn to give to drink, to pour in 
ci-zuk-bo-ren ci dal-ld tydn nan-yam-md-o 
the marwa- maker continued to give 
marwa P., to apply drink to mouth of 
others un tydn to give water to drink, 
nyen tydn to suckle, see dm; tydn byi 
1. q. tydn. 

fan vb. to prove, to overcome, to con- 
quer, to vanquish, go-nun tdn-lun Mm 
•pak-fat I have overcome and vanquished 
him. — si tan-bo s. a newcomer, an im- 
migTant, one who has issued and arrived. 

tan cfr. T. m(onQ-ba to see) vb. to be 
true, to be veritable, to be real; adj. 
true, real; tdn-nun-sd rin-ka ndk-kd have 
regard for the truth; fan jer md-go-ne it 
is not real gold; bi tan md-Kun-ne not 
to be able to prove a charge; md-fdn-ne 
it is not true; fan md tan true or false, 
fan md tan re the truth or falsehood; 
t'dn-nd adv. in truth, truly, verily; fdn- 
iid sak-cin vb. to believe, sak md-fdh-nd 
cin vb. to disbelieve. 

a-fdn adj. true, right; advly. truly, in- 
deed; s. truth, a-tdn cin vb. to believe; 
a-fdn yd vb. to suppose a thing true; 
a-fdn-sd rin Ion to keep the truth; a-fdn- 
niin li vb. to speak with truth; (a-) fan 
a-yan adv. truly; go a-yum fdn a-yan li 
verily verily I say to you J. 

fan see tdn; fdn-po see fun-po. 

faii-kut s. kom tdn-kut silver-fringe, see 

fdt 1. vb. n. to be sallow, to be pale 
(as countenance), a-mlem tat. — redupl. 
td-fdt-bo adj. pale as countenance, a-mlem 

fdt 2. vb. to cry out when playing, see 
flit 2.; tat prot vb. to call out fdt sudden- 
ly, when about to be discovered at hide 
and seek. 

(at 3. A. (also fut^ vb. to jump down, 
to spring into (the water), to jump into 
water dum-pa-rem rek-lun su gd yo gan 
hit. td-gryuk bam, lyan dd-ka fdt-n6n he 
girt his (fisher's) coat unto him, (for he 
was naked) and did cast himself into 
the sea J. — mu fdt to bathe, f.-sd td- 
dyii, kup un-kyon-ka mO, fdt-sdn-ka yii 
when the daughter of Ph. came down to 
wash herself . . . Ex. ; see also tut under 
tu; B. to set (sun) sd-tsiik fdt also s. 
sunset. M. 140. 

(an see fdn or fan. 

fdn vb. t. 1. to discharge, to turn out, 
to expel, to dismiss as person from place, 
to turn out as from ve"ssel, to extract, 
to eliminate, to pay off as debt: num 
fdn; sap-ci fdn to discharge servant; co 
fdn (tea) to draw; rin fdn to be fluent 
of speach, kom fdn to pay out money, 
kom fan-bo s. one having money; ban 
fdn-bo s. one ready with ban; 2. to fire 
off, to discharge as gun sd-dydr mi fdn. 

fdp (see tap') vb. t. to feel as with hand 
by touching, a-Mt fdp vb. to feel the 
breast; to try, to prove, fdp-lun ndk-kd 
feel it, examine it by the touch; fdp-lun 
non vb. to go feeling or groping as in 
dark. — f dp-yap; fdp-yap-ld non vb. to 
grope about. 

fdm 1. vb. t. to select, to pick and 
chose, to select judgingly, zo fdm-liin 
dyek to pick out the ripe corn and eat. 
a-jdn-nun a-ryum fdm to select the good 
from the bad; un-kyon hyok-ba Idn fdm- 
liin hyok when crossing a stream to do 
so carefully picking out stones whereon 
to tread. 

fdm, fdm-md fdm-md dawdling, fdm-md 
fdm-md mat vb. to dawdle, to trifle, 
ay ok fdm-md fdm-md mat vb. to work 

fam vb. to be thick as rice, to be 
close, to be dense; fdm-ld adv. thickly, 
fdm-ld pdk vb. to dibble thickly; zo fdm- 
ld Un hron grain to grow up thickly. 

fdr for nd-fdr s. snout of pig mon far. 

far see fydr, fyer. 

far— fa-la 

*tak— fan 


far see tm lukewarm, to be 1., to be 
warm, not boiling hot un fdr-bam. 

fal s. a roll as of paper, co-gu fdl s. 
a roll of paper, dum fdl s. a roll of cloth; 
see fill. 

*tel yb. T. 'fol(-ba) to pronounce, to 
declare openly, hik-bu tiir-zut fdl-bam-bo 
gum the cock pronounces the opening- 
day; tuh-mo mat-bo fdl to inquiringly 
pronounce one a thief. See *td-bo cd. 

fa 1. part, correl. of sd-fa q. cfr.; — fa 
in comp. is used for a period of time, 
as sd-fa when, o-fa then; at the end of 
a sentence it is sometimes reduplicated 
and redundant as ho sd-fa I6t fi-so fa 
when will you return; or it may in a 
degree render it emphatic as: when will 
you ever arrive. — fa-Id and fal-ld adv. 
quickly, shortly, in short time. 

nam fa-Id in a few years; Id-vo fal- 
Id-ka in a few months; fa-Id mat vb. to 
make haste, to be quick; fah-ld dyok mat 
vb. to do work speedily; fa-Id fyo vb. to 
understand quickly; — fa-grdm-ld adv. id., 
fa-grdm-ld no-o go quickly. 

fa 2. vb. t. to eat (said almost of every- 
thing except rice \zo q. v.J and vegetables 
[bi\); man fa vb. to eat meat; Ku fa vb. 
to eat bread; kiin-tson fa vb. to eat maize; 
fam-pot fa vb. to eat fruit, except per- 
haps kur-don and tun-gut for which zo 
is used; also c. c. -ka, e. c. bik ndk-ba 
a-jdn-sdn-nun bik ndk-ba a-ryum-bo-sdn- 
ka fa-fat the leanfleshed kine did eat 
up the wellfavoured. Ex. — dyo-nicn fa- 
non to be rusteaten. 

*fa 3. T. fags s. a web, a tissue, "fa 
fok T. fags 'fag (-pa) 1. vb. to weave, 
2. s. a loom; see fok; fa-ro T. f.-ra s. 
a weaving place or factory, used by L.'s 
incorrectly for a loom. 

*fa 4. T. mfa, fa met T. mfd Tried end- 
less, boundless, infinite. 

*fa-nd T. fab-gnas s. a fire-place, even 
a furnace M. 

fa-pd rfp s. a marigold, Calendula. 

fa-brd for fap-ro q. cfr. 

fa-la from T. Kralf (a tax) s. an eight- 

ana -piece, fa-la kat s. one eight-ana- 

*fak T. fag s. a rope. 

*fak cat see fok cat. 

fak vb. to be sufficient, to satisfy, to 
reach, to attain to, to be enough, to be 
adequate; to be perfect, finished, com- 
plete, o-re-nun mat-lun kd-do-'sii sak-iyut 
a-re fak-non-ne this my joy therefore is 
fulfilled J. a-kd fak tet as far as one 
can reach; zom tak tet byi give (him) 
sufficiently to eat; — md-fak-ne to be in- 
sufficient, to be impracticable; kom par- 
sdn-ka md-fak-ne to have not sufficient 
money to buy it; rin md-fah-ne the words 
do not reach; he does not hear. — fak-ld 
adv. sufficiently, competently, adequately. 
— fak-ku/i s. reaching; sufficiency; end- 
ing, completion. 

a-fak s. 1. completion; lor-vo a-fak-ka 
at the end of the month, 2. as high as 
one can reach to lift a thing upon or to 
take a thing off; go mlo a-fak tsun I can 
just reach high enough, to lift this off. 

sd-fak-ld adv. fully, sufficiently, brimful. 

fan 1. adv. above see a-fan, o-tan, 

fan vb. to be prepared, to be ready 
for anything, a-dyut-ka fan to be pre- 
pared for war, lyan non-sd/i fan-rmn-d 
are you ready to go out; — to be fixed, 
to be settled, to be fasting, permanent, 
constant, established, hri fan-nun a fixed 
chair, a throne; — to be stedfast in, to 
be resolute, Id-yo sak-cin fan-luii nan 
resolutely suppress evil thoughts; sak-cin 
fan-lun md-nyin-ne not to have time, 
to settle one's thoughts. See also fen, 
nan- fen. 

fah-gdr i. q. tun-gor. 

fat vb. to disagree with, as food, to 
disgust, to make one ill; kd-sum su fat- 
Id md-yd-n£ nothing disagrees with me; 
ci kd-sum md-jit-ne fat-so fermented liquor 
does not agree with me, it would make 
me ill. 

fan reduplic. of fydn, fyen; fan-nd fyan- 
nd unevenly. 


top— fam 

tarn— far 

tap- 1. reduplic. of fyep, fop. 

-t'ap 2. postp. expresses our num. affix 
"teen" M. Gr. 143 as kd-ii kat tap eleTen 

fap 3. incorr. for tup to be durable. 

tap 4. vb. t. to put into, to place in, 
fyu-ka tap vb. to place in pot; lyan-ka 
tap to locate; to entertain as servant, to 
engage, to initiate, dik-cet-bo-sdn pdn-sd 
sa-nya li-ka tap fat (he) put (me) in- 
ward in the captain of the guard's house 
Ex.; sap-lH-ka tap entertain servant, 
vyet oii-ka tap id., in P.: T. bran-du fcas 
blans; they (i. e. the Dakini's) promised 
to serve him; hu rok-kun-ka tap bam he 
is engaged in reading; frdTn tap md-gat- 
ne there is no occasion for apprehension; 
pi tap vb. to note down; sak-tsum sak- 
par tap-pd-o be ye joyful; a-kd tap 1. to 
place hands in; 2. to pilfer, to steal, 
3. to beat, to strike, 4. to engage in 
action. — lot fap vb. to restore, hu-nun 
ctydr-dun-re zon nun-non kd-sum kd-do 
a-bam-ka lot tap hum liydn fat it came 
to pass as he interpreted to us, so it was; 
me he restored unto mine office, and him 
he hanged Ex. — tap to i. q. fap, li-ka 
tap to to lodge; — fap-sdn vb. to lay 
upon, to besmear. 

fap-pUn 1. s. placing in, an insertion, 
an entertaining, engaging; 2. postp. corre- 
sponds to our "able" "ous" as tydn tap- 
pvLh-sd fam a laughable thing; roTn fap- 
pun-sd lyan a fearful place; grdn fap- 
pun-sd tarn a circumstance inspiring hope. 

n'ap T. 'fab vb. to fight; *fap-rd T. 'fab- 
rags s. a rampart, barricade; fap-ro tsdk 
vb. to barricade; see fa-bro. 

t'am 1. vb. 1. to pat head a-fyak tarn; 
2. to prick as with pin ryiim-sd tarn vb. 
to prick with needle; tHk-sdk fam vb. to 
prick marks on body, to tattoo. 

t'am 2. vb. to respond, to reply, lik-ba 
ha md-fam-ne when I called he did not 
reply; hu-nwn, f.-ka a-lo-yo tam-liin li 
he answered him saying Ex. 

t'am 3. s. 1. a thing, a matter; business, 
speach, something, anything, go a-do fam 

dun bo -so I'll tell you something; tarn 
diin vb. to tell tales; tarn dUn-bo s. a 
tell-tale. — su tarn what thing? — fam 
tarn things, articles, circumstances; f um- 
bo s. a thing; 2. misfortune fam mat i. q. 
sd-fi zdk q. v. 3. pref. forms nomina fr. 
roots; see under: kup, kot, kri, grik, cik, 
can, con, cor; ju; nyo (nyof), tu (tuwi), fu, 
dak; ddr, dim,, dyup, nek, ndm, pa-td, pat, 
pun, piJLt, pot, plydk, far, fon, fdt, ban, 
bi, bik, byin, bH, bim, bo, bor, rnat, mi, 
muk, zar, zdk, rin, ruk, ryek, li, len, lyot, 
hyir, vydt, sii, sok, sit, an e. c. tam-cdn s. 
an animal fr. can to foster, fam-pdt s. a 
fruit fr. pot id.; fam- sit s. salve, oint- 
ments fr. sit vb. to anoint etc. 

pd-fam, pur-fam s. i.q. fam s. a thing; 
also explet. to pd-lyii, q. v. ; piir-tam-ld 
advly. fitting, close or adjusted well as 
a pivot in its socket or any pin inserted 
in a hollow; pHr-tam-ld pdk vb. to fit 
closely in a hole. 

t'am, t'am-pu s. a drinking cup, a goblet. 

*fam T. fam(-pd) adj. full. 

*t'am-cet T. tams-cad all, every, perfect, 
f.-c.-Kyen omniscient Skt. sarvajna. 

fam-t'ok vb. 1. to malleate as iron, 
2. obsc. Tbr. copulare. 

t'am-pdn i. q. fem-pon. 

far 1. reduplic. of for. 

far 2. vb. to be even, to be smooth, 
to be broad; far-Id adv. evenly, far-Id 
mat vb. to even, to make smooth; far- 
sin s. a harrow, far-rd far-rd i. q. far-Id, 
tar-rd far-rd not vb. to cut smooth. 

a-far adj. square, even, anything joint 
or cut even; a-mlem a-far a square face 
as broad as long; — td-far-bo adj. broad 
as face, fuUfaced; — pd-tar adj. cut square 
or straight, see pd-tstim; pd-dam pd-tar 
a water-holder with mouth cut square, in 
opp. pd-hlyum cut slanted; pd-tar is also 
used substantively, pd-far-ka md-v6t-ne 
the p. is not cut slantingly. 

far 3. T. mfar s. the end, the aim, the 
point, the goal; far-Mm-ld, t'ar-sum-ld, 
far-cin-ld fr. T. mfar pyin{-pa) reaching 
the end, perfectly, entirely, perfectly, 

tor— t'f 

«f— tik 


tar-cin-ld mat yb. to do anything per- 
fectly; tar top "the end of the rope", 
the utmost limit, the goal. 

tar 4. T. far; far-bo tin T. far-ba glin 
s. a little sacred building like co ten to 
which anyone who flees for protection 
cannot be hurt. 

far (L. w.?) s. a division of the Eong- 
people, H. H. Risley, Tribes and Castes 
of Bengal 2, 7. 

*t'ar-ge fr. T. t'ar-go&? s. absolution of 
sin thro' virtuous acts. M. ' 

t'ar-bdk s. i. q. ta-bok a wooden dish. 

t'al, fal-ld see fa 1. 

t'al vb. (see also ful, fel, teT) 1. to go 
backwards and forwards, 2. to roll up, 
3. to repeat, to reiterate. 

kum-t'al s. repetition, reiteration, tauto- 
logy, recapitulation; reaction, revision; 
kum-fal kiim-nyel backwards and for- 
wards, over and over; repetition, reiter- 
ation; k.-f. k.-ny. zuk vb. to repeat, to 
do over again; k.-f. k.-ny. li vb. to repeat, 
to reiterate. 

t'f 1. s. tips of fingers or toes (vyet); 
the little finger, the little toe, kd fi s. 
tip of fingers, foi't fi tip of toe. 

t'i 2., a-fi adj. small, said of yams; — 
fit s. small tubercule of Dioscorea; biik 
fit a small unripe yam; fik fit Tbr. penis 
puerilis. See fi 1. 

t'f 3., t'f-t neg. -fin- vb. to reach, to 
arrive, T. gsegs-pa etc. fi-wHn p. pres.; 
pret. fi-non (-ne-yam-o). lyan-ka fi to 
arrive at home; a-kd-ka fi to come to 
hand; a-mak-ka fi to arrive at the point 
of death; hu fi-md-o he is arrived; hO. 
a-om lyarl md-fin-ne neither cometh to 
the light .... J.; fi-sdn-ka non-ba when 
about reaching his destination; fi-ld mat 
vb. to convey, to conduct, to cause to 
arrive; fit md-Mim-nd cannot arrive; fit 
kon to permit or cause to arrive, to ad- 
mit, fit kon-ld mat vb. to cause to arrive, 
fit-Id mat id., fit fat-yam-o pret. of the 
cans, he caused to come. 

Der. fit, a-tit s. arrival, a-fit nyok s. 
delay in arriving, (a-') fit tu-ts'dt s. the 

time of an-iving, fit-lyan s. place of a., 
destination; — td-fit i. q. a-fit. See bit fi. 

ff 4., t'l-t see fd, neg. -fin- vb. to be 
related to, to be akin go hu-sd niim-uyen 
fi I am his relative, I am related to him; 
go hii-sd bri-zon fi I am related to him 
by marriage; go hii-sd su-ld md-fin-ne 
I am in no ways related to him; to be 
partnership; fit-bo s. a relation, relative, 
hii-sd m fit-bo go to whom are you re- 
lated, who is your relative. 

nyi-fi (or nyi-fd), nyi-fit a great great 
grandchild etc., see nyi. 

Comp. fi kuu s. 1. grandfather, 2. used 
as a title of respect for an aged person, 
3. Tbr. an enemy, fi kun nyo kun s. 
ancestors, fi kun nyo kun-sd fok the times 
of ancestors, fi ku/'i nyo kun-sd riii s. tra- 
dition, fi kun nyo kun-sd siifi s. a legend, // 
kuii nyo kun-sd gyit s. ancestry, genealogy, 
fi kun fill great grandfather, fi kuii fin 
great gr. grandfather, fi kuii tek gr. gr. 
gr. grandfather, fi kun puvi gr. gr. gr. gr. 
grandfather. — fi 16m s. union, affinity, 
relation, communication. 

See also nyi. 

t'fk, tuk-t'fk s. the penis Tbr.: td-ryeL- 
bii ; bu-sd gan; fik-gyfin s. penis erectus, 
priapism i. q. sak-lyak Tbr.; fik-Aak glans 
penis; fik-jok s. ri) uxgojioa&iov, i) axgo- 
fivaxia; fik-nyim i.q. fik-Ml; fik-fyuii s. tlie 
body of penis; fi/:-^^!; s. onanism; fik-mdt 
s. hair of penis; fik-UL s. fj ipwliq; fik-uii 
s. spernia genitale. See also tyak. 

*fik 1. T. fig s. a line, fik kyop vb. to 
rule a line, fik kun s. a ruler; fik-mo 
lined, applied to flowered cloth etc., the 
seed in ferns; fik-mo tun-krok seriated 

fik 2. vb. t. cfr. T. 'degs {-pa) to lift, 
to liold up, to suspend so'm fik to suspend 
a bridge (s. a suspension-b.); fik fo id.; 
to fix, to establish, to tie, to fasten, to 
bind tHk-po fik to bind with rope; to 
join (in marriage, friendship etc.), bri 
fik to be bound in marriage, dyei't zdh fik 
to be joined in friendship; with a-liit: 
a -lilt fik to set the heart, mind or 




affections on, to desire greatly, to love, 
to esteem, to regard. — (ik-Hm-bo s. a 
fastening, a binding, a tie, an adjunct, 
an appendix. — ttk bu to get leaves hin 
a-nyom fik bu. 

a-t'ik s. a juncture, tuk-pun fik the 
shoulder-blade; a connexion, an alliance 
a-fik a-zan fik-ldm s. relationship; fik- 
lyan s. confidence, the trust, the power 
of holding up, pd-no-sa fik-lyan mi-no 
(/urn the trust of king is in his subjects. 

t'fh 1., a-ffn s. 1. lord, master, a noble, 
a chief, ho kd-m a-t'in tan mat-tHn-d are 
you playing the lord over us? a-tin pd- 
no the highest title, king; a-fin ji-run 
a title; tin-nyo lord and lady, nobles; 
tin zon lordly; tin is also used in s. of 
the chief or very precious thing, a-mlem 
tin the most precious thing to be guarded 
in the face, i. e. the eye; mik tin the 
eyeball, the apple of eye; a-Mt tin the 
pride of one's heart, the adored, Mp tin 
a beloved child, td-lam tin the excellence 
of the scrotum i. e. the testicles. 

2. pedigree (on male side), fin nyo 
gyit pedigree (male and female line), 
tin nyo gyit dixn bo or tin dun bo tell me 
your pedigree, fin nyo gyit-sd tin tradition; 
fin-kun i. q. t'i-kun q. v. ; tin-tok s. ancestry. 
— tin nyo mun s. the demon who cuts 
the thread of life; tin nyo fyak glet mun 
s. the demon who causes the heads of 
all to fall. 

ffii 2. onom. a whizzing sound; dor 
tin-rmn rin a low, gentle voice P. 

ffii 3., tifi-nd tin-nd adv. stamping (as 
with feet) tin-nd tin-nd I6m vb. to walk 
clattering with feet. 

fit see fi 2, 3, 4. 

ffn. see ti 3, 4. 

tin, tyin vb. to be consecutive (fr. fin 
or tif) tin-nd tin-nd consecutively, one 
after another, f.-nd t.-nd byi vb. to give 
consecutively; a-fin one above the an- 
other, a-tin fin bydt vb. to send on from 
stage to stage; a-fin dal or a-tin rin li 
vb. to interprete, to translate, lyan a-tin 
a-tin non to travel from stage to stage 

or from country to country; fir( 

a-tin, fin also a-fyin, tyin a time, a 
generation; kat-fin or kat-fyin once, nydt- 
tin twice ; dya-tin formerly, a-zd fin future 
time; see also kam-tin, grop-fin, gywp fin 
M. Gr. 118 cfr. dyom and po. — a-tin 
a-fin time by time; successively. — See 
fi-kun fin, nyii^kun) tin. 

ffp T. 'fibs(^-p<x) vb. to conceal, to hide, 
to veil, kun-ka tip vb. to hide behind a 
tree; tip-ndn hidden, concealed, secret, 
tip-suni-bo 1. adj. secret, hidden, occult, 
cryptic, 2. a veil. — fip-lyan s. a hiding- 

tip, a-tip see a-fyep. 

tfm, nyen tim said of a child, who is 
still unweaned, when another is born. 

tir tir onom. a rattling sound. 

tfl (fr. ti-la) 1. vb. to be successive, 
to be in succession, to follow one after 
another, til-Mn di to follow in succession; 
fil-ld til-Id adv. successive, fil-ld fyol-ld 
consecutively, sized, various-sized, some 
small some large, commingled; 2. s. a 
borer i. q. sor; fil cap vb. to bore hole; 

3. s. accordance, concord, see kuA fil; 

4. gramm. t. rin til copulative, rin fil-sd 
min sok a copulative conjunction. 

a-fil s. the mutual borrowing and re- 
turning of anything; advly. in turns, 

tu 1., a-tu s. honey, vot fii, hH fu, i fu, 
tUn-bUm tu h. fr. different specc. of bees. 

tu 2. s. a cataract in eye: a-mik tit. 

tu 3., tu-m (neg. md-tun-ne) vb. to 
allow, to let, to permit, to cause, to 
assent, hiim ndn fH let him go, Mm dit 
til let him come, md-fUn-ne do not per- 
mit, md fun-ni/ii-sd mat md-Uiin-ne cannot 
do it without permission, to engage in, 
to occupy one's self. 

mik turn s. a nap after food, mik fiim 
di to feel sleepy, to feel inclined for a 
nap, m. f. kat krap vb. to take a nap. 

(to) 4. tam-ta s. a bridle Tbr. 

(tii) 5. tii-ld fa-Id or tu fa adv. hastily, 
hasty, quickly, forcibly, fii-ld fu-ld li vb. 


fut— tur 


to speak in a hasty manner; {sun-mui) 
fu-ld fu-ld di vb. (wind) to blow hard 
and quickly. 

*fuk 1. T. fag see under on go yop tuk. 

tuk 2. Tb. 1. to perform, to do, to work, 
to be energetic, to be zealous ayoh fuk 
vb. to perform work, rin tuk to altercate, 
2. i. q. rin tuk, 3. copulare td-ayu fuk; 
tuk-bo s. a workman, a performer; tuk- 
■nyim-ho an energetic person; tuk-ldt s. 
energy, force, might. 

a-tuk s. copulation. 

tun 1., a-t'iin s. height, length of any- 
thing, (a-^tun kon adv. lengthways, kun 
, fun the length of tree, kun fun cik vb. 
to measure do. 

*tun 2. vb. T. tun (little, few, short, 
brief) to be little, to be scarce, to be 
in small quantity, fiin non to become 
scarce, small in quantity, m-ld md-tuh- 
nun-ka gyek md born in easy circum- 
stances, in no want; md-tun-nun-sd nuTn 
a. a year of plenty; fiin po adv. few 
times, seldom. 

*t'nt 1. T. fud s. a kind of cheese nyen-tHt. 

*fut 2. T. mtud(-pa) vb. to join, to 
splice together as string tiik-po tat, wood, 
anything, to unite, to append dyen z6n 
tat-liin fik vb. to join in friendship, bri 
fat-liin fik vb. to join in marriage, tsU 
tut-liin zu vb. to obtain new life, to re- 
vive, — the act of proceeding to meet a 
person tut non vb. to go out to meet, 
to receive, to join a p. coming md-ro 
flit ndk non; I6m-ka tut vb. to meet on 
the road; — the call when playing at 
hide and seek, also fat; — i. q. hk to 
continue, to prosecute, to pursue, kd-su- 
sd a-bon ftit mat-lUn U ho-o take up my 
speach for me, say the rest for me, nam 
turn tat bam vb. to continue throughout 
the year; rin fUt-Mn li vb. to continue 
speaking, sd-nyi so-nap fUt-liin non vb. 
to continue going on night and day; fUt 
sor vb. to fail, to miscarry, Tbr. : to die; 
fUt sor ndn it has failed; to be dead Tbr. 
*fiit-tsu T. mfud-ts'ugs vb. to recompense, 
to make up for, to give in exchange, to 

unite, to rejoin, to resunfe, to substitute, 
to delegate, Tbr.: to be pleased; fiit md- 
tsii-ne 1. not to compensate, 2. Tbr. hon. 
not to be pleased. — a-fHt s. anything 
that has been broken, rejoined together, 
mlo a-fHt a mended article. 

tut see fdt. 

*tun 1. T. mfun(jpd) s. concord, peace, 
agreement, fiin-nd fUn-nd adv. in unity, 
f.-nd t.-nd mat vb. to make peace, to 
reconcile; — *fiin-jor T. mfun-sbyor s. 
unity, peace, concord; fUn-jor bam vb. 
«to live in concord. 

*t'un 2. T. fun s. a space of time, a 
watch, fUn tsdk vb. to appoint the time 
or period as for devotion, in this s. it 
is generally understood by L.'s, fun-po 
and fdh-po s. a time, a space of t., once; 
tUn-po kat once, one t., fUn-'po nydt twice, 
two times, tun-po sd-tet how many times, 
how often. 

tup vb. 1. to be lasting, strong, durable 
as cloth, a-re dum md-gyd-nd gdn md- 
fup-nd-so if you are not careful of this 
cloth, it will not last; mh fHp-bo a strong, 
enduring article; — a- tup adj. durable, 
lasting, a-fUp-ka md-zuk-ne not made to 
last; — 2. T. fubQ-pa) to have power, to 
have might, md-ro fip-bo a powerful p.; 
pd-no md-fUp-niim-bo an impuissant king; 
— 3. to be able to bear, to endure, to 
suffer to duk a-re zdn tiip te who can 
endure such trouble, to suppress, to re- 
strain (tears) mik-grun fitp; — i. to be 
virtuous, efficacious, to be right, to be 
fit, to be proper, suitable, see tiip; fiip- 
pd it is good, it is right, it is proper; 
fdn (zom^ tiip fit to drink (to eat), zom 
md-fUp-ne to be unfit for food; dyok md- 
fHp-ne improper work, fam-cdn ndt-sdn 
md-fAp-ne it is not right to hurt animals ; 
to be sufficient for, zo rd-ku nam tet tiip 
to have sufficient provisions for a year; 
to agree, to consent non md-fup-ne not 
to consent to go. 

tur height to the chin fr. the ground, 
on fiir tet ti a horse as high as a man's 
chin; un fiir tet din water chin-deep; von 



lul— *fu 


fur tet 16m vb. to walk to the chin in 
jungle. — a-fur adj. chin-deep (said of 
water) un a-fur a-fur td-gd tet fi the 
water reaches as high as the chin. 

ful vb. to roll up as paper, mat, any- 
thing; co-gu ful vb. to roll up paper; 
ful-lun a-fdl zuk vb. to form a roll as 
of paper; to turn up as edge: ban-fo 
ful-non the edge of knife is turned; co 
lep kydn md-ful-lvn do not turn up the 
edges of your book. — a-ful adj. rolled 
up, co-gu a-ful s. a roll of paper. 

fu 1. (see also fo) vb. to be high, adj. 
high in place, degree, fu bam-bo a high 
p. in place, rank; fu mo high and low; 
see a-fu and 6-fu under a and 6. 

tu 2. s. the elbow in Comp.: kd-fu. 

*fu 3. T. mfu s. magic power, sorcery, 
enchantment, fu nen T. mfu nan id., fu 
klon vb. to bewitch, fu nen kldn id., fu 
klon-bo s. a magician, fu tsok vb to counter- 
act the effect of witchcraft, fu zdk vb. to 
be under influence of magic; fu lok vb. 
to disenchant. 

*fu 4. T. fugs (heart, mind, afPection) 
used by L.'s in s. of "will". Comp. *fu- 
je T. fugs-rje s. generosity, liberality, 
compassion, benignity, fu-je ci-md-o (T. 
fugs-rje gzi^s) look down with benignity; 
fu-je md-nyin-nvm-bo imgracious; fu-je 
ce or ci (great) magnanimity, grace (a-do) 
fu-je M it is your magnanimity i. e. thank 
you. — *fu-ten T. fugs-rten s. the state 
of mind, disposition, spirits, fu-ten sd-lo 
go how is (his or your) state of mind, 
health or spirits; — *fu-d6m T. fugs-dam 
s. a holy trance, revelation, see yi-dam; 
a vow, a sacrament; fu-dom ndk vb. to 
behold a revelation; — *fu-rik T. fu^s 
and rig s. mind and understanding, senti- 
ments, intellect, mind, spirits, fu-rik ci 
wisdom, great perception, genius, ku zu 
fu-rik 'ii-ld mat ju-liin can come here 
rejoicing in body and mind; — fu sdm 
s. the affections of heart, will, pleasure 
J. — fu sv,n vb. hon. to be pleased said 
of great men, fu sun mat vb. to please. 

to tranquillize, fu md-sHn-ne vb. to be 

t'uk vb. to be dim, cloudy; to be fugi- 
tive (colour) ; — a-fuk s. anything of slightly 
white colour, white spot on forehead (as 
of horse) kin-fuk; a white mark on leg 
dyan-fuk, grey light eyes mik fuk; pale 
grey colour; — fuk-bo, tso fuk-bo fugitive 
colour, tuk-fuk s. a pale colour, a fugitive 
c. mik tuk-fuk grey eyes; mlem tuk-fuk- 
Id non face to become a sallow colour. 

fun, a-tun s. the skin, hide, met. the 
clothes kijum-fun s. hide, leather, mik-fun 
s. the eyelid; fun gon ndn to become 
callous, hardened, indurated; fun lut vb. 
to skin, to flay; fun hrap vb. to sew skin 
(as of wound) or leather. 

tup, a-t'up s. i. q. a-tup os femoris. 

*t'um T. 'fum(-pa) vb. 1. to cover over 
or round, to circumvent, to surround, to 
encircle, lyan fum-lUn ndk to inspect all 
round a place, man fumAun ryak vb. to 
circumvent game; — a-fum s. a circum- 
vention; a cover, a wrapper, an envelope, 
yuk-(a-')fum s. a cover for letter, an 

2. to be beforehand with, to anticipate, 
T. sna-ba, fum-lun byi vb. to give before- 
hand, md-ro gat-sdn fum-ld mat vb. to 
anticipate one's wants; rin fum-lun It vb. 
to anticipate what a person has to say; 
fum-lom s. anticipation. 

tul vb. to ride on horseback on ful, in 
carriage kun-on ful etc.; ful-bo s. a rider; 
— a-ful adj. riding on horseback or upon 
anything; a-ful kun riding on sticks 
(amusement of children). 

tul "descent of the deity" rum ful 
afflatus of the deity. M. 

*te 1. T. 'tegs(-pa) vb. to depart; to 
be passed away as the time for anything, 
to be too late, to be exhausted, to be 
finished, fe-non to be expended, passed 
away, dyok-ka fe-non to be too late for 
work, k6m fe-non the money is ex- 
pended, fe-non-bo passed away; the de- 
parted; dead. 

*t'e— *fep 

*t'e 2. T. fe (-ba to interfere with) vb. 
to debauch woman, to commit adultery, 
nor fe id. 

*te 3. T. fe, fe cun T. fe cun s. a small 
seal; fe tsu T. fe tse s. a seal, fe tsu kyop 
vb. to seal J. 

*fe-ts'om also fe-som T. fe-tsom s. doubt, 
uncertainty; fe-som mat vb. to be doubt- 
ful, to be dubious, kam fe-som mat wait 
a little. 

t'ek vb. 1. to break, to divide, to dis- 
unite, tuk-po fek vb. to break string, fdt 
fek-non earth to be cracked, 2. to finish, 
to end, see dek; fek-non to be ended, 
finished, Um fek-non the road is ended, 
ayen-zdn fek-non friendship to be broken; 
— fek-bo s. a rent, a rupture, a fracture, 
a rift, a fissure, a cleft; 16m fek s. a ter- 
minus. — fek-kd t'ek-kd adv. broken; in- 
distinct, f.-kd f.-kd si to get a b. or in- 
distinct view of; f.-kd f.-kd non 1. to 
appear and disappear, 2. to proceed till 
out of sight. 

ten vb. to entangle, to implicate. 

*fen H.'fenQ-pa) vb. to stretch as string 
tuk-po fen; carpet, etc., body md-zu fe?i. 

t'et 1. also fdt and fydt vb. to spring 
downwards, fet lyan place of setting as 
for birds, 2. to set (sun). — Caus. fyet 
to cause to spring downwards. 

fet 2. fyet and fydt; fydt-td fydt-td 
thick as porridge, gruel. — a-fet adj. thick 
and of proper consistancy; said of milk 
when sufficientlyboiled, etc., thick, muddy 
(as water), s. a small potatoe; — pd-fet-ld 
wellformed, small buk pd-fet-ld a well- 
formed yam; on pd-fet-ld a wellformed 

ten 1. and fydn vb. to be cultivated, to 
be planted, opp. zdn; kun fen-bo a culti- 
vated tree; a-fen, a-t'ydn adj. cultivated, 
not wild Qa-zori). 

*ten 2. T. 'fan see nan-fen. 

*t'ep 1. T. 'febs {-pa) 1. vb. to seize, 
to grasp firmly, to perform well, to know 
or learn anything thoroughly, fep-lun tsam 
vb. to have a firm grasp of; fep-nyim-bo 
one having good grasp of, one having 

"fep— fo 


thorough knowledge of, an artist; 2. s. 
knowledge, wisdom. — fep-pd fep-pd adv. 
perfectly, thoroughly. 

*t'ep 2. T. teb s. a saucer or plate, a 
small dish. 

*t'ep-ran T. feu-ran s. a goblin, a demon, 
a damned soul, sometimes applied to a 
naughty or provoking boy, an imp. 

*t'em 1. T. 'fen(-pa) I. vb. t. to bind 
together, to knead; — a-fem s. the join- 
ing two articles tightly together by string 
etc. 2. n. to settle down (as earth), to 
be pressed down (as anything), to become 
firm. 3. to wait, to tarry, to stay ik kam 
fem-lun bam I will wait, have a little 
patience, I will sleep over it; 4. to sup- 
port, endure, forbear. 

*t'em 2. T. fem {-pa to be perfect) vb. 
to perform anything completely and well; 
fem-bo adj. full, complete, perfect. 

*fem-pd T. fem-pa s. steps to a door- 
way, a threshold. See also tem-po/i. 

t'er see fydr. 

t'el 1. vb. to be close, to be approximate, 
to be next to, to adjoin; fel-bo the ad- 
jacent, the next, fel-lu//-re id., fel-liin 
nan to lie next to. — a-fel s. one grade 
below or above, next in rank or age. 

t'el 2., a-tel also a-fyel s. a tumor, 
sebaceous tumor, swelling in fiesh; adj. 
hard, indurate. 

to 1. high, great, exalted kd-yu-len hu 
fo he is greater than we. — a-fo adj. 
above, a little above. See also fu 1. 

*t'o 2. s. T. mfo s. a hammer, fo-nun 
buk or fok vb. to hammer. 

*fo 3. T. ifo s. 1. register, list, catalogue, 
2. sign, badge, token, lyan-to s. register 
of places, topographical r. ; mi-fo T. mi-fo 
s. a census; gi-c6 fo s. an inventary; da- 
fo T. zla-fo an almanac; tsuk-fo s. voca- 
bulary, nomenclature; fo-pok s. a register- 
ed allowance, a pension. 

fo kyop vb. 1. to take a list, to make 
or compile a register, 2. to fix a badge 
or token. 

to 4., fd-m vb. to place, to lay, to put 
down, sin-te-ka fo to place on the table, 


fo, W-m 

fo— fok 

t'o-wun nyi (the caldrons) were set J. 
sak-cin-ka fo to hold in mind, to con- 
sider, td-se-t'in-nun rin fo-ba a-lo-yo-ha 
nyi-wun-sd zd tsdn-nd-ka gek-lat- sum-bo 
pat-kup-sdii do sak-cin-ka fo-o Padma- 
sambhava said: hold in mind, ye Tibetans, 
that (because) you must be reborn under 
such circumstances P., — to command, 
to order, to cause, pd-no-nun td-se fin- 
mum sd-dyak' kat no fo-yam-o the king 
ordered Padmasambhava to be boiled 
(in a caldron) for a whole day; — forms 
transitiva fr. other vbs. e. c. kydp fo, gyom 
to, nydn fo, tek fo, tet fo, top fo, tyop fo, 
dal fo, dyd fo, pi fo, pyok fo, ma fo, ndk 
fo, zuk fo, rik fo, su fo, ot fo, dyit fo etc. 
with adverbs nan-Id fo etc. e. c. hit-nun 
hum Id-vo sam tet ma fo; mw hUm ik pyil- 
Id ma md-Kvm-niin-sd Mk-min-sd zuk fdm- 
bo kyun kat lyo-ban fdt dyok-sd krak-tsu 
sit-lun a-kvp-rem o-re-ka fap tin un pun- 
sd lv,k-min von-ka nydn fo she hid him 
three months and when she could not 
longer hide him, she took for him an 
ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with 
slime and with pitch, and put the child 
therein; and she laid it in the flags by 
the river's brink Gr. 2. 2/3. go-niin ci 
far nyi so-nap-ba bi-sdn rin-cet mat fo-pa 
it was stipulated, that I should pay the 
price of the marwa at sunset P. — to 
leave ofp, to desist, fo dydt or fo yet to 
place down, to leave off, to leave alone; 
M. 114. — fo fat 1. p. p. put down, left 
off, desisted, obsolete, 2. imperatively: 
stop, leave off, let it be. — fom ger. 

1. placing, to place fom md-Mn-ne to be 
unable to place; fdm-lyan s. the place 
for putting, the receptacle, fdm-lya?i md- 
nyin-ne there is no room for placing; 
fom-fyd md-nyin-ne there is no means 
for placing; 2. desisting, fom md-yd-ne 
not to be able to leave off, dyok fdm-md 
KUn-niin-d can you not leave off work; 
fom-bo part, fom-bo-re s. 1. the placer, 

2. the thing for laying on; forms the 
part. perf. pass. e. c. ma fom-bo hidden, 
pi fom-bo written etc.; kikn-dun-sd zuk- 

fom-bo fa-bo an eater of the earnings 
of others. — fom-ldt s. location, inter- 
stallation. — a-f6m s. 1. a place for lay- 
ing things; 2. leaving off, a-fdm tu-tidt 
time for leaving off, 3. a windfall, ripe 
fruit blown from tree. 

fo 5. T. fogs (-pa hindrance) vb. to 
arrest, to impede, to hinder, to retain, 
to detain, to stop, to hold enough, to 
defer, so-sa tet fo wait till the fine weather; 
fo fo stop, hold hand, enough; to-ld fo-ld, 
a-no fo-ld fo-ld dilatorily ; fo-o stop, wait, 
ik kam fo-o stop a little, kam-ld md-fo-ne 
without any keeping back, without re- 
serve, kam-ld md-fo-nd byi give all with- 
out reserve. 

t'ok 1. s. time, season, kd-sO, fok-ka in 
my time; sd-rofi fok now-a-days; dydn-^d 
fok-ka formerly, in former times, ancient- 
ly; zum-fok-ka during life-time; postp. 
answers to the English affix "hood" 
a-kHp-fok s. childhood, 6n-fok s. boyhood; 
mi-fok s. generation. 

*t'ok 2. s. T. fog 1. the highest point, 
high, in L. "great" pd-no fok the great 
king, foA *ar great increase; 2. the roof of 
house, story li kat- fok a one-storied house. 

*tbk 3. T. fog s. "a thunderbolt" in L. 
"calamity" fok zdk c. to befall. 

*t'ok 4. T. fog s. 1. the produce of field, 
the crop, fok-pUt T. fog-pud s. the first 
fruits; /foA; dO, T. fog sdud(-pd) vb. to 
gather the crop, to bring home the har- 
vest; 2. the learning, the fruits of learn- 
ing, yuk-miin co fok-kHn pap the y. laid 
down his learning i. e. died. 

*tok 5. T. fod(-pa) s. the skull, fok-por 
T. fodr-por s. a cup made from a human 
skull; also fyak-por. 

*tok 6. T. fog s. (fortune, wealth) fok- 
blo s. an heir M. — ■ (ok rin (T. fog rin 
"the whole value") in L. s. compensation, 
fok rin byi vb. to compensate M. 

t'ok 7. vb. to hammer, to malleate, to 
thump, pUn-jen fok-bo s. a blacksmith, 
to stab, ban-nun fok to give a blow with 
a knife; obsc. td-dyH fok vb. feminam 

(oA, a-t'oA 

foA, a-t'on 


a-fok s. the tilting of iron, piin-jen a-fok, 
the coining of money. 

t'oii 1., a-t'on s. the foot; the leg, see 
also dyan; a-fon-ka gap pyok-tsa vb. to 
fall at the feet of, to worship; a-fon-ka 
pa- tin tsu vb. to have splinter run in 
foot; a-ton-kd tsam-liin pyok-tsa vb. to lay 
hold of the feet as mark of adoration; 
a-fon-ka vil kyop vb. to put iron on legs; 
a-fon-ka a-yum md-nyin-ne vb. to be un- 
steady on leg; a-fon-ka a-yum nyi to be 
firm on leg; (a-^fon(^-sa) klek vb. to tramp 
down or tread on with feet; a-fon-sd nrik 
vb. to bore with heel; a-fon-sd non-nun 
dop vb. to have frozen feet; a-fon-sd tsop 
vb. to tread with feet (as the treading 
out of corn); a-fon-sd lyan mat vb. to 
dislocate foot; a-fon-sd ha vb. to toss 
aside earth with feet; a-fon-sd hut vb. to 
scrape with feet (as a horse). — a-fon 
a-gun barefeet; a-fon jum-bam-ho having 
leg withered; a-fon pdk without feet; 
(a-) ton hul-bo adj. bandy-legged; {a-)fon 
sdr-bo s. a cripple; a-fon sor non to be 
lame with one leg. — a-t'on kryak vb. to 
tread, a-fon hydw, kryak to t. softly; a-fon 
cet-tdn kryak to t. heavily; a-fon kryak- 
lyan s. a pathway; — (a-) fori krydk vb. 
to stamp with feet; — a-fon gal vb. 1. to 
have leg broken, 2. to be disgraced; — 
a-fon gyuf vb. (the feet) to be asleep; 

— a-fon con vb. to wash the feet; — 
a-foh tu vb. to wash feet; — a-fon ten 
vb. to have sinew of leg contracted; — 
a-fon dek vb. (the feet) to crack fr. dry- 
ness of skin; — a-fon pup vb. to draw 
in feet; — a-fon flen vb. to stretch out 
the legs; a-fon flen bu nan vb. to sit with 
outstretched feet; — a-fon bu nan vb. to 
sit on feet; — a-fon l&m-ka non vb. to 
travel on foot; — a-fon hydm hydm lam 
vb. to walk softly; — a-fon hlyom vb. to 
have the feet blistered; — a-fon s6m vb. 
to have stiff legs; — a-fon uyup vb. to 
limp; — a-fon ik vb. to spread out legs; 

— (a-) ton ol vb. to sprain feet. — 2. the 
stalk of grain, the straw of corn etc. 

ho-nun hd-yum zo-fon zon ya-ld mat thou 
hast consumed them as stubble. Ex. 

Comp. fon gom s. a step, a stride; 
fon gom hrydn-bo s. a long stepper, a 
strider; fon-gom hrydn-bo-ld non vb. to 
go along stepping out. — fon gop i. q. tun- 
gdp s. OS tibia. — (a-^fon gov s. a kick, 
fon-gor aydk vb. to kick backwards (as 
a horse); a-fofi kryom-ld fon-gor dydk vb. 
to kick with both legs; — a-fon tuk-jer 
dydk vb. to kick outwards as a cow; — 
(a-^fon cak s. the joints of feet and legs; 

— (a-) fon CO bdk s. the calf of leg; — 
(a-') fon jdk s. the second toe; — (a-^fon- 
jom s. the toes generally; (a-)fon-jdm 
byek s. or fon-jom bydr s. the space between 
toes; {or^fori-jom-sd 16m vb. 1. to go on 
tip of toe; 2. to go quickly; — {a-') fon 
tik s. the small of leg between ancle and 
calf, the shin; — (a-) fon tun s. the heel; 

— (a-^fon fi s. the tops of toes; — (a)- 
fon fya s. a kick, (a-) fon fya pdk vb. to 
kick forwards (as man); — (a-) fon dom 
s. the first or big toe; — (a-') fon pun-ci 
s. the toe-nails; — fon po s. a step, vb. 
to take a step; — (a-^fon pydl s. the foot- 
mark; — (a-') fori bi s. the place where 
the feet are, standing -place; — (a-)fon 
bok s. the soun(i of footsteps; (a-) fon bok 
grik id.; — fon bydr see fon-jom bydr; — 
(a-) fon mik s. an ancle-bone; — {a-') fon 
zor dak s. psoriasis or scales between 
toes, said to proceed fr. a spec, of small 
worm residing in dung or mud, vb. to 
be excoriated between the toes; — («)- 
fon yon s. the third toe; — {a-^fon lit s. 
the fourth toe; — a-fon lyok s. the sole 
of foot, a-fo7i lyok pldn s. the instep; — 
(a-') fon vyet s. the little toe; — a-fon vyo 
B. the bone of leg; — fon-suk s. stockings, 
fori -silk dam s. garters. — fam-fon s. 
stubble, o-re-niln lok-re mi-zdr lyan om- 
ka tUn-sum Idm-ka fam-fon gyom-sdn-ka 
sdn-n6n so the people were scattered 
abroad throughout all the land of Egypt 
to gather stubble instead of straw Ex. 
5. 12. 



*t'or— t'dk 

*t'on 2. T. mfons s. pavilion, platform, 
gri ton s. hon. a house, a palace. 

*t'on 3. u-ton hon. i. q. fdk s. turban 
M. 133. 

*tot-[ior T. fod-por i.q. tok-por see fok 5. 

ton 1. for to-nun. 

*ton 2. T. fow (to emerge) s. a rash, 
ton ryu-non the rash is well; mun-kin 
tsuk-ba ton pld a swelling nose from bite 
of musquito; vb. also for rash to break 
out, fon (^lun) di s. a breaking out of 
rash, jak fon s. an itching rash. Lichen 

*t'op vb. T. fob(-pa) to find, to get, to 
obtain, to earn, pd-rdn hu-do fon-jom 
kryak lyan md-fop-nd-lun . . . but the 
dove found no rest for the sole of her 
foot Gr. — mun-lom fop vb. to bless Ex. 
fop fo (lit. having obtained and placed) 
possessions, earnings, go fop fo md-nyin- 
ne I have got no propriety I have earned 
nothing; — ho-dom sot fop thou hast ren- 
dered thyself subject to death; thou hast 
earned death; — fop-ld mat vb. to obtain, 
to procure ; — fop-pun used in s. of one's 
right, (to get) right, claim, gettings, 
acquirements, fop-pun-sd gi-c6-ka ryak 
to beg and get what one has a right to; 
md-fop-nun-sd what one has no right to, 
tnd-fop-VMn-sd gi-co ryak to beg and get 
what one has no right. 

a-fop s. earning, wages, portion, what- 
ever comes to hand. 

top 2. redupl. fap-pd fop-pd feeling 
carefully (as blind man), fap-pd fop-pd 
ndn vb. to go carefully feeling along as 
blind m. or person in dark. — pul-fop-ld 
round-topped, not pointed, blunt, tiin- 
gydl p.-top-ld a blunt dibble. 

*t'om vb. T. 'fomQ-pa) vb. 1. to be 
puzzled, to be perplexed, to be con- 
founded, to be ignorant of, see go fom; 
— fom fom 1. s. doubt, perplexity, hesi- 
tation, 2. adj. confused, embarrassed; — 
2. to be blunt-ended tdk-tsu fom-ndn the 
hoe has become blunt; see also fop 2. 

tor vb. to be plump as child, to be 
full-bodied as fruit, rice, kup-for s. womb; 

for tor adj. plump, full-bodied; co-gu for- 
fdm-bo sheets of paper pasted together. 

a- for adj. fat (fruit and corn, when 
approaching to ripness), a-for-nun kla-ld 
ti vb. to ripen rapidly. 

*t'or T. 'for(^-ba') reduplic. far-rd tor-rd 
adv. here and there, anywhere, U far-rd 
far-rd nan houses to lie scattered here 
and there, far-rd for-rd md-mat-tiin do 
not move about. 

t'or-dok (T. 'tor-rdog) unison, with one 
accord, sak-cin tor-dok mat vb. to agree 
in opinion. 

t'ol 1. vb. to be acrid, to be astringent; 
s. n. of from which poison for fish is 
extracted bru-fol a spec, of bru, 2. n. of 
creeper bearing astringent fruit, fol-ld 
tol-ld biting, astringent, a-hon fol-ld tol- 
Id su vb. (mouth) to burn. 

t'd 1. s. a footing, purchase, fulcrum, 
a stronghold; weight, influence; num-sim- 
nyo-sd to kom man's security is money; 
t6 md-nyin-ne to be without purchase, 
to be without power; fo-ka tsam vb. to 
take possession of, to get hold of; hd-yu 
lyan-ka go fom lyan a-td-niin hd-yum t6- 
ka tsdm bam they are entangled in the 
land, the wilderness hath shut them in 
Ex. a place of security, asylum, defence, 
a sanctuary; to lyan s. a place of security; 
an asylum, to tek vb. to place in security; 
fd ddk s. lord of refuge. 

t'd 2. (i. q. 1 ?) dd fd a large expanse, 
a sea of water. 

t'dk 1. vb. n. to be stiff, to be rigid, 
to be severe, sd-li t'dk bow to be stiff; 
md-rd tdk-bo a severe, stern person. — 
a-fdk adj. stiff (the pulling of a bow 
when tight), sd-li a-fdk a stiff bow. 

t'dk 2. vb. t. to reach the height, to 
come to full maturity, so-ri/i tdk (for sun) 
to have reached its height; for sunshine 
to be thrown everywhere; sd^tsuk tdk- 
kun-sd yum-ndn when the sun waxed hot, 
it melted Ex. fo-kup pun-ku tdk-lun 
Idm-h the young bird having obtained 
its wings will fly; n. to be in season as 
fruit, to culminate, tam-pdt fdk-ndn s. the 

«k— fi5n 

*f(Jn— f6t 


fruit-season has arrived; the fruit reached 
maturity. — t'ok-ld adv. perfectly. — a-fok 
s. maturity. 

t'dk 3. onom. tiik-fdk-ld plump with a 
crash, t.-f.-ld glo vb. to fall down plump. 

*t'(5k 4. T. fags-togs (fogs-pa) impedi- 
ment; vb. to barricade as road, door, 
etc., to fasten, go-don fok to fasten gate. 
— a-fok s. the closing of a door. 

*t'(5k 5. T. fag s. a string, a rope nyo 
fok; — *fdk-cdt T. fag-gcod(-pa to cut off 
all impediment) to be firm, to be de- 
cided, to be conclusive, to be convincing, 
used also for certainly e. c. go fdk-cdt 
non-so I shall certainly go; also fok kat 
cat to be decided, to decide on a thing; 
tok-cdt-ld adv. decisively, certainly; fok- 
cdt-ld mak he is undoubtedly dead; fdk- 
cdt-lun yd to know for certainty. 

*t'dk 6. T. 'fag(-pa) 1. vb. t. to weave, 
as cloth dum fok; dum fdk-bo s. a weaver; 
2. s. i. q. fok-ro a loom. 

*(dk 7. T.'fag{-pa) vb. t. to grind; lun 
fok s. millstones; cu fok s. a watermill. 

t'dk 8. see md-rum md-fok s. life, vital 
princip P. 

*fdk 9. see fdk 2. and nor-fok T. fag. 

t'di 1. T. fan (open, clean, a clear space 
or plain) lyan foh s. a plain, an open 
space, also an unconfined country; dis- 
tance, sd-dydr mi ton a gunshot distance, 
liberty, freedom, independence, adjly. 
unrestrained, also in s. of (s.) will, dis- 
posal, please, inclination, a-do fori, gum 
it is your own will, pleasure, just as you 
like; a-do fon as you like, a-do fon nyim 
gdk su nyi-wu/i go if it is your pleasure, 
what does it matter; a-do fon mat-td-o 
do as you like; kd-su f&n md-go-ne it is 
not my wish; vyet ddk-sd fon-ka nyi the 
slave is at the disposal of the lord (re- 
spectful mode of speach); go-nun a-do 
fon-ka nyi I am at your disposal; md-ro 
do fdn-ka lyot-fat left loose to one's 
own will. 

fon-nyim-bo s. one's own master, an 
independent person. 

*(6n-de incorr. fdn-de, ton-de etc. T. fan- 

'das (beyond the limits) at large un- 
controlled licence, freedom from all re- 
straint, indifferent or careless of con- 
sequences, f6n-de md-ro s. a person who 
cares for nobody; fon-de lyan s. a lawless 
country; mlo fon-de dydn fo vb. to throw 
every thing into disorder; fon-de mat vb. 
to be at large, to breach, to violate (as 
laws), to give unrestrained way (as to 
passions), to throw into disorder, to 
abandon, fon-de mat(-liin) li vb. to speak 
without control: fon-de li; J. ho sd-fa 
tet kd-yum fe-tsom-ka tsam lon-ham-mun- 
go ho ma-si re gdn kd-yum, foA-de mat 
dun-nd how long dost thou make us to 
doubt? if thou be the Christ, tell us 
plainly J.; fon-de-lun bam to live inde- 
pendently; a-lit bur-d&n fon-de lyot to 
give unbridled vein to one's passions. 

ton-mo s. "open place" a floor, a space 
for drying grain on, t.-mo pldn zo lo to 
dry grain on the drying floor; f6n-s6 T. 
tan-sa s. a plain, an open space of ground 
or country. 

redupl. tUn-fon [see kan'\ giving way 
to one's feelings, agitation, perturbation 
of feelings; kan tuh-fdh md-mat-tun do 
not give way to your feelings, do not be 

a-fon s. a division in a story or tale, 
sun-ka a-fon, a d. of field nydt ton. 

*t'dn 2. T. tan{-po') adj. firm. *tdn-cet 
T. fan-cad to be wearied, fatigued, ex- 
hausted, ton-cet non vb. to be so. 

*fdn-sin T. fan-sin s. pine-tree, ton-sin 
cu s. terpentine, gum, rosin, ton-sin cu 
num s. terpentine, ton-sin cu ciyit or hyo 

t'dt 1. i. q. fat q. v. 

fdt 2. vb.t. to cut, a-tsom tot to cut hair. 

*t'dt 3. T. 'tad{-pa) 1. vb. to be glad, 
sdm tot to be glad, to rejoice, 2. to like, 
to esteem. 

t'dt 4. vb. to be detached, to be sepa- 
rated, as from body, work, to be in de- 
tachments, sections, mak-mi pun-nun tot 
to be detached from the body of the 
army; tdt-lun non to go in detachments. 


*fdn— ttp 

*fdp— t'dl 

bands or parties; fot-lun dyok zuk vb. to 
do work by parties or in portions; tdt- 
lun rin li vb. to speak by divisions; — 
€6t-td fot-td adv. in divisions, in detach- 
ments, in sections: so t'.-td t'.-td yu rain 
to fall in separate showers. — 2. (see 
under a-fdt 3.) vb. to set a-fdt by 
placing one or more troughs of water 
and setting sticks smeared with bird-lime 
on the sides; or where there is water 
by setting them on the banks; the w. is 
derived from the above "divisions" from 
the sticks being placed in sections. 

a-fot s. 1. a party or detachment (of 
men or animals), 2. division in labour, 
a-fot a-fdt non to go by detachment, 
a-fdt a-fdt dyok to work by divisions, at 
intervals; 3. a mode of snaring birds, 
fdt vb. to set the snare, td-fdn fdt 1. s. 
a snare for birds. 

*f5n 1. s. T. fan (-pa) dry weather, 
n. of 6 th month f.-nydm. 

t(5n 2. s. the flower of oak-chestnut-tree 
tdn rip, so fdn or kd-so ton s. the chestnut. 

fdn fdt s. 1. n. of the smallest spec, of 
leech: f.-f. bu; 2. n. of a spec, of gnat 
fdn-sd dydt. 

fdp 1. vb. t. to finger, to sooth with 
hand a-kd fdp; to finger as when playing 
on fiute pd-lit fdp, to play music rap- 
nyen fdp; to flap as wings pun-ku fdp. 

t'dp 2. vb. n. to be obstructed, stopped 
up as road, Idm fdp-ndn-ne the road is 
obstructed; to be struck as by falling 
tree or any thing heavy; to be weighed 
down as man when carrying heavy load, 
to be bent down by weight of load. — 
fydp cans, to strike, to knock down, kun 
fydp-lun fam-cdn sdt vb. to kill an ani- 
mal by causing a tree to fall down on it. 

t'dp 3. (great numbers in succession) 
vb. to fall down as milk, to overflow 
when boiling nyen fdp sor gdn nyo-so if 
milk (boiling m.) overflows and falls it 
is ominous. — s. a-fdp great numbers, 
great quantities as of fish, locusts etc. 
flights, flocks; a-fdp a-fdp great numbers 
in succession; see a-ddp; fyup. 

*t'dp 4. s. T. fab a fire-place, a hearth 
mi fdp; used in s. of cooking: fdp zuk 
vb. to cook or to prepare provisions; 
fdp zuk-bo s. a cook; fdp dyok mat-bo s. 
a skullion. 

*fdp 5. s. T. fobs contrivance, method, 
means, mode, expedient, nyi-sdn-sd fdp- 
ka as an expedient to there-being; zuk- 
sdn fdp mat vb. to contrive a mode for 
doing it; fdp mat-ydm-bo s. one having 
inventive faculty. 

*t'dp 6. T. 'fab(-pa) vb. to fight, Jed fdp 
to squabble. 

fdp 7. vb. to be answerable for, to be 
responsible for go-nun hu-sd md-fdp-nd so 
I shall not be responsible for him. 

t'dm see to. 

t'dr see far 3. 

t'dr vb. 1. to reach the goal, to gain 
the end or the highest point, kun-ka for 
vb. to reach the very top of tree, a-dek- 
ka fdr vb. to gain the end, dyok-sd a-pdt 
for vb. to gain the fruits of one's labour; 
— 2. T. far{^bd) to escape, to get free, 
to get thro', tok-nun fdr vb. to escape 
thro' a difficult or dangerous crisis (of 
sickness etc.), Id-yo-nun fdr vb. to escape 
from sin, to receive absolution; fdr-sdn 
rin li vb. to make defense; 3. adj. a-fdr 
practicable, feasible, fdr-sdn-d is it 
feasible?; fdr-bi or fdr-lyan s. outlet etc., 
fdr-lyan md-nyin-ne there is no way of 
escape, no outlet; — fdr-ldm s. prosperity, 
welfare, freedom, salvation; J. 

fydr caus. of fdr to let go, to set free, 
to cause to set free, to emancipate, fyor- 
Idm sd-re dye-ho-va-nun a-yum, sd-rdn 
nydt-sum-bo-rem ndk-kd see the salvation 
of the Lord, which he will shew to you 
to-day. Ex.; — fydr-bo s. saviour J. 

a-fydr s. escaping from confinement 
(man or beast), desertion (as of soldier 
or servant). 

fdl vb. n. to be near, to be at hand, 
said of time or place ; fdl-ba, fdl-bi advly. 
near, shortly, hd-yu-niin .... dye-su-miLm 
lyan dd-sd a-plan-ka Idm Id nd-var-sd 
fdl bi fi-wHn si-liin they see J. walking 

fdl, a-tti— l^an 

on the sea, and drawing nigh unto the 
ship J. ; M-ha (iol-bt) md-fop-ne you will 
not get it soon; fol-ba (fol-bi) lyan s. 
the adjacent country; fol-bam-bo one 
living near, a neighbour. — a-fol adj. 
near, said of place or time; s. relation- 
ship num-nu fdl near relationship, a-fol 
mat adv. only a short distance M. 129. 
a-fol-bo s. a fellow-creature Chr. 

fyol cans, to collide, to bring or to 
come in contact with, fydl tek to clash, 
bdk-ce fyol to beat cymbals; Idn-ka fyol 
to press between stones; fy6l{-lun) din 
vb. to stand between, to stand very close. 

a-tyol adj. pinched between, a-kd a-fyol 
fop to have one's hand pinched. 

fdl, a-fdl 1. adj. large, applied to plants 
and ears of corn, kd-cer fdl, mon fdl; — 
mon pyun fdl a large ear of millet etc. 
2. s. testicles. 

tya, tya s. 1. remedy M. 144, means, 
help for; resources, substance, provision, 
go a-re fat gdn ik fyd nyi if I lose this 
I have got other resources; sd-lo-ld mat 
fyd md-nyin-ne do it as you like, it is 
impossible; fdm fyd md-nyin-ne there is 
no means of placing; Mi-sd fam-ddk-ka 
fyd md-nyin-ne there is no remedy for 
his sickness; sdt m,at-sd fyd md-nyin-ne 
except to kill it there is no resource, 
no help for it; zuk-sdn fyd md-nyin-ne 
there is no means of doing it; — fyd 
md-nyin-nHm-bo adj. without remedy, 
hopeless, helpless, without alternation; 
— 2. in s. of power, pa fyd the power 
of lasting, durable. 

tydk vb. to jump upwards, fydk-lUn fyet 
vb. to jump up to cut; fydk-lun tsam vb. 
to jump up to catch; to fly upwards in 
air as arrow etc. tsdn fydk, fo fydk. 

tyat see fet 1, 2. 

fyan cans, of fan to drink. 

t'ydn cans, of fan to cause to discharge, 
to expel. 

t'yan vb. t. i. q. vd, mim tydn i. q. mun 
vd to sing psalms or elegies as at festival 
of sd-gi. 

t'yan vb. to laugh, sd-zdl-ld fydn to laugh 

fyan — l^ak 


merrily; sd-zii-ld fydn to pretend to laugh; 
no sdt-ld fydn to laugh hypocritically; sak 
prok-lun fydn to laugh a horse-laughter; 
iim-Mn fydn to laugh inwardly; — fydn- 
Id adv. laughingly, fydn-ld fydn-ld li vb. 
to speak laughingly; — tydn-mii-sd rin 
a laughable speach; — fydn pat vb. to 
have a fit of laughter. 

a-fydn s. merriment, joviality, laughter; 
a-fydn a-nyiit s. joviality; a-fydn a-nyiit- 
sd bam to live merrily; a-fydn su bam 
to roar with laughter; a-fydn dun vb. to 
suppress 1. — fydn lyan s. cause of 1.; 
fydn lyan md-nyin-ne there is no occasion 
for 1.; fydn-ka san vb. to suppress 1. 

t'yan see fyen. 

t'yam also fydm vb. t. to precipitate, to 
cleanse by precipitation, as to put rice 
zo fydm into water to allow the sand 
and dirt to settle at bottom. — sd-fydm- 
Id settling down as earth etc. fat sd- 
fydm-ld ndn earth to settle down; Idm 
sd-fydm-ld ndn road to descend down- 
wards; rin sd-fydm-ld ndn to browbeat. 

t'yar 1. vb. to plait, to work close 
basket-work, tun-grydn fydr, mat td-lii. 
fydr; also fyer. — a-fydr s. the plaiting 
of small close basket, go pe-lun a-fydr yd 
I know to make the fine basket. 

fyar 2. explet. to vyen. 

fyar-fo s. spec, of woodpecker, Micro- 
pteruus phaioceps. See kd-fydr-fo, kd- 

(t'yal), a-^al s. a wen or excrescence 
on body or tree, projections in blanket. 

i'ya in comp. a kick forwards or down- 
wards e. c. dyan fya, tUn-fya, fo fya, fo 
fya pdk or tUn-fya pdk vb. to kick out 
with foot td-do pd-no tUn-fya pdk ndn to 
rebel against one's king. 

t'yak I. 1. vb. to know, to be acquaint- 
ed with, to be conversant with, to be 
cognizant of, to understand, mik fyak 
1. to know by eyesight, 2. to know 
carnally, mik fyak-bo a concubine Tbr.; 
Id-yo fyak vb. to know sin i. e. to shew 
it, Id-yo md-fyak-ne to commit sin; — 2. to 
distinguish, recognize, bH-sd pd-tin md- 



fyak, a-fyak 

fyak, a-tyak 

tyah-ne not to distinguish a piece of stick 
from a snake, fam-cdn o-re-re-ka ma- 
ty ak-ne-yam-o it is impossible to recog- 
nize it as a beast P. ho-nun pd-tun a-re 
to-ka nyi-pu ndk fyak-kd le discern, I pray 
thee, whose are these: the staff etc. G. 
fyak~ld mat to inform, to make known, 
be it known, a-re den-tmk yuk-nun md- 
rd to giin-nd fyak-ld mat-td-o or ko nyi- 
Id mat-td-o or tan mat-tdro know all men 
by these presents. 

f yak-bo s. one who knows; an acquaint- 
ance, fyak-kun having knowledge, in- 

a-fyak a-lyo a. an acquaintance, a-fyak 
a-lyo 16m s. the intercourse of acquaint- 
ance, a-fyak zon s. an acquaintance. 

t'yak n. (fr. I cfr. a-li and li) a-t'yak s. 
the head a-fyak a-lo id. M. 137, hon. u 
T. dbu M. 19. a-fyak-ka co ka lit. to put 
book on head: to put to oath; a-fyak 
ryu gdn tuk tuk ryu if the head be good 
the cap will be good; a-fyak a-gun an 
uncovered head; a-fyak tim-ba a-lut md- 
nyin-ne a large head but no brains, a-fyak- 
nun jen-bo; a-fyak-kun a-dyan pal-ld md- 
ryu-num-bo bad from head to foot; a 
person, a-fyak a-nok-bo a human being, 
a-fyak a-nok a-fo a-dum a black head 
and white teeth, means nothing out of the 
common way, an ordinary matter, implies 
also equality; — summit, top, upper 
part, a-fyak md-nyin-num-bo a small 
letter of alphabet T. u-met, a-fyak nyim- 
bo a capital letter T. u-cen; — td-gdn fyak 
s. chillam; — first place, principal 
place, a-fyak md-nyin-ne without head, 
i. e. without government, without acquaint- 
ance; (a-')fyak-bo s. a leader, a chief; 
responsibleness; consequences; a-fyak- 
ka ndk vb. to look to consequences, to 
examine the head for fate; a-fyak-ka nyi 
vb. to be responsible for; a-fyak-ka zdk- 
or fi-so you will repent it; — a-fyak-ka 
advly. in respect of, against; — race, 
generation; (td-rdK) a-fyak tek-ndn (six) 
generations past; ka-yu-niin nu-sdn sam 
fd-li a-tyak md-ndn-nd tet bri md-mat-ne 

we do not marry relatives till they are 
three or four generations removed. 

a-fyak kuk vb. to bow the head, a-fyak 
kuk-ndn vb. to run at with bowed head 
(as a bull); a-tyak krdt vb. to scrape or 
to comb the hair; a-tyak gi vb. to in- 
cline head on one side; a-fyak gram bi 
vb. to break head; a-fyak glok a bald 
head; fyak glot mun s. the name of a 
ravenous devouring evil spirit; a-fyak 
nam vb. to nod head (as in assent); 
a-tyak not vb. to decapitate, to behead; 
a-fyak cdn vb. to put heads together, 
a-fyak cdn-lun krut mat to consult to- 
gether; a-fyak tuk to cover head, a-fyak 
tuk ak to uncover head; a-tyak tydt vb. 
to decapitate, to behead; fyak-dtim mun 
(see ton-mun) s. n. pr. lit. the white- 
headed evil spirit, from his being re- 
presented as an old man; a-tyak dot vb. 
to deliver as from captivity; a-fyak nuf 
tydt adj. over head, vb. to be over head 
in water; a-fyak ndn vb. to be dead Tbr.; 
a-tyak pldn-ka a-kd ka bi vb. to lay hand 
on head; a-fyak fok head indented from 
carrying heavy loads; a-fyak fron vb. to 
poll or take a register of persons, a-fyak 
frdn k&n s. a capitation, tax; a-fyak flat 
vb. to wash the head; a-fyak brup vb. 
to have a prominent head; a-fyak brdm 
s. a great man; a-fyak tsdk-lun 16m vb. 
to go with head upwards; a-tyak-ka lat 
vb. to attack; a-tyak I6k vb. to break 
head; a-tyak hut vb. to scratch the head; 
a-fyak hrydt vb. to shake the head; a-tyak 
•mm vb. to deceive; a-fyak vydl vb. to 
shake head in token of dissent. 

Comp. a-fyak ka s. the band used 
across head in carrying burdens. — (a)- 
tyak kam s. a pillow, a-fyak- sd a-fyak 
kam md-brydt-ne to be confined to bed 
(as by sickness). — (a-)fyak kin s. the 
fore-head. — a-fyak k6n, a-fyak kon-niin 
tsdk-n6n towards the head; a-tyak kon- 
niin lu vb. to raise the h. — a-fyak nyel 
s. the crown of head. — a-tyak tok ts6 s. 
a wreath of jewels. — fyak tuk s. a cap, 
a hat i.q. tHk tvk. — (n-')tyak ddk s. head- 

tyak-ku— tyam 

ache. — a-tyak dam s. the crown of the 
head, a-fyak dam cuk s. the centre of 
crown, a-tyak dam tiik-Mp s. the circular 
lines at the crown of head, a-tyak dam- 
sd a-pldn-ka or tyak-dam plan upon the 
crown of the head or aboye do., t.-d. 
pl.-sd a-tin hon. lord of all, great lord 
(resp. address), a-tyak dam pldn-ka lyo 
to give constant head to anything, tyak 
dam-sd a-plan-ka rdk vb. to undertake 
etc., pd-no ko tyak dam-sd a-pldn-ka rdk 
vb. to place on head the order of king, 
to perform, to undertake. (a-)tyak dam 
a-nan adj. directly over head, vertical, 
a-t. d. a.-n. ti to become v. — (a-)tyak 
pok s. a turban, (a-) tyak pok nydk bam 
to tie on turban. — tyak-por see tok-por 
s. a cup made from a skull. — tyak bdl 
s. scurf, dandriff. — a-tyak bap li s. the 
skull. — a-tyak biik-sd fri son a scanty 
measure. — a-tyak yon s. the brains. — 
a-tyak hip ban kup s. a razor. — a-tyak 
sdk s. a head-louse. — a-fyak sok s. the 
sutures of bone. — (a-)tyak-on s. the 
skull, tyak-on 6p-lun gram to fire and 
smash skull; tyak on-ron s. the parietal 
bones; tyak on-sok s. the sutures of skull. 
a-tyak-bo s. a headman, ruler J. 
t'yak-ku (fr. tyak the head and T. skud) 
s. lie, soap-lie, white ash, potash, tyak- 
ku-nun a-tyak flet vb. to wash the head 
with white ash, tyak-ku co-ka tap vb. to 
put white ash or potash into tea, to make 
it draw. 

^ak-ko, a-tyak-ko s. a broad ring made 
of ivory or metal worn on thumb against 
which bowstring is pressed. See Hooker 
I, 217. 

t'yan pret. p. tyan vb. to set in, to plant 
as tree kun tyan\ to set as stones in ring, 
to set in as post, to sink in as foot into 
mud; md-ro tyan fat to be dead and 
buried Tbr.; fd-v6r tyan 1. to get up a 
crowd, 2. to kick up a row. — a-tyan 
adj. transplanting, transplanted opp. a-waw; 
a-tyan tu-tsdt the season for transplanting, 
a-tyan tu-tsdt ndn the s. of t. has arrived. 
^am vb. t. 1. to arrange, to make ready, 

tyi— ^uk 


to place things in preparation, to put in 
preparation, in order, tdm-bu-sd tam gun- 
nd tyam. get every thing ready for the 
feast; 2. vb. n. to clump, to be clustered 
see po tyam; vi tyam (clotted blood). 
See also tyom. — 3. to be decisive, con- 
clusive, absolute, tyam-lun li to speak 
decisively, tyam-lun ayok zuk to work in 
a decided, forcible manner. 

a-tyam s. a clump, of plants or trees. 
— pd-tyam or pd-tyam pd-lyii, s. good 
order, neatness, pd-tyam pd-lyii, mat vb. 
to arrange, to adjust, to dispose, to re- 
t'yi see fi. 

^ik-ka fyik-ka or tHk-tyih-kd see tek-kd 
tek-kd s. V. tek. 
^ft see tit. 
t'yfn see tin. 
tyim see tim. 
fyfl see til. 

t'yu, tyii-m vb. t. to put together, to 
place or pour together, to mix, to mingle ; 
vb. n. to be assembled together, to be 
united, to be comprised in, to be con- 
centrated, ka-ro un-ka tyii, vb. to mix 
sugar with water; cet tyu-lun tan vb. to 
display united or concentrated strength; 
a-sut md-ro-ka tyii-non the news is pro- 
pagated among the people; kryom-ld fyii 
to comprise, to muster, to concentrate. — 
fyiim md-Kiin-ne cannot mingle. — • tyv/m- 
bo s. one who mingles, a compounder. 

tyii-ldt s. a mixture, a compound, com- 
position, an amalgamation. 

a-tyii s. an assembly, a meeting, a-tyii 
lyan a place of meeting, a-tyii, rin li to 
speak in an assembly. 

Deriv. tyiim vb. t. 1. to place together 
as embers of fire, to concentrate, to 
assemble together, muk tyum to gather 
together the rubbish; 2. to crush, to 
oppress, to overwhelm. 

a-tyiim s. gathering together; mi a-tyiim. 

t'yuk 1. vb. to stretch up, to reach up, 

to extend (as to obtain anything almost 

beyond reach). — tyiik-ldt s. stretch, 



fyuk— tyu, pa-fyu 

fyup, a-fyup— fyep 

tyfik 2. incorr. f. tydh. 

tyun vb. to be elastic as Indian rubber, 
to return to shape, form or plan, to re- 
turn to hand as thing lent; — fyiin sum- 
bo 1. anything elastic, 2. anything that 
will give a return (as good speculation 
etc.)- — fyun fyiin vibrating, shaking. — 
a-tyun adj. elastic, springy; s. the re- 
turning of anything borrowed zo a-tyun, 
kdm a-tyun. 

t'yup vb. t. to follow or proceed in great 
numbers, ayok fyiip vb. to work without 
ceasing, rin fyup vb. to jabber, to speak 
incessantly, fyup-lun tok-non to come in 
such numbers as to obstruct. — tyup-pd 
fyup-pd adv. successively; fyiip-pd fyup- 
pd lat vb. to come successively in 

^um see fyu. 

^Utn, a-t'yum s. induration M. 

tyur vb. n. 1. to be advanced in age, 
(not arrived at old age), the past life is 
longer than the remaining, to be full 
ripe (as fruit), a-nyo fywr-non the lady 
has reached a certain age. — a-fyur s. 
man, when arrived at full maturity and 
approaching to old age, advanced in life, 
2. to have one side longer than another 
diim fyur-bo cloth with one side woven 
longer than the other. — a-fyur s. cloth 
when not woven even, one side being 
longer than the other. 

t'yul vb. 1. to sprout out, to shoot out 
as young shoots of trees; — a-tyiil s. 
fresh sprouts from the root of yam after 
the accidental distraction of the first, 
buk a-fyiil fresh sprouts from yam-roots. 
2. to express discontent, to grumble, to 
complain; — a-fyul s. displeasure, dis- 
content, a-fyiil tin li vb. to express dis- 
content, to grumble. 

t'yu, pa-fyu s. a horsefly, Haematopota 
pluvialis, see Ivtm dan pd-fyu; pd-fyu mik 
s. the eye of the cleg, applied to the 
head of maize, when the grain has be- 
come a tolerable seize (about as large 
as the eye of cleg) larger than sd-Ayat 
td-ji mik tap q. v. 

tyup, a-fyup s. a cold, catarrh, a-tyup 
ddk pld being ill of a cold. 

t'yul vb. t. 1. to heap up, to pile up, 
to add to, to accumulate, to amass, a-pim- 
ka fyul ka vb. to pile up the heap; Adm 
fyul-lUn fo vb. to amass riches; 2. femi- 
nam subigere Tbr. 

a-fyul s. a heaped load; a-fyul bO, vb. 
to carry a heaped load, a-fyul mat vb. 
feminam subigere. 

fye see te etc. 

t'ye-tsu see fe-tsii etc. 

tyek see fek. 

fyen 1. vb. to pull out, to pull away 
tyen zon vb. to pull against another. 

fyen 2., a-fyen adj. close (relationship); 
niim-nu fyen a close relation, nikn-fyen 
i. q. a-fyen. 

fyen 3. for fin the chief or most pre- 
cious part, sd-biJur tyen the musk bag or 
gland of the musk-deer; td-lam fyen 
testicles of man or male animals; a-mik 
a-fyen tHk-nom a-ram a proverb signify- 
ing: the eye is very precious. 

(fyen 4. see fyen 2.) kill- fyen kUl-fyen 
16m vb. to halt, . . . sd-tsHk lat Hn hH 
pdk-ldm kai-tyen kUl-tyen Um-bam the 
sun rose upon him, and he halted upon 
his thigh G. 

fyet see fet and tat. 

fyen 1., a-fyen s. degree, grade, rang, 
order; a story of house, steps, stairs; — 
succession, order, series, rotation; rank, 
degree, fyen^nd tyen-nd successively, in 
rotation, in order, t.-nd t.-nd di vb. to 
come in order. 

fyen 2. reduplic. fan-nd tyen-nd un- 
equal in length, irregular, uneven, sd- 
gdr t.-nd t.-nd din ravines of irregular 
depths; mak-mi-sdn t.-nd t.-nd 16m soldiers 
to march in irregular lines. 

fyep vb. n. to be regular; to be con- 
stant, uncessing, tyep-ld adv. incessantly, 
regularly, tyep-liin li vb. to speak in- 
cessantly, fyep-ld fi vb. to come regularly. 
— reduplic. fap-pd fyep-pd adv. dis- 
tributively, separately, fap-pd fyep-pd 
buk vb. to beat right and left; fap-pd 

fyep— tyok 

tyoii— tydrt 


tyep-pd di vb. to come one after another; 
fap-pd fyep-pd byi vb. to distribute to each. 
a-tyep advly. successively, in succession; 
a-fyep-bo one in succession or next in 
rank, ma-ro a-tyep a-fyep Hon vb. to 
send off men in succession, sd-dydr mi 
a-tyep a-fyep op vb. to fire in succession. 
tyep 2., a-tyep s. (fr. 1.?) a clear pro- 
nunciation, a distinct accent, a-fyep rin 
U vb. to speak distinctly. 
fyer see fydr. 

fyer vb. to spring upon, pounce upon 
as cat, tiger, sd-fdn-nun sd-vin-ka fyer 
the tiger pounces on the deer; to dart, to 
throw (as dart, javelin etc.), to cast, to 
pitch; sun-U fyer vb. to cast net; sd-lyon- 
Id fyer-non to die suddenly Tbr.; sd-hron 
fyer-sd lyan mat to flee, to haste or run 
away Tbr. fyer-rd fyer-rd (see so') dart- 
ing, so f.-rd f.-rd clear weather, litly. 
"rays darting around". 

a-fyer adj. pouncing upon (as tiger 
upon prey), darting upon (as eagle on 
prey), a-fyer a-nan-sd n6n to go pre- 
pared to use violence a-fyer a-nan-sd 
ayok mat vb. to oppress, a-fyer a-nan-sd 
rin U vb. to bully, to browbeat. 
fyel see fel. 

^0, fyo-m T. tos, vb. t. 1. to hear, to 
listen, to hearken, cfr. nydn, fyo tet 
within hearing; fyo-wun-sd rin s. a report, 
a-sut fyo-wUn-d have (you) heard the 
news? a-sut tsUk-lat tsiik-kydr tet fyo 
was proclaimed from east to west P. 
go Id go-nun a-do kdn-nicn ho mon dyer 
diin yd ydn li-wUn-re fyo and I have 
heard say of thee that thou canst under- 
stand a dream to interpret it. Ex. 2. to 
understand, to comprehend, to know. — 
fyo-ld mat 1. to hearken to, 2. to cause 
to understand. — fyom s. hearing; under- 
standing fyom md-myon-ne never heard 
of such a thing. — fyom kon vb. to cause 
to hear; lyan-sd md-r6-pdn fyom-ka in 
the audience of the people of the land 
Gr. — tyom-ho s. a hearer, fyom-ho-sdn 
1. hearers, 2. audience. 
tyok, tuk-fyok, tun-fyok s. the inner 

fleshy part of thigh, tuk-fyok or tiin-fyok 
pot s. 1. id., 2. large posteriors Tbr. 

t'yon: kwh fyon s. buttresses of tree. 

tyot vb. n. to be of proper consistency 
as dough etc., to be thick as milk, to be 
ripe as pus of sore. — a-fyot s. a proper 
consistency M. 

fyon vb. to be indurated as swelling. 

t'yop, fyop-pd fyop-pd onom. sound of 
water as when simmering, fyop-pd fyop- 
pd tsu vb. to simmer. 

t'yor, see tyor vb. n. to be fat, flabby; 
fyor fyor adj. flabby; — a-fyor adj. fat, 
flabby, md-ro a-fyor a. a flabby man with 
flesh lax and flaccid. 

t'yol vb. to swell out in lumps; to rise 
in wens, to be protuberant; fyol-ddk s. 
a sore, excrescence as of corn etc. fyak- 
fyol, fyol a-fyak-ka a wen on head; fyol- 
bo having excrescences. 

fyol, fyil-ld fyol-ld see under fil. 

(t'yol), fyol - Id mol - Id adv. in great 
quantities, exceedingly, fyol-ld mol-ld yii 
vb. to pour in great quantities, fyol-ld 
mol-ld hrofl vb. to rise in great q.'s; 
(a-kup) fyol-ld mol-ld ti-ndn vb. (child) 
to increase in size exceedingly. 

t'ydk vb. 1. to harbour, to screen, to 
shield, to shelter, to protect; go a-dom 
fyok-so I will protect you; — 2. to take 
refuge, zo myup fyok vb. to take in one's 
store, as in time of want (famine or 
when work cannot be obtained), pd-no- 
ka fyok vb. to take refuge under king. 

tyok-bo s. 1. an asylum, 2. a protector, 
a guardian, a champion. 

fyok-lyan s. a place of refuge, a sanctuary, 
fyok-lyarl niim-sim-nyo-sd fam-cdn tdn-dok 
an asylum for man and a place of retreat 
for beasts. 

a-fyok s. an asylum, a place of refuge, 
no fyok s. a fish-hole. 

t'ydn 1. vb. to screen as from sight, to 
stand between so as to hide view, kun- 
ka fydn to be screened; mik si-sd fydn- 
ndn to be screened from sight; so om-ka 
md-tym-nun do not stand iu the light, 
do not screen the light. — fyon-ldt s. a 


(ydfi— iVdl 

da — dak 

screen, a shade, an obstruction, — a-(y6n 
s. 1. coming between one and the light, 
2. a basket not full of anything, about 
half full. 

t'ydn 2. explet. to hon, h6n tydn a dumb 

t'y6t-ta tydt-ta i. q. tyot-td fyot-td. 

t'ydt, a-tydt 1. s. the act of empting 
chi from vessel on mats to cool. 

t'ydt, a-t'ydt 2. s. a spec, of grass from 
which they extract an adhesive juice called 
dyok, used as bird-lime dydk a-fyot dot. 

fydp see fop. 

t'ydm see^ fydm. 

f^6m, fydm fydm bushing, thick, as 
branches of tree of thick foliage kun 
fydm fydm. 

fydr vb. I. cans, of for q.v., 2. to plaster 
(as house), lit. to let fly upon it fr. for 
q.v.: U fydr; U ^oV-6o a plasterer; dam- 
sdk fydr vb. to plaster with mud. — a-fydr 
a. the plastering of a wall with mud. 

t'ydl see fdl. 

t'ydl spec, of miin-dyep q. v. 

da the eleventh letter of the L. alphabet, 
T. S, English d. 

da 1. s. a pond, lake, stagnant water; 
un da; da din deep water; da zdn like 
a lake, a great quantity applied to water, 
a vast expanse or concourse of (as of 
liquid, people) da Id hrdn to rise gradually 
(as water after rain or when course is 
stopped up); da dyum the beauty of a 
lake. — dd-mit s. a nymph, dd-mit tun- 
kun la mit nymphs and syrens; dd-mit 
ddk s. intermittent fever, vb. to have 
intermittent f. — da muk s. waterplant; 

— dd yiim s. scum on stagnant water; 
dd yiim muk s. vegetation and weeds in 
stagnant water. 

*da 2., ddt T. 'dod s. desire, ardour 
ga-ddt T. dgd-dod 1. id., 2. a desirable 
thing, dd ca, dd cd, ddt ca T. 'dod cogs 
s. desire, lust, concupiscence; — dd-bo, dd- 
po T. 'dod-pa s. wish, desire, inclination, 
lust, concupiscence, td-dyu pldn-ka dd-po 
mat vb. to be very lustful after women; 
dd-po md-sHn-ne to have no inclination; 

— ddt forms a precative as kdt ddt-ld 
mat-td-o may you have abundance. M. 

*da 3. perhaps fr. the same source as 
T. Idog a turning back, a reversion of M.: 
mik dd s. a reverie, trance, vision, 

dd-ka luk vb. to fall into trance; 
dd-niin luk ddn vb. to start up or forth 
from a reverie. 

da 4. 1. to repeat a charm M.; 2. T. 
mdos a spec, of offering made of rolls of 
coloured cotton, to propitiate certain evil 
spirits ; diit sd lUn-ji mun dd zuk-liin kUn 
to expel the evil spirits d. and I. by pro- 
pitiation of the dd offering. M. [See 
Jaschke s. v.] 

'da 5. T. mdo (a confluence) vb. to 
proceed, to reach any particular place; 
to succeed, to thrive (said of crops); to 
spring at (applied especially to any par- 
ticular part) e. c. sd-fdn tiik-tok-ka dd 
tsuk the tiger springs at the throat; — 
to increase in quantity (especially liquid) 
to be in vast quantity to form a large 
mass or concourse (as of people), to form 
a luxuriant expanse (crops); — to resort 
to dd ndn, pd-no-sd kum-dUn cd-ka dd- 
ndn to resort to the kings presence. 

dak V. 1. t. to hurt ydn-ydn ddk id., 
tdl-ld ddk vb. to h. severily; 2. intr. to 
be hurt, to be sick, to be ill, to be in 
pain, ydn-ydn ddk to be slightly ill; tdl- 
ld ddk vb. to be very ill; tsap-^i ddk 
vb. to be dangerously ill. — ddk-bo a. a 
sick person. — ddk-mii adv. sickly. M. 106. 

dSk— dSn 

*daiii— dSn 


— ddk-ld adv. painfully, severely e. c. ddk- 
Id buk vb. to beat severely; d.-ld tsuk 
vb. to bite painfully; ddk-tsdk-ld or ddk- 
ld tsdk-ld by force; ddk tsdk-ld U vb. to 
speak sharply so as to give pain; ddk-ld 
tsdk-ld lyo vb. to take by force. — ddk 
a-ddk s. pain, disease, sickness J. 
a-ddk-ka yon the sickness is somewhat 
relieved; a-ddk mlem bu bam sickly look- 
ing; a-ddk-nun (or vb. to recover from 
sickness; a-ddk pd-hu s. an epidemic 
disease; a-ddk suk the symptoms of dis- 
ease; a-ddk ydn hrydn the disease is of 
long standing. — ddk (e-non pain or sick- 
ness to be passed away; ddk-nun sd-non 
to be cured, to become well; ddk nyim- 
bo adj. sick, unhealthy, insalubrious; ddk 
ydm-bo adj. 1. sickly (as person or country), 
unhealthy, 2. one knowing pain, com- 
passionate; ddk md-yd-num-bo 1. healthy, 
2. one not knowing pain, merciless. — 
ddk-not i. q. ddk-ldt s. sickness, illness, 
pain; ddk-not md-nyin-nd mat-td preserve 
us from illness; ddk-ndt nyi-ld mat-td-a 
may you be ill or in pain (an impre- 

(am-ddk s. sickness, disease; — see 
krit-ddk, du-ddk, sak-ddk. 

dydk (caus. of ddk) to cause pain, to 
cause to hurt; — Comp. kiil dydk (sub- 
ject to pain?) adj. unfledged (bird); — 
kyon dydk s. compassion. 

ddk vb. to cherish, to nourish, to foster, 
to protect, ddk nyit s. cherishing, nurture, 
fostering, maintenance; a patron; ddk- 
nyit-bo s. a fosterer, a nourisher; a pro- 
tector. — a-ddk s. cherishing, cherishment. 

*dan see don s. face. 

dan, tun-ddn see don. 

din vb. pf. dan inf. dan imp. ddn-nd 
ddn-nd-o p. pres. dan-nun caus. dydn; see 
also luk; 1. to run dan M-bo able to run, 
swift as a horse, dan md-Jcu-ne to be un- 
able to run; 2. to issue explet. to I6m: 
Urn dan a road, a way lit. the way that 
issues; to be shed, vi dan blood to be 
shed; brii. dan the creeper whence the 
poison issues; to fly forth as splinters 

when wood is forcibly cut; met. to die, 
a-pil dan the spirit to fly forth, to die; 
— pf. dan gone, ro gon dan (or dydn) 
dead and buried; ci dan see under ci III, 
dan Tbr. i. q. nun. 

Der. ddn-bo s. a runner; — dan, a-ddn 
s. running, a-ddn hdm-ka lat came run- 
ning the whole way; (a-) dan lyan s. a 
place for or means of running. 

dydn caus. to throw, to cast, to throw 
away, lun dydn to pour away; to put 
away as evil from the heart; a-liit sak- 
cin a-jen dydn to put away evil thoughts 
from heart; to abandon a-kiip dydn to a. 
a child; dydn nyon vb. throw away, to 
cast away, to cast off, to abandon, gydm 
dydn vb. to subvert, to overthrow J. 

*dan T. Man^ha a rising, a course) in 
L. "increase", td-ayot ddn-nd ddn-nd ti 
to increase (said of goitre); — dan met 
T. Man met without increase, rin ddn 
met md-li-nun do not speak more; ddn 
met md-zuk-niin do not work more; d.m. 
md-bo-nd-so you shall not give more. See 
also dan 4. 

dan s. a coat, explet. to diim q.v. M. 137, 
ddn suk vb. to put on cloth, ddn ot vb. 
to take off cloth. 

dan-t'dk s. a long train of people bn 
ddn-fok a marriage-procession, pd-no-sd 
ddn-fok a kings retinue. 

ddt 1. choking, ddt-ld or ddt-td ddt-tu 
or ddt-td ddt nyon or yak vb. to choke, 
un ddt-td ddt-td yak to choke while 
drinking water; a-sdm ddt-ld li to feel 
almost smothered. — td-ddt i. q. ddt; td- 
ddt-ld i. q. ddt-ld. 

ddt 2. vb. to break off head of grain 
or vegetable, dyek-lun ddt to break off 
ear of corn. 

*d4t 3. see under dd 2. 

*dan 1. T. Man see den. 

*dan 2. T. gdan pronounced by L.'s den. 

dan vb. to be rent, to be burst, to be 
cracked, diim hrit ddn-ndn the cloth is 
rent; fdt ddn-ndn the earth is cracked. 

ddn used with mlem (prefixed) as mlem- 
ddn a memento, a souvenir, (prob. "a 



dal— da 

thing to recall to memory the face that 
is gone". See under dan.) 

dan, ddn-bo see under dan. 

A&n, dan dan i. q. don-nd don-nd, d. d. 
fyot vb. to sprinkle uniformly. 

dap, ddp vb. 1. to stop up (hole), to 
plug, un dap to stop up hole; ddp-bo a 
stopper, a plug. — 2. to take into mouth, 
see also dap, zo bon-ka dap. — a-ddp s. 
the stopper, stopple-plug. 

dap vb. to fall in torrents (rain), so 
ddp-pd ddp-pd yil rain to fall in torrents. 

dam or ddm, redupl. (ow) ddm-ddm-bo 
adj. said of children when sufficiently 
large to begin to do a little work, ddm- 
md adv. gently (said of speach), ddm-md 
ddm-md U vb. to speak gently. — tum- 
ddm-bo or t.-d.-ld or t.-dvm t.-ddm-ld adj. 
heavy as mind or body, sak tum-ddm-ld 
U vb. to feel low-spirited, md-zu tum- 
ddm-ld It vb. to feel heavy in body; md- 
zu tum-dum tum-ddm-ld "heavy in body", 
applied to child when just able to run 
a little. 

dar 1. vb. n. to increase as water after 
rain: ufl ddr-non; to multiply, as weeds: 
muk ddr-non; to generate, to procreate 
num-lyen fd-lyen ddr-non the race to 
multiply by procreation; — to sprout up; 
2. adj. fit to eat, as vegetables bi ddr 
t'am ddr all vegetables fit to eat; edible; 

— ddr-rd ddr-rd sprouting up, increasing. 

— a-ddr s. a good deal grown (as a boy); 

— t'am-ddr expletive to bi ddr. — td-ddr 
sprouting up (as plant or child), increas- 
ing (in size as river), t.-d.-ld nun to have 
increased in size. 

dar vb. n. to be flexible, plilable, to be 
thin and weak (as a tree). 

dar s. the sixth final letter, ' (r). 

dal vb. T. rdol(-ba) to germinate, to 
spring up dal hron id.; ddl dal or ddl-ld 
s. a fresh green smell e. c. a-fon ddl-ld 
ddl-ld lik or a-ri ddl-ld n6m s. a fresh 
pleasant smell (as early in morning); 
nn ddl-luii U to speak hyperbolically 
Tbr.; also: gentle (breeze), sun-mut ddl 
ddl a g. b., s.-m. d. d. di a g. b. to blow; 

zo nyom d.-ld d.-ld iyu corn to wave with 
the breeze. 

dal pendulous, ddl-ld ddl-ld e. c. a-nyor 
ddl-ld ddl-ld the ears hanging down. 

dal-ia see dal-ld under da 1. 

da 1. vb. n. to recline, to rest, to lie 
down, da-nyi id.; (kun) a-glyot da nyi 
(a tree) to lie at full length, kd-ta-ka da 
(nyi) to lie together, implies sexual inter- 
course, ha so-nap o-re-ka hu kd-ta-ka da 
he lay with her that night G.; da luk 
go-run lying or rising; s. a lair W. 71, 
da tu-tsdt s. bed-time; da-tdn, da-fon s. 
place of repose; da U a. a sleeping-room, 
a lodging; da lyan the place where any- 
thing lies; also a place of rest i.q. da bi. 
— 2. vb. aux. in continuative s. (cfr. bam) 
tyap-lun da to touch; un yii da (water) 
to flow; — 3. to be I6m-ka sd-dyak id- 
tet da-niin-go or da sd-tet ndn-sdn lorn or 
lyan nyi-wun-a how many days journey 
is it? — 4. to be certain a-lo da it is 
certainly so; adv. certainly, verily, even 
so, a-lom da li they verily (even) say so; 
da ho mat-la re jdn gikn verily your way 
of doing is bad; da yd bam, yan md-yd- 
ne li even tho' he knows, he says he 
does not know; da si yan md-si-nd ydn 
li even tho' he saw it, he said he did 
not see it; tyo yan ik da vydt though he 
heard, he even asked again; hH gun da 
noii-so he also will even go; a-zom a-gyap 
zo yan ik da zo-so li tho' he had eaten 
much; he said I will even eat more. 

dal-ld (fr. da-Id) emphatic particle, 
verily, sd-ron-ren ho dal-ld pd-no giim 
from to-day thou art verily a king; sdn- 
gye-sd ddk-kd do dal-ld giim I am the 
very lord of the Sangs-rgyas (Buddhas) P. 

a-da adj. lying, a-da lyan s. place of 

dya, dya-m the causal of da, to lay 
down (as bricks etc.), to cause to lie 
down (as child etc.), to leave or cause 
to lie down for another opportunity, sd- 
rdn dya-fo a-lon zuk-so let it rest for the 
present, I will do it afterwards. 

a-dyam s. : a-dyam lyan s. the place. 

*da— da-bru 

da-m6 — *dah 


where a thing is placed, dyam applied 
to ci etc.: dyam d a drink of rest. 

td-da, td-dal-ld (emphatic particles) 
even thus, i. q. dal-ld. 

*da 2. T. mdd s. an arrow, L. tson, 
da Kun s. a loophole; — da gyon T. mdd 
rgyan s. a bow-shot or in L. also: gun- 
shot-distance; — da huk an s. hole in 
stockade or battlement for firing thro', 
a loophole ; — da-bry6 pot s. an earthen 
pellet for pellet-bow, d.-b. p. gon to mould 
do.; da-bryo-pydn sin s. the handle for 
grasping the bow; da-bryd bu s. from 
being like to a pellet-ball: specc. of 
Myriapodae-family : Julidae, Glomeridae, 
see brul; da-bryo muk s. n. ofabush; da- 
bryo zdn rydl-ld rydl-ld-bo adj. round as 
a pellet; da-bryo sd-li s. a pellet-bow; 
da-bryo (sd-W) grim s. the string of a 
pellet-bow; da-bryo (sd-li) td-ryon s. the 
net attached to string for placing pellet; 
da-bryo dyot Tb. to draw pellet-bow; d.-b. 
dp Tb. to fire with do. — da ts'6 a correct 
aim, a good shot with arrow or (in L.) 
with gun. 

*da 3. s. T. zla in comp. i. q. da-wa; 
da-fo T. zla-fo an almanac; da-nok dark 
night, where there is no moon opposed 
to Id-vo Un q. cfr., da-nok-ka in dark 
nights; da-so T. zla-bsol s. intercalary 
month; da-ts'd T. zla-tses s. ("a day of 
the month") a proper name; da-wa s. 
the planet luna, monday: za da-wa. 

nim-da days, periods, nun-da Id-vo dyit 
to create do. nun-da Id-vo mit i. q. jen 
niir'i-da Id-vo mit s. the goddess of seasons, 
of eternity. 

da 4. (Chinese) i. q. L. ban q. t. da 
byd s. a Gorkha or Yakthumba (Mur-mi) 
ban: a curved knife. 

*da-kyem T. bdag-rkym s. a reward for 
services, given by a king. 

da-du s. scurfiness of body (as after itch). 

da-bru s. a spec, of hooting-owl; ace. 
W. K. 205 '"mik-dab-brH" or the short- 
eyed "Srw-caller" Syrnium newarense; 
da-brii mun s. an evil spirit that screames 
at night. 

da-md (see tun-dar) s. rolling sound of 

*da yuk T. dag yig s. correct spelling, 

da-rf s. a spec, of very small frog 

dak, pum pd-li dak vb. to turn head 
over heels. — kiil-dak 1. upside down, 
topsy-turvy, 2. steep downward (hill), 
kai-dak-ld tyuk to stand on head or to 
place anything upside down, k.-d.-ld din 
to stand on head, k.-d.-ld mat vb. to re- 
verse; kai-dak kon s. the reverse side. — 
tuk-dak, drenched, t.-d.-ld sdl vb. to be 
completely drenched. 

dak see kum-d., nikn-d., siin-d. a spec, 

(dak) hdk dak vb. to hickup. 

dan 1. s. the low ground, the vallies, 
below sur-no the intermediate land, 
between the valley and hill-tops; daii- 
ka zo ryu-ld m/ydn in the v. the rice 
grows well; dan-sd (gen.: adjly.) in the 
low ground. 

dan 2., dan vb. t. to stretch out; to pull 
out; to elongate, kom-bo dan vb. to stretch 
leather; a-kd a-dyan dan to crucify; da/l 
sin or dan-kun s. a cross; to open wide, 
to gape with (as eyes, mouth), a-mik da/l 
vb. to open eyes wide. — dan, a-mik dan 
having gaping eyes. — tUn-dan going in 
numbers, in series, in quantities, sd-sd 
tUn-dan i. q. sUn-sdn tUn-don q. v. ; tUn- 
dan-ld 1. by series, numbers, 2. con- 
stantly; a-bon tUn-dan-ld ok vb. to keep 
mouth constantly open. 

a-dan s. length, li dan length of house. 

dan 3., dan dan flickering (flame): mi 
dan dan, sok dan dan mat life to flicker; 
dun-nd dan-iid flickering, d.-nd d.-nd si 
to see and lose sight, to appear and dis- 

*dan or ddn 4. T. Man (diffused) 1. in- 
crease, abundance, much, used by L.'s 
also for 2. necessity, dan met without 
increase, not at all; dan met tarn li 1. not 
to speak at all or to the purpose, 2. to 
speak a great deal without necessity; 



daii— dap, dap 

dam— dam'bryd 

dan met ma-zuk-ne without necessity he 
does nothing. Also d&n, don met buk to 
beat without cause; 3. a series, a range 
of, He ddn rows of seats, mdt-ld ddn a 
row of hair-nooses; ddn-fok or dan-fdk 
T. Idan-fag s. a series of or an unbroken, 
consecutive line, a procession, md-rd ddn- 
fok a procession of people; bri ddn-fok 
families who have been connected by 
marriage for a long time; mak-pdn re 
ddn-fdk Idm-ndn the regiment marched 
in unbroken order; ay en zdn ddn-fdk 
friendship of long standing; ddn-fen T. 
Man fens the gamut in music, a prolonged 
note, d. f.-ld mat vb. to chaunt with pro- 
longed note, to intone; — ddn ddn pro- 
longation, extension; ddn ddn U vb. to 
have to think or search before answering 
md-ddn-nd mat li to speak promptly with- 
out thinking. 

daii 5. T. grans s. a number, dan met 
without or beyond calculation, without end. 
dan ku bik s. a spec, of beetle. 
dat, dat-td dat-td 1. impertinent, im- 
pudent, dat-td dat-td fam to answer im- 
pertinently, a-kup mo bo rin dat-td dat-td 
fam the child is saucy. — 2. gasping, 
spasmodically a-krik dat-td dat-td mat 
vb. to gasp spasmodically as when dying. 
dan vb. (opp. to hrilc) to be a little 
torn; to be tied crossing and twisting 
round as in making baskets: dan-lion 
dam; to be' rent or cracked as earth. 
dum dan-ndn the cloth is slightly rent; 
dan-Id lira vb. to be slightly torn; dan- 
Id dam vb. to lie loosely not united to- 
gether (as in loops). 

a-dan s. a bandage from one thing to 
another; the stopper, extinguisher. 
dan see dan. 

dap, ddp vb. 1. to stop, to stop up (as 
a hole), to cover up, to suffocate (as fire), 
to extinguish, to ruin, to annihilate, to 
gnash ; a-bon dap-liin sdt to kill a person 
by smothering him; fydn-nun mak mi-ka 
dap the enemy descended on the army 
and annihilated them; an dap vb. to stop 
up hole; li-ka dap or gri-ka dap to come 

suddenly down as robbers or an enemy 
to ruin the houses; num-ddk-kun li dap 
the creditor seized everything; 2. to ob- 
tain W. 72. 3. i. q. dop: pun-dap. 

dam 1. in comp. a-fyak dam the crown 
of head, nan dam 1. the canopy over 
seat, 2. the height of a person when 
sitting or a little above the height of 
a p. when standing or a 1. above, din 
dam. — tuk-dam above, higher than t.-d.- 
bo the upper; Idm-sd tuk-dam above the 
road, Idm-sd tuk-dam-bo the upper road. 
dam 2., dam-md dam-7nd adv. gently, 
a-tet d.-md d.-md m,d-li-nun do not speak 
so low. See also ddm. 

*dam 3. T. sdom(-pa') vb. to bind, to 
tie, also s. the binding of anything, see 
ban- dam, hldm-dam; — ban hyam dam 
the fastening of knife-shelter; — sak-cin 
dam vb. to have one's ideas bound, to 
be stupid. See also ddm. 

a-dam s. 1. the fastening, a-dam md- 
tdm-ne it is not well fastened. 2. the 
false skin that overgrows finger-nails: 
pun-ci dam. 

dam 4. T. dam(^pa) adj. noble, holy, 
dam-tiuk, tam-tiuk T. dam-ts'ig s. a vow, 
a sacrament M. 

dam 5. T. 'dam s. mud, dam-rbyd s. T. 
'dam bya "a mire- or swamp-bird" a duck, 
d. b. zdn sd-kdl sd-kdl. Idm to waddle like 
a duck. — dam-sdk T. 'damr-sag s. mud, 
clay, dam-sdk fydr to plaster with mud 
(as wall). 

dam-iidk T. gdam-nag s. words of counsel, 
advice, instruction, ddk-ba yuk-mun lyan 
dam-nd/f tdn-ddk-ka ndn when ill to go 
for advice to the priest. 

dam-[)yeh sor to be blighted as crops, 
to be encrusted and spoilt. M. 
dam-bu-bo s. a witness. 
''dam-brd s. T. Idum-ra a garden, rip 
dam-brd a flower-garden; fam-pdt dani- 
brd an orchard, a fruit-garden; sd-Um ' 
d.-b. an orange-orchard; — dam-brd zuk- 
bo m. a gardener. 

dam-bryd 1. for da-bryd, 2. a spec, of 
rice (ao). 

dam-bru mufi— dal 

dam-bru mun for da-h. m. 
dam-bru Skt. damaru s. a small sort of 

dam Sin i. q. ndk lum kun q. t. M. 
dar 1. s. light, splendour; — rum dar 
s. a god T. Iha, Skt. deva P.; dar-tek s. 
a god, a good spirit; riim dar-tek, hence 
a good man md-ro dar-tek; dar-mit s. a 
good spirit (female), a goddess; T. Iha- 
mo Skt. devt, devatd, ddkint P.; rum 
dar-mit id.; dar-tek dar-mit gods and 

dar-la the reflected red etc. rays of 
light before sunrise and after sunset. 

dar sd-fdn s. dar 1. "the tiger that 
devours the splendour" or fr. T. sgraf 
an eclipse of sun (or moon): sd-tsiik (Id- 
vd)dar sd-fdn-nun tsuk. See dar-cen. 

dar 2. T. dar(-ba) vb. to be spread, 
diffused; see -tar. 

(dar 3.) 1. redupl. td-dar-ld curved, td- 
dar-ld nun vb. to become curved, bent 
outwards, td-dar-ld (mat) din to stand 
with belly stuck out, 2. dar s. the mark" 
placed over consonants and denoting r, 
used always as a final. See also dar. 

*dar-ben fr. T. sgra-gcan see dar sd- 
fdn s. dar 1. in astronomy the ascending 

dar-bu s. a worm which feeds on the 
blades of corn, Calandra granaria; dar- 
bii, zdk to be wormeaten. 

dar-tScim (fr. dar 3.?) s. an ornamental 
mark written at beginning of book: T. 

dal 1., dal-ld see under da. 
dal 2. vb. 1. to pour in, to pour from one 
vessel into another; in Comp. "trans" 
dal tyan vb. to transplant; dal byi vb. 
to transfer, hum dal byi give or transfer 
it to him, kd-sum dal bo give or transfer 
it to me; dal bydt vb. to transmit, dal 
Idk vb. to transfuse, dal zuk vb. to trans- 
form, dal so vb. to transport; dal gye Idt 
s. transmigration ; — 2. cfr. also T. 'grel^-ba) 
vb. to explain to, to explicate, to trans- 
late, to interpret, dal(-liin) U to inter- 
pret, dal lin-bo or dal-bo or dal ydm-bo 

di, df— dik 


s. an interpreter. dal{-lun) pi vb. to 
translate; dal t'&m-bo p. p. translated; dal- 
Idt s. explanation, commentary. 

(ad 1.) dal-ld dol-ld adv. pouring back- 
wards and forwards, dal-ld dol-ld Idk vb. 
to transfer, to pour backwards and for- 

di, df 1., di-m cans, di-t, dyi-t vb. to 
come, to proceed di non, di-o imp. come, 
a-lem di-o come hither, di-t kon let liim 
come, dit-bo a comer, proceeding navi 
dit-bo the ensuing year, dit fat p. has 
come, dit-det, dit-dydt coming, just about 
to come, also implied to plants etc. as 
buk a-brup a-fyol di (potatoes) to shoot 
out into wens and excrescences or (wens 
and excrescences) to come from potatoes : 
brup di; di fiit or di sok to be confluent; 
s-iin-mdt di wind to come to blow; to 
make impression, also implies pleasurable 
sensation, a-l&t(-ka) di i. q. a-liit-ka von 
to be pleased; sak di id.; see kyon dyit. 

dim gerund, from di, sak dim, sak-a- 
dim pleased, glad, joyful; dim-bo partic.p., 
rin dim-bo one fluent of speach, jo dim-bo 
convenient, befitting, applicable. 

Comp. bil di to bring, von di to enter, 
to come in, dal di to pour out. 

df 2., df-m to be small; di 1. a-di adj. 
small (children, birds, fruit) fo di small 
bird, a-kup di little children, fam-pot di 
small fruit; 2. adv. at times di di at 
times, sometimes, also di-di-ld, di-di-ld 
tsal tsdl-ld dak sometimes to suffer sharp 
pain, dim: a-kiip dim (also incorr. dyilm') 
a doll. — tak-di very small (said of bird 
or beast) on tHk-di kiip a small, a poor 
child; tak-dim-bo and (incorr.) tuk-dyiim- 
bo adj. small one (kids, infants). 

'"di-po ra-za T. sdig-pa and Hind, rdjd 
s. "the chief of sinners", a scorpion. 

*di-tsu fr. T. bdud-rtsi s. a little cup 
made of bell-metal into which ci is put 
and offered to riim; di-tsO, fat to make 
offering of ditto: consecrated water or 
spirit, the drink offered to gods, Amrita. 

dil< 1. s. resolution, determination; vb. 
to resolve, to determine on a thing to 


*dik— dift 

dift— du, a-( 

endeavour, dik-lun dyok zuk having deter- 
mined on a work to perform it; dik-lun 
non having determined on going to go; 
a-Ut-ka dik s. the resolution of heart or 
a determined mind; dik t'o vh. to resolve, 
to determine. 

*dik 2. in compos, for dik-po; *dik-ci 
set-bo T. sdig-ce hyed-po "the committer 
of great crime" s. a butcher; *dik-pa or 
dik-po T. sdig-pa s. sin, *lca-im dik-pa 
the sin of mouth, *lak-gyi dik-pa the sin 
of hand, *sdm-gyi dik-pa the sin of heart. 
dik-po s6k vb. to confess one's sins, hence 
to expiate them; dik Idn-jik "the evil 
one that has its abode under stones", 
a scorpion. 

*dik 3. expletive to nor, T. dbyigs; nor 
dik wealth, goods. 

diii, din cans, din kon vb. n. 1. to be 
erect, to be high, to be perpendicular, 
din-nan to be perpendicular or very steep, 
sd-g&r din-nan. pUn-fydn din-Mn Idm the 
kite soars. — din dam 1. just above the 
height of a person when standing, un din 
dam tet nyiun water to be deep enough 
just to cover a man's hand; 2. a canopy. 
— din s. the highest point or degree; 
the goal, hu-nim hu do sak-cin-sd din fop 
he has attained the height of his am- 
bition; — 2. to stand, to remain, to 
exist, hu-do un-kyon pun-ka din he stood 
by the river Ex.; td-dyu van din the 
woman remains single; tun-kun din bam 
there is a rainbow; rum din bam God 
exists permanently. — din s. standing, 
a-din id. din-bi s. standing-place, din- 
lom-nun t'am li to speak standing, din-sdr 
tydt du or Mam to dig as deep as one's 
own height. — din kdn let or cause to 
stand; hrim din kdn to cause laws to be 
established; — din-bo s. a stand, one 
standing. 3. to be at rest; to be in 
one position as person, large bird etc., 
to be planted, cultivated, kd-sdk din 
cultivated yam; — ■ 4. to be headstrong, to 
continue, to persist. Am dyok mat-Mn 
dill bam he sticks to his work; he pro- 
secutes his w. ; din-Id adv. ■ incessantly, 

profoundly, so din-Id yii rain to pour 
heavily, din-Id dyok mat to work con- 
stantly; din dan vb. to run without 
stopping. — 5. to rise as from a sitting 
or lying position, to come to its height 
or utmost degree, (^mi-kan) din bam 
(smoke) to ascend; din-nd-o imp. rise, 
stand up, in opp. din dirt stop, stand still. 
— 6. to remove from, to depart from, 
to leave U-ntin din to depart from one 
house, to flit; lyart-niin din to leave one's 
country, to emigrate; 7. vb. t. to erect, 
to elevate, to raise, to construct, to pre- 
pare, jd ba din to take aim. 

din 2. (see nyiin, hin) tHr-din very deep, 
see also (tur-^gon, kd-din, kiU-din and 
din 1., 1. 

*din 3. T. gden 1. s. malice, 2. vb. to 
b e malicious, din-Kak T. gden-Kag malicious, 
din-Jcak-sd s. malice, md-rd a m. man. 
a-iat-ka din bu-bam vb. to bear malice, 
a-liit an din vb. to be obstinate. 

*din 4. T. 'brin internal, interior, the 
middle, the midst, din-ka a-jan-nd-bo the 
interior is bad, un din-nim nyiin the 
internal waters are deep; tam-pdt-sd din 
a-jdn giim the interior of the fruit is bad. 

din-gal tik s. onom. fr. its cry a spec, 
of frog. 

*din-pdn T. Idin-dpon s. a subaltern 

din-pft s. 1. ace. M. a spec, of drongo, 
ace. W. Hierococcyx nisicolor and Capri- 
mulgus albonotatus K. 207. 205. 2. a 
spec, of earwig. 

dih-su blik s. a spec, of fish different 
fr. no blik. 

dft see di. 

din see din. 

din-sa hryuk-fo see dun-sd hryiik-fo also 
dun-sa dydk fo. 

dip see dyiip. 

dfm see di. 

du 1., a-dii (ace. M. cogn. with T. bdud 
a demon) s. a disease, fever, pain, suffer- 
ing, da pd-hu s. a prevalent disease; dii 
ru s. an old complaint; dii rdm s. a chronic 
complaint; dii lot to be attacked with 

du— *du 

"du— dun 


fever; du lot lydt to have intermission of 
fever; du lot-tun com pa-ka mon zdm gat 
medicine must be taken in interval of 
fever; du si s. (from du and si to see?) 
a wound, dv, si non to be wounded; dii 
cm to shrink or crouch from fear of pain 
as when about to receive a blow; to be 
in pain, agony, illness; du dak to be ill, 
to have fever; du hu s. to have some 
disease in constitution; dH fid vb. to tell 
symptoms of disease as to am-ji; dii 
tsdt vb. to catch disease, tsdt-tiin-sd dii 
an infectuous d. du zdk vb. to be affected 
with any disease; to be influenced by 
the evil spirit of disease, dii luk to 
prevail as fever, to be ascendant, to rise. 

du 2., a-dii s. a gland, man-dH, man- 
sd a-da. 

*du 3. T. sdud[-pa tr. of 'duQ-ba)] vb. t. 
to collect, to gather, to accumulate, to 
epitomize, to abridge, to gather together, 
tok da to gather in the fruits of the 
season; dii gyom vb. to gather the pro- 
duce, the fruits of labour or virtue, pd- 
no giin-rdn mat-lun mi-sd Jce-bo dii gyom 
fo the king governing well subjects flock 
to the village; dH-liin to vb. to gather 
together, to collect, to comprise, to in- 
clude in. — da tu-ts'dt s. harvest, r.-nun 
kd-cer da tu-tsdt-ka non-lun R. went in 
the days of wheat-harvest G. da-lUn pi 
vb. to write a summary, to compend; 
to take to one's self, to appropriate, to 
adopt, rum sak-cin-bo ram-nan du-so mun 
sak-cin-bo muA-nan da-so the Godly 
minded God will take unto himself; they 
who turn unto the devil, the devil will 
adopt, td-do-ka tson iydn dO-lun mat vb. 
to monopolize all the trade to one's self. 

dut-mo s. an assembly, a meating for 
consultation, a council, dut-mo kak vb. to 
summon a council; da-bo 1. id. da-bo 
kyop fo 1. to make a collection; 2. to 
summarize. — 2. gathering, collecting, 
an pat-bo sd da-bo sd-kryom-ld sak-ryut- 
Mn-ka da-bo-nan 16 lyo-lUn fok rem tsu 
m6k-sa md-nyin-nan-ka gyom fo and he 
that reapeth receiveth wages, andgathereth 

fruit unto life eternal: that both he that 
soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice 
together J. — du-yuk s. an abridgment, an 

*du 4. T. 'dus fr. 'du(-bd), sd-re zon bo 
du non what is the matter with him. 

(dii 5.) sd-du slow, gently, sd-dH-ld 
slowly, gently, sd-da-ld li vb. to speak 
slowly or gently, sd-da-ld lom vb. to walk 
slowly; sd-da mat vb. do or make slow 
or gently; sd-da mat fo vb. put it down 

duk 1. vb. to be difficult, dak-ian nyok 
vb. to be delayed by difficulties, sak- 
cin dak-lun mak to die in distress of mind. 

2. s. a-dak difficulty, distress, trouble, 
annoyance, affliction, pain, torment, 
opposite to a-kydt, dak- pan troubles, 
difficulties, duk-kyop mat sd-n6n-ka or 
sd-fok-ka in the midst of these difficulties. 
sak-dum tam-sd fam-cdn-pdn sd duk-kydp- 
pdn gan-nd go-nan td-gum-ka ba zdn mat- 
laa ba non-so I have like a burden on 
my back all the afflictions of the animals 
of this world P.; duk Ha bam vb. to be 
able to undergo difficulties and suffering; 
dak-ka ts'ut to be plunged into difficulty; 
dUk mi-len hru un-len hydn torment hotter 
than fire and colder than water. 

duk hydn vb. to undergo suffering, to 
be in affliction, trouble, sorrow, diik- 
kydn-bo s. miserable, infortunate, dis- 
tressed, afflicted; dak-kyon md-fyak-ne 
not to be deterred by difficulties, (a)- 
duk ton vb. to plague, to torment, to 
distress Ex., duk ton-bo s. a tormentor; 
dak tap vb. to be able to bear suffering; 
duk fd vb. to make difficulties, to com- 
plain of difficulties; dak mat 1. vb. to 
be difficult or trying, to distress; 2. i. q. 
duk-pdn troubles, duk zdk vb. to be diffi- 
cult, trying etc. — duk -nan with diffi- 
culty, laboriously; duk-la id. dak-ld mat 
vb. to work; — sdm dak vb. to be grieved. 
Ex. — See kd-tak. 

dun vb. n. to be filled with, to suppress; 
said of breath, speach, pride, anger, un 
a-gyap tan gdn td-bdk dan-so if you drink 


dun— *dun 

*dun— dum 

much water, your stomach will he puffed 
out; li-ka mi-kan dun the house is full 
with smoke; sak-lyak-nun dun to he 
hursting with anger; a-sdm. dun to sup- 
press breath, also to be puffed out with 
air; too much bowed as bow sd-U grim 
tarn gdn sd-U dun-so when the bowstring is 
too short the bow will be too much bowed. 

piir-dun or piol-dun said of fire rising 
up into flames in a funnel mi piil-diin; 
said of water which runs into sub- 
terraneous passage un pHl-dun; sak-lyak 
fii.l-dun suppressed anger. 

dun see don. 

*dut 1. see under dii. 

*dut 2., dixt-mun T. hdud s. an evil 
spirit, Mara. P. See also du. 

dut 3., diit-ta dut-td flabby and sallow, 
a-mlem d. d. f. and s. face, a-ruk d. d. 
a soft insipid young shoot of bamboo. 

dun 1. s. shoots from a tree and its 
branches, that strike the ground and take 
root and other shoots that bear clusters 
of fruit without striking the ground, tiin- 
ji dun fructifying shoots of the t.-j. tree 
(Ficus confertiflora). 

*dun 2. T. mdun (the front) s. pre- 
sence; advly. before, dun-ka in the pre- 
sence of, before, in front of M. 83, 134. 
go a-do dun-ka giin-rdn fop gdn if I have 
found favour in thine eyes G.; diin-ka 
nyi vb. to be present, riim gun-nd-sa 
dun-ka nyi God is in the presence of 
everyone; hrim-sd diin-ka md-ro-san ran- 
ro in the eyes of the law every one is 
equal; tam^-cdii a-sum a-ryum sum tu-tsdt 
rel-ld-ka dy.-nUn pd-tin-pan tam-cdn diin- 
ka td-fon-pdn-ka pd-tin-pdn diin-ka sum- 
Mn-ka tsdk to it came to pass, whenso- 
ever the stronger cattle did conceive, that 
J. laid the rods before the eyes of the 
cattle in the gutters, that they might 
conceive among the rods G.; pyil-ld dun- 
niin no-o depart from my presence; diin 
tsdk vb. to resist, to oppose, to withstand; 
dun v6n vb. to come in the presence of; 
ditn kon di-o come hither. — kum-dUn 
see * ku. 

*dun 3. T. bdun num. seven L. kd-kyak, 
diin^hr6k T. bdun-prag the space of seven 
days, a week, dun-hrdk nydt two weeks, a 
fortnight; dUn-hrdk dUn-hrok adv. weekly. 

dun 4. vb. t. 1. to tell, foretell, to re- 
late, to remind, to confess, to show, to 
give intelligence, to persuade, diin byi 
pret. dUn-byir-yam-o, fut. dun-bo-so, dun- 
bo-sdn id.; diin md-lel-ne indescribable; 
diin bam they say, the people say; sUn- 
rem dun-nd(^o') tell me the story; a-zom 
md-dHn-nd kom kd-kH top besides food 
("not to speak of f.") he obtained eight 
rupee's; diin byi sd-ld when he had re- 
lated. — glet diin to tell minutely, to 
specify. — 2. to taunt, to jeer, to re- 
proach hu-niin tdn-ddt a-tet mat kd-yu 
hiim diin he affected such airs, so we 
jeered him; diin (ydn vb. to taunt and 
laugh at, diin fydn-niin-sd ayok a ludicrous, 
ridiculous affair; diin tydn fan vb. to jeer, 
to mock. — dUn-bo s. an informer, a re- 

dun 5. reduplic. diin diin or dUn-nd 
dUn-nd or tuk-dUn and tUn-dUn drizzling 
(rain), so d. d. etc. yH to drizzle. 

(dun 6.) with pref. tUn-diin s. a disease 
chiefly in fowls in which the skin rises 
in flatulent cysts, tHri-diin sH vb. to have 
that disease. 

dup s. a thicket, dUp-ka kryom-md 
kryo7n-md tyU-bam, something moves in 
the thicket; adj. thick as jungle, nydt 
dUp-non the field has become thick with 
weeds, overgrown with jungle. 

dum s. 1. cloth, clothes, explet. dan, 
q. V. — diim kd-je pd-sdii a kind of thick 
cloth; — diim ka-den s. cotton-cloth P., 
diim ka-den kd-ba a thin cotton-cloth of 
single twist; — diim kin s. the border of 
cloth i.q. ki-je q.v. — diim kom, s. a shawl; 

— diim kyun s. a cloth-hammock for 
carrying children or sick people ; — diim, 
kyor s. swaddling clothes; — diim kyon 
s. the breadth of cloth i. q. pik; — dum 
krdn coarse cloth; — dUm klok olA, worn- 
out cloth, rags; — dum kl6t coarse cloth; 

— dum, klyan close-woven cloth; — dUm 


dum — du 


td-gap s. a spec, of cotton-cloth (flowered, 
striped); — diim td-klok s. a rag, dum 
td-kl6k ta-bo a needle Tbr. ; — diim tom 
s. a loom; — dum fun s. a piece of cloth 
four ells long sufficient for dress; — 
diim pd-fiin see pd-fiin; — diim pd-sdn 
kd-je i. q. kd-je pd-sdn; — dum pd-hok a. 
a shirt; — diim pik i. q. d.. kyon; — diim 
pirn s. the loose end of L. dress forming 
a sort of bag when held out; — diim bi 
s. the hem of garment or border of 
female's cloth which is folded up to- 
wards the waist; dum bi ind-fak-ne the 
cloth is not wide enough to form a fold 
for the skirt; — diim bryon s. ragged 
clothes; — diim myo cloth left unfinished; 
— diim zdn s. a kind of cloth with single 
stripes, diim zdw to vb. to stripe do.; — 
dum yd-l6 s. a curtain; — duTn yiik, s. a 
full piece of cloth, Hindi than; — dum 
ral first open stitching when sewing 
clothes; diim rip striped cloth, flowered 
cloth; dUvi rip to vb. to make cloth with 
stripes; diim rol the woof weft of cl. ; 
diim ryu good cloth; diim ryu gdii sim- 
nyo ryu prov. the cloth be good, the man 
is good, the cloth hides the cloven foot; 
diim sd-mrdn s. thin light cloth as mouslin; 
dum san plain white, uncoloured cloth; 
diim se a fringe round cloth; diim sen 
the warp of cloth. — dUm kap vb. to put 
clothes over body as cloak or as bed- 
clothes, to wrap one's self in clothes, 
diim kap sd-nyi s. a holy day; — diim tH 
or tUt to wash clothes, diim tH-bo or diim 
tUt-bo a washerman. — fdk vb. to 
weave, diim fdk-bo a weaver, dum fok-ro 
s. a loom; — diim dydm vb. to put on 
clothes; diim dydm-ydm-bo rel rel-ld md- 
nyin-ne every one does not know how 
to put on his clothes. — diim dom vb. to 
fold cloth; — dum pa vb. to wear cloth 
loosely over body sd-tydt pa t'ak, tydt- 
bo-re diim pa li; dum-pa s. the dress J., 
td-se fin-sd kd-jdk-niin mi dyak-lirn pd- 
no-sd dum-pa gun-nd mi dop-non-ne-yam-o 
but fire darted from T.'s fingertips and 
catching the dress of the king set it on 

fire P. — diim pop to hold clothes for- 
ward so as to form the lap, diim pop 
tsdk or rdk to catch in lap; — diim plin 
clothes to be too tight; — dUm-byil vb. 
to fold clothes dUm-byil li s. the crease 
in cloth; — diim fot vb. to unfold clothes; 

— dum hrap vb. to sew or make clothes, 
dum hrap-bo s. a tailor, dum a-ral hrap 
s. the first or rough stitching of cl.; — 
diim vydl to darn cloth; — diim 6t or 
dum ot to vb. to put off clothes; — 2. the 
body as of net sUn-li dum. 3. is used 
for the "covering of the earth, bush- 
wood" hence it is used to express ground 
that has been allowed "to go fallow" 
after being exhausted by cultivation nyot 
diim nun ndn the field has been allowed 
to go to grass. 

fam-dUm s. a covering of any sort, a 
cloth, a mat. 

dum 2. i. q. 1.? explet. to vdm and sok: 
vdm diim s. a song; sok diim a life. 

'^dum-pu or dum-po T. zlum-pa (globular) 
s. a post of house, a pillar: li dUm-pu; 
pUn-byon dum-pu hd-yu diin-niin po-lUn 
hd-yu td-gum kdn din-bam the pillar of 
the cloud went from before their face 
and stood behind them Ex. 

dumrbyo s. an early spec, of rice dUm- 
byo zo. 

diir 1. vb. to collect together, to 
assemble, lik diir to convocate. 

dur 2. vb. to bend down, to incurvate, 
to pull down in the required direction 
as a tree in string, a-fyak-kHn diir lun 
tsam to lay hold of person by hair; po 
diir nan bamboo hangs down; sd-li dUr- 
lUn gri having bent down the bow fix 
the string. — dUr-rd dUr-rd (sometimes 
confused with dydr-rd dydr-ra) bent, 
curved, d.-rd d.-rd Idm to walk with back 
bent; md-zii, dUr-rd dur-rd Idm ndn to 
go with back bent. — td-diir drowsy, 
gloomy, td-diir md-mydt-ld nun or li to 
feel thoroughly depressed in spirits. 

du 1., du-m vb. to be white, clean, 
pure, good, dum-bo adj. white, clean etc.; 

— dum-ldt s. whiteness, cleanliness. 


du— *clu 

du — dut 

a-dum adj. 1. white, 2. pure, 3. good, 
a-dum I6m zuk-bo a bencTolent perscfti; 
a-dum mat ib. to purify (a thing or the 
mind); a-dum sd 6m fak-la very fair; 
a-dum dn-nd dn-nd a shining, gleaning 
white; a-dum puk-bok-ld whitish, whitely 
brown; a-dum td-ddt-td very white as 
Europeans; a-dum td-fdt-ld pale from 
sickness; nor-pu a-6m a-dum the juwel. 

a-dum-bo id., dy.-nun hu-do kor-ka kun 
dyon sd ba-dam kun sd kd-io kun sd pd- 
tin lyo-lun o-re-pdn-ka a-dum-bo m-re pd- 
tin-pdn-ka nyim-bo re si tet a-pi plyok 
dydn-ban a-kut a-dum-pdn kut fo-lun .... 
J. took him rods of green poplar, and 
of the hazel and chesnQt tree; and pilled 
white strakes in them, and made the 
white appear which was in the rods G. 

du 2., du-n cfr. T. bru (-ba) \b. t. to 
dig, to cut into, to engrave, du Mam to 
dig deep; du-lmi du-lun a-mut pld-so 
proT. digging and digging deep you will 
get the roots: means also; persevere and 
you will succeed; dun md-Kun-ne not 
able to dig; du ndk vb. to search into; 
to examine, to interrogate, to investigate, 
to make particular inquiry, dun-lyan s. 
a digging place; dun-set s. digging in- 
strument; dun-bo s. a digger; a carver. 

(du) 3. a-du a-ld adj. different, various, 
of various kinds, all sorts; a-du a-ld li 
vb. to talk nonsense, a-du a-ld mlo s. 
things of various descriptions. 

*du 4. T. gdu:gs s. an umbrella, du tuk 
vb. to hold up umbrella; du flyot vb. to 
close umbrella; du ran to open out 

*du 5. T. gru border, edge? du zum 
fr. T. gru and 'dsinQ-pd) in L. only negat. 
du zum md-nyin-nun-sd rin li vb. to speak 
without restraint; du zum md-nyin-num- 
bo s. a person beyond control, du zum 
md-nyin-ne innumerable, incalculable, 
without limit; sok du zum md-nyin-num- 
bo everlasting life; md-rd dum zum md- 
nyin-nun-ad an incalculable number of 
men; kom I6k du zum md-nyin-num-bo 
a squanderer of money, a spendthrift. 

du 6. (infantile 1.) redupl. du-du s. a 
lullaby, ayen bon-ka da ydn li gdn du du 
mat ydn li if you tell a child to go to 
sleep, then say du du. 

*du-|iut T. 'du-byed see do-ptit. 

*du-Sf or *du-Se T. 'du-ses s. sense, 
knowledge, notion, idea, thought du-u 
nyim-bo s. a sensible person; du-U mvn- 
I6m reverent thoughts or impressions. 

duk adj. young, unripe, applied to Indian 
corn, bird etc.: kun-tson duk young un- 
ripe maize; fo duk young bird. — a-duk 
s. a young head of maize not quite 
arrived at maturity. 

"dun 1. T. gdun (a bone) hon. s. child, 
son; heir, heir to king or to lama; dun 
z6n-bo a representative of do.; dun plyd 
hon. a child is born, an heir is born; 
dun gyit hon. s. race, progeny, offspring, 
d. g. ton-non-ne hon. the race has become 
extinct. — d. mat vb. hon. to inherit. 

dun mat-so the heir of king will in- 
herit; — dun gyit ton gdn pdt-ka lyo-so 
if the race of the king become extinct, 
they will take one from Tibet. — dun 
tok a long connection, ancestry, num-nu 
dun fdk long line of relationship ; bri dun 
fok long related by marriage. See dan 4. 

*dun 2. T. rdun(-ba') vb. to beat, to 
pound, in L. : to beat after *co ts'dt dun 
T. cos rtsod brdun litly. to beat a literary 
dispute: to argue, to contest an argu- 
mentation, to debate; co ts'dt dun-ldt s. 
an argumentation, a disputation; co ts'dt 
dun-bo s. a controversialist, a polemic. 

*dun 3. T. gdun (-ba) s. love, desire, 
affection; dun tu-ts'dt s. the breading- 

"dun-ddr T. gdun-ma and dar (see tor) 
s. colours, standard, flag, dun-dor kun s. 
a flag-staff, dun-d6r dum-pu s. interval- 
post of house often carved or gilded, 
dun- dor so -bo a standard-bearer, also 

*dun-Sin i. q. tun-sin T. gdun-sin s. a 
pine-tree, Abies webbiana: ace. Hooker 
I, 256 ''saar". 

dut vb. to become putrid or bad, in 

dun— dul 

de— de 


or from the effects of water, as fish or 
animal drowned or as fruit, rice etc. 
when wet. - 

dun 1. see du to dig. 

dun 2. redupl. tun-dun; dun-nd dun-na 
or tun- dun-Id 1. saturated with water, 
2. muddy, impure, contaminated, boggy, 
marshy, un dun-nd dun-nd impure water, 
fat d.-nd d.-nd marshy land, nyen d.-nd 
d.-nd adulterated milk. 

dun-sa hryuk fo s. n. of bird, the spider- 
eater Arachnothera: d.-sd hryuk-fo tim-ho 
A. magna; d.-sd h.-fo cum-bo A. pusilla; 
ace. W. daii si-ri-ok R. 220; ace. Je. 360 
dom sirioh-pJio A. magna. 

dup 1. see dop. 

dup 2. close, as weather, articles etc., 
compact, dup-pd dup-pd, dup-pd sip-pd 
id., a-fyan dup- Id dap to put on the 
cover closely; so dup-pd dup-pd li the 
weather to become very close; zo dup-ld 
sup vb. to shut rice in closely so as to 
be well cooked; a-som dup breath to be 
suppressed; un-ka dup-ld non to be 
suffocated in water; tuk-dup close as air, 
room with many people etc., tuk-dup sup-sip 
close, hot as weather, room, tuk-dup sup- 
sip li vb. to feel close, to feel suffocated. 

dum 1. see under du. 

dum 2. vb. to grudge, ydn U-ren ayo- 
di-sdn-niin dum-lun li the Jews then 
murmured at him because he said J.; 
dum (-bam) or dum yur vb. to mutter, 
to complain, to grumble, dum -bam or 
dum yur yd to be a grumbler; dum- or 
d. yur-ydm-bo s. a grumbler. 

dur vb. n. to be blighted as corn, zo 
nyot dur-ndn-ne the field has become 

dur, dur-rd dur-rd flowing as robes. 

dur kun s. n. of tree, Duabanga son- 
neratioides M. Wtt. D. 842. 

dul, a-dul s. the lips, f.-niin a-dul mu- 
ten-num-bo kd-si/m sd-lom mat nydn-san 
go how shall Ph. hear me, who am of 
uncircumcised lips Ex. — the rim of a 
bason; a-dul hlyd pendulous lips, a-dul 
td-dyol large lips, a-dul rifi lip-language. 

de 1. cfr. T. de (demonstr. pron.) in L. 
emphatic, particle (interrog.) is it? a-re 
re de is it this? num de sd-ba non-nim-d 
where are you going, brother? 

de neg. -den- 2. vb. t. to create, {&y)it 
de to make, to create, dydn-nd-ba lyan url 
md-it md-den-nd-ba in old time when land 
and water were not created P.; de-bo 
i. q. ayit-bo, dyit (or if) de-bo s. creator 
P. a-dyit a-de s. or nun-de s. creation, 
procreation, nitn-de nyo i. q. (%)?^ de nyo 
n. pr. the goddess of creation; in her 
attribute of procreation she is called nd- 
zon nyo; — de is applied to the revolving 
of the pHr-vuH, pur-vun de (the spinning- 
wheel) 1. to revolve, 2. the wheel of 
life; pur-vun de-bo creator; affixed to ryu 
means to brighten, to clear up so ryu de 
the weather has become fine. 

de, de-m 3. vb. 1. to spread, to sink into 
as ink on damp paper, ndk-tso co-gu-ka 
de bam the ink spreads in the paper. — 
2. to be lazy, to be idle, sluggish, md- 
yen md-de-niin do not be thoughtless and 
idle; — a-dem s. idleness, a-dem mat vb. 
to be idle etc. 

*de 4. T. 'das, 'dd-ba to pass away, 
ts'ii de-ndn life is passed away, he is dead; 
tsu de-bo s. the dead, de-lok T. 'das-log 
s. resurrection; de-lok lot vb. to rise 
again, to revive, to resuscitate; a-som 
pdt-lun de-lok lot to recover from swoon; 
sd-kon de-lok the resurrection of Sakon 
(a Lepcha book) M., L. A. Waddell, 
Buddhism Lend. 1895, 553 ff. 

*de 5. T. bde(-ba) blissful; said of 
soothing and quieting child to prevent 
its crying: to sooth en boh de bam to 
attract attention of child in order to 
quiet it, see yen. — de-bo a child's play- 
thing. — de-wo T. bde-ba s. joy, happi- 
ness, bliss, sa-kya de-wo T. sa-kya bde-ba 
n. pr. of one of Padmasambhava's wives 
pa-pu-mit kd sa-kya de-wd ydn the Nepa- 
lese princess called S. P. 

de 6., de kuh s. tree froni which paper 
is made, de kuh a-dum Daphne papyracoa, 
de kur'i a-nok D. purpurea, both species 




den— * den 

used for making paper: de-nok de Idk 
yb. to form paper, to pour or spread 
out the masli for paper. 

*de 7. T. sde a tribe, district, place, 
a division; de-pdn s. a chief, a head of 
a tribe. 

de 8., cok-de s. a grave with a stone. 
*de 9. T. Ide; de-mik T. Ide-mig s. key; 
de-mik gd-co s. the key and lock, de-mik 
gd-co kyop vb. to lock, de-mik gd-co kydp- 
re zdn settled, fixed, immoveable, de-mik 
gd-co kydp-re zdn-bo a man of decided 
character; de-mik an s. a key-hole. 

de-nyok s. ace. Wtt. A. 1256, 1290 
Ardisia crenata and A. involucrata. 

de-mo s. a box for holding salt or 

pepper and also for vegetable; used also 

sometimes for de-bo a child's plaything. 

de ydn fr. T. sdod? s. a place for sitting, 

a dwelling-place, a site. 

de-su Van s. name of tree, species of 
the fig-tree used in the fermentation 
of ci. 

de-Su s. n. of tree Juniperus recurva 
Wtt. J. 104, Hooker 2, 45. 

dek vb. t. to break (string, heart), to 
break asunder; n. to burst, see under ton 1. ; 
fig. rin-cet dek vb. to break promise; Id- 
yo dek hron to give way to sinfuLpassions; 
Ka-tso dek to burst forth into abuse; mik- 
grun dek to burst forth into tears. — 
2. vb. n. to be broken asunder (as life), 
to terminate, to expire, dek-non broken 
tuk-po d.-n. the string is br., ended, 
terminated, a-liit dek-non the heart to 
be broken, broken-hearted. — md-dek-nd 
always, incessantly, continually, constantly; 
so md-dek-nd yH (rain) to pour incessantly 
or without end; dek md-nyin-nun without 
end, endless, boundless, eternal, imperish- 
able. — 3. s. end, fate, destiny etc. i. q. 
a-dek in comp.; dek fak-lUn mak to come 
to one's end, to die; md-ro do dek fak- 
lun mak to die naturally. — dek pik 
to purify one's destiny by sprinkling 
water; dek-pik pd-sor s. a species of 
grass used in incantations for sprinkling 
water, see pd-sor; d.-p. liik s. a fowl 

used in the ceremony of purification (not 
sacrificed but set at liberty afterwards). 
See under pik. 

a-dek s. 1. extremity, 2. stalk; 3. the 
bottom of, 4. the outer part. 5. the end, 
a-dek-ka at the end, nam sd-dyak nydt-sd 
a-dek-ka at the end of two full years Ex. 
a-min a-dek the lower extremity; a-tdn 
a-dek the upper extremity; a-dek tynk, 
a-dek yd vb. to know a thing perfect; 
a-dek-ka a-lom kd pu it may be so after 
all. a-dek fap vb. to gain the end. 

sUn-dek s. end, extremity. 

dek-bor s. fate, destiny, lot, chance, 
dek-bor-niin bri hyok to be destined to 
be united in marriage, dek hyok to be 
fated, to be destined, a-re sd-fim zdk-sdn 
dek hyok it was my destiny that this 
calamity should befall me; — dek fom-bo 
riivi the god of fate, dek fom-bo riim-sdn 
the fates; — mik dek 16 s. a reward for 
finding anything lost, lit. "the reward 
of fortune of the eye", dek sok mu-Kvn- 
ne you cannot lengthen life or restore. 
td-se ka-do-nun Id dek sok md-lel-ne even 
I Tashe cannot restore life. P. 

den see dydn. 

deh-sa Ifk no s. n. of spec, of fish, the 
pilot-fish, see td-hryUm no. M. 

den-sum Ifk s. a spec, fish M. i.q. de/i-sd-? 

det 1. vb. to struggle, to be restive, 
as cows etc.: bik det bam; sd-dydr mi 
det the gun kicks. 

td-def s. the dusty refuse of grain that 
is fiung away after winnowing zo td-det. 

det 2. see dydt. 

den 1. see de 2. 

*den 2. T. Man possessing, nor-den T. 
nor-ldan. See nor 3. 

*den 3. T. gdan s. a cushion, a king's 
throne or great man's seat; ju den a 
cushion, dor-je den Vajrasana (Buddha- 
gaya) P., fat den the earth. 

*den 4. T. bden true, faith, belief, just, 
den torn sound testimony, strong evideuce ; 
— den-tmk T. bden-tsig s. testimony, 
den-tsiik yiik s. a note of hand, written 
engagement, den-tsiikyuk fo to give written 

den — dem 

dem— *do 


engagement; den-tmk dun byi vb. to 
testify, Tni mon hu-nun l.-mum cok-tiun 
lik-luH hum mak-bo-sdn sd-nok-nun lot 
luk kon-ba hii dyep-ka bam-bo-nun den- 
tsiik dun byi the people that was with 
him when he called L. out of his grave, 
and raised him from the dead, bare re- 
cord. J. — den ziin T. bden rdsun truth 
and falsehood, den zun fii or sem vb. 
literally to separate truth from falsehood 
i. e. to judge; — den-ytik s. testimonials 
(written) of character or of acquittal; — 
den-ri T. bden- rigs vb. to believe, to 
h^ve faith in, to trust, to place faith in, 
den md-ri-ne not to credit, to disbelieve, 
to have no faith in, den-ri lyan s. 1. ground 
for faith, 2. a court of justice, den-ri 
lyan-bo s. a person of credit, deri-n lyan- 
ka so vb. to bring before court of justice; 
a-do den-ri-niin a-dom fyor thy faith has 
made thee whole Chr. den a-tim ri to 
have great faith; ho den a-tim ri thy 
faith is great Chr.; den tim-mo ri-Mn 
having great faith, den a-cum or (kam) 
ri to have little faith, e den a-mm ri-bo 
thou of little faith; den-ri-bo adj. be- 

den 2., c6k den a pit-grave, see cok. 
den 3. vb. n. 1. to be upright, adj. up- 
right, ki den, dum den the warp (upright 
threads); — a-den s. the warp. — 2. to 
be well or thorough performed, zuk den, 
well cooked zo man mydn den food to 
be thoroughly cooked. — 3. to overspread, 
ta-lyan kor pUp fat den tin (his glory) 
overspread the heavens and reached the 
depths of the earth. M. — a-den s. the 
populace in contradistinction to bdr-fon 
the patricians. M. Gr. XII n., K. 31 ff. 
dep-t6m s. record, testimony, tradition. 
*dep-t'o T. deb-fo or deb-fer i. q. mi-t'o, 
mi dep-fo s. a register of population, a 
census, dep-fo kydp vb. to take a census. 
dem 1. abbreviated for de-mo- 
dem 2. i. q. dyom s. time, period, dem 
md-M-ne incessantly, continually, dem 
md-cet-ne dyok mat vb. to be continually 
working, dem md-cet-ne so yu to be con- 

tinually raining, dem po s. a time, once, 
dem po kat once, one time, dem po nydt 
two times, twice. 

dem 3., a-dem s. notch, tson dem s. 
notch of arrow, tuk-sim dem s. the point 
of tail. 

der, a-der adj. s. common (as a field), 
land belonging to many. 

der-mo suii-fdn (or sd-fdn') s. a spec, of 
moss, stag-moss, Lyeopodium clavatum. 

do 1. object, dom after pronouns ex- 
presses 1. "self"; also "own", see a-do, 
ka-do, td-do e. c. kd-do 1. myself, 2. my 
own; md-i'd do 1. one's own, 2. of itself, 
naturally; — 2. identical, personal, par- 
ticular, peculiar; the same, even, exactly, 
a-re do even this, kd-ti do just ten, a-ldn 
do just now; — 3. signifies also "only" 
a-re do rin li he only said this. — 4. when 
reduplicated signifies "each" also "differ- 
ent" md-rd-sdn gi/n-nd do do li-ka lot- 
non-ne every man went to his own 
respective house; do do gyu-pdn dun 
each told his own respective tale. 

do 2., do-ld T. do-zla (an equal, a 
companion) adv. equally, even as, alike, 
according to. 

do 3. vb. to inherit, si do to inherit 
property, a-bo-sd gi-c6 do to inherit 
property of father, do fo vb. to con- 
fiscate, is said when a king takes property 
of which there is no heir, or if the heir 
be an infant, when the property is placed 
in trust to the king; to take back one's 
own, as kd-sum mlo a-dom nyo bo fo 
a-ldn do-so or lot do-so (or -lot lyo-so') 
I will now take my property I lent you; 
to take, to deprive of. 

*do 4. T. mdo s. a treatise, records, 
archives, do moh T. mdo man s. "many 
treatises" name of a book, a compilation 
of subjects. 

*do 5. T. rdo s. a stone L. Idn; *do 
ke-mo (T. Myimf) s. a large house built 
on stone-pedestals. M.; — *do-ko T. rdo- 
skor s. small stones, pebbles, do-ko dydn 
vb. to fling stones; do-ko tsun-ka non 
vb. to gather stones. — *do-kre T. rdo- 



*dok-bo— dot 

gras s. stairs, steps. — *do-tsuk T. rdo- 
rtsig s. stone-wall, building, an assemblage 
of stone, buildings. 

*do 6. T. mdo s. axiom, a problem, a 
mystery; a riddle, an enigma, do-sd 
a-pryom s. solution of riddle, do tyak vb. 
to understand a riddle; do-sd tan tyak 
fat to discover answer to riddle; do fo 
vb. to give up a riddle; do vydt vb. to 
ask a riddle; do dun vb. to give (relate) 
a riddle. 

*do 7. see to 3. for T. dos s. a burden, 
a load, do ka s. a piece of wood braid 
at the bottom of basket; see tuk-mon. 
do ku s. a back-board for carrying load; 
do ku tun-dyon a large basket. 

*do-nya (T. do-damf) s. a punchayet, 
do-nyd-ka sv/i so vb. to bring matter 
before do-nya; do-nya-sd a-tyak-bo s. the 
principal person at do-nya. M. 

"^do-iiut T. 'dii byed in L.: s. 1. a notion, 
an idea; the substance or point of speach, 
hii do-put md-nyin-nd li he speaks with- 
out any point (idea); a-ldn hii do-put-ka 
fi at last he has come to the point; 2. a 
settlement, a definitive decision, a con- 

do-sal (?) s. the marbled cat, Felis 
marmorata ace. Wtt. T. 431. 

dok 1. vb. to be alike, to accord with, 
to correspond with, to be of the size of, 
sd-lo dok-kun go how large is it, what 
like is it; md-dok-ne to be different in 
a greater degree, to be unlike, to be 
dissimilar, to be disproportion ed; md- 
dok-nun s. dissimilarity; md-dok-nun-sd 
or md-dok-num-bo extraordinary, peculiar, 
unparalleled, incomparable, transscendent, 
surpassing, da pun var-rd var rip md- 
dok-nun nyak-ka nyi-yam-o at the side 
of the lake there was a plenty of 
uncomp^rable (beautiful) lotus-flowers 
everywhere P. 2. s. likeness, similiarity; 
a-tet-sd dok as large as this, the same as 
this; a-re-sd dok-ka in accordance with 
this; a-do rin-sd dok-ka hii ind-ti-ne 
according to your words he did not come. 
— dok-bo adj. s. alike, similitude. — a-dok 

adj. equal, kd-nyi do a-dok we are both 
equal, rin a-dok li to be equal in speach; 

— dok-ld advly. of the size of, in accordance 
with, dok-ld tnat vb. to be of the size of; 

— sd-dok-ld adv. as, so, thus, accordingly 
M. 87. 

*dok-bo T. zlog-pa ("a turning back") 
s. ceremony of incantation and repelling 
of evil spirits, dok-bo kyop vb. to perform 
the ceremony wherein there is a great 
clapping of hands. 

don see ddn also incorrly. for dUn. 

*don 1. T. don s. a vessel, nyen-don. s. 
a milk-vessel, po-don s. a vessel made 
from bamboo; co-don a tea-pot. — don-mo 
s. a churu; a vessel for holding liquids 
i. q. pd-tek q. cfr., co-don-mo i. q. co-pd-tek. 

don 2., don (cfr. T. sdoA-po s. a stalk, 
see don 3.) vb. 1. to grow from root of 
old plants as plantains, to shoot, to ger- 
minate, also do/'i di; 2. to exude (as sap). 

— a-don s. a young shoot; don-bo id. 
applied to shoots of bamboo. 

*don 3. T. sdon(^po\ don-re T. sdon-ras 
s. I. a cotton stem, the wick of lamp or 
candle; 2. a spec, of mushroom. 

*don 4. T. gdon s. the face, don sen or 
don jdn (L.) T. gdon zen (lit. "a face 
reflecting evil"') bashful, timid; don zoA 
T. gdon bzai'i lit. a f. "bearing good'", 
brazen-faced, full of assurance. Also d»h. 

dot vb. t. to draw out, to pluck out, 
to pull out, o-re-nun mat-liin s. p.-niin 

pd-yuk Ion o-re rem dot-ban then S. 

having a sword drew it J.; hU-niin ku 
bryan-ka m. ydn fik-Mn li su go yo gdii 
go-nun hum uu-niin dot fat she called 
his name M.: and she said, because I 
drew him out of the water Ex.; c. lot 
(agaiu q. cfr.) hU-niin a-kd-rem kHr-sdk- 
ka fap-lUn lot dot-tiin-sd hH kd-re sd-non 
dum zon dom ddk he put his hand into 
his bosom again; and when he took it 
out, behold, his hand was leprous as 
snow Ex. — to distill ci dot; — fig. to 
expel, to eject, to cast out, to exile, 
lyan-niin dot to exile, to banish, to de- 
port; — to expunge, to efface, to erase 

dot— dop 

dom — dor 


da-so dot to expunge supernumerary days 
(in calendar); — to expend, kdm, a, zo 
dot to expend money, chi, food; — co dot 
to chant a book fr. memory; ■ — to cast 
out or give up without reservation a-lut 
dot li to speak without reserve, to open 
unreservedly (as heart); — to deliver, Id- 
yo-nun ha-yum dot deliver us from evil, 
duk-nun dot to extricate from trouble, 
to disembarrass; — to lose, especially any 
thing dear or valued, which is expressed 
figuratively, as a-lut dot-non I have lost 
my heart, a-mik dot-non I have lost my 
eye (figuratively). 

vb. n. to become dismissed, renowned, 
a-bryan dot to become renowned, cele- 
brated; to be eliminated, to be dismissed, 
to be lost, to be gone; go ik ca md-dot- 
ne I am not yet gone, I am not yet dead; 
tydn md-dot-ne i. q. su-M md-dot-ne 
"nothing lost", quite well, it is of no 
consequence; go md-dot-ne it matters not, 
I am pretty well (an old man would say), 
kam md-dot-ne a little better (lit. "but 
little lost"). — a-dot s. a giving out, a-dot 
a-cdt s. a gift; aid, assistance. 

dot 2. T. dod s. an equivalent, in- 
demnity, dot byi vb. to give an equivalent. 

don 1. or don-don adj. bushy as tail, 
tuk-sim don-don or don-nd don-nd a bushy 
tail; sun-fon don don shaggy moss. 

don 2. fr. don q. v. a young shoot. 

dop vb. n. to burn, ndk bam-ba kun- 
dyon-re mi dyak bam go-run-ld md-dop-ne 
behold, the bush burned with fire, and 
the bush was not consumed Ex. — sd- 
r6n-nd md-rd mi-ka fan-ba mi-nim md- 
dop-nd pa ydn-sd a-sut-re sd-ba-re ba 
tsuk-kyer tsuk-lat gun-nd tyo-non-ne-yam-o 
everywhere from east to west all the 
inhabitants of the country heard the 
(wonderful) news: indeed to-day the 
man (i. e. Padma) was burnt with fire 
but the fire did not harm him P. — to 
be frost-bitten; dop-ndn burnt, md-zu 
dop-ld ddk to feel burning pains; a-fon 
so-non-niin dop-ndn feel to be frost-bitten. 
— dyop caus. of dop vb. to cause to burn, 

to burn; san a-sel dyop-san duk to make 
wet wood burn is difficult. — in comp. 
dap: pur-dap s. a fireplace. 

dom 1. inflected (object.) c. of do see 
under -m. 

dom 2. vb. to be in unioi), together, 
to be in accordance, to be in combination. 
dom-lun a-z&m zo vb. to eat together, 
dom-lun dyok mat vb. to work together, 
dom-lun rin li vb. to speak in union, to 
speak the same thing, dom-lur'i tn'on mat 
vb. to trade in partnership; — to gather 
together in small compass, to abbreviate 
(as word), to abridge, to condense, to 
epitomize, to fold (cloth) together; — s. 
nnison, unity, abbreviation, compendium, 
summary; yiik dom s. abbreviation of 
word, CO dom-fom-bo an abridged work; 
dom-ld adv. concordantly, unanimously. 

dom 3. s. the leprosy: dom-ddk. Ex., 
dom mun the evil spirit of leprosy; dom 
mun zdk-bo or dom-ddk-bo a. a leper, 
dom-ddk-niin a-kd a-dyan fydr dyan the 
hands and feet of the leper fall off; — 
dom-dydr s. leprosy, dom-(dydr) ddk-bo 
a leper, md-ro a-jdn-nd zum bam mun 
pe lyo gdn nd dom-dydr-ddk-bo Jce kd-ta 
ka nan-re zdn giim bad men living to- 
gether may be likened to lepers sitting 
together. ^- dom sd-hlan s. incipient or 

dom 4. i. q. rtin-dom s. a bank, a slape; 
also dom. 

*dom 5., dom-bo T. 'doms s. the private 
parts (viri aut mulieris), dom-bo sor vb. 
to be debauched, applied to nuns, tsvn- 
mo dom-bo-sor a d. nun. — dom-tf'dn s. 
pure, chaste; a virgin; a chaste monk. 

dor 1. s. a mushroom, any spec, fungus, 
Agaricus, dor-bi s. a spec, of mushroom, 
dor-bi brdp young fungi. 

dor 2. applied to sound when low and 
base, rin dor dot li vb. to speak in a 
low, base, muttering voice; a-nyum dor 
a base voice; co dor fin vb. to intone in 
base voice. 

dor 3. vb. 1. to reduce to a uniform 
mass, said when boiling vegetables well: 


dor— *d«k 

"ddk— ddn 

dor nrik; tuk-iak dor-lun kd vb. to boil 
gruel well; man sd bi dor-lun no vb. to 
boil vegetables and meat to a uniform 
mass; mdn dor-Id hyor vb. to com- 
pound drugs intimately together; — 2. to 
assemble, to collect together, ma-ro-sdn 
lik dpr vb. to convoke the people to- 
gether. 3. to be turned as edge of knife : 
ban dor. 

dor 4. see di/i dor under din. M. 

*dor-je T. rdo-rje Skt. vajra s. thunder- 
bolt, see Jaschke s.v., Waddell, Buddhism. 
.340 f. *dor-je-den T. rdo-rje-gdan Ya^rk- 
sana (Buddhagaya) P. — *dor-je pa-ldm 
T. rdo-rje pa-lam s. a diamond; — *dor- 
je-lin Darjeeling T. rdo-rje glin. P. 

d6 1. s. sperma genitale, tik do. 

*d5 2. s, T. brda s. a mark, a sign, a 
token, — do-cet T. brda-byed or brda- cad 
s. investigation, inquiry, i. q. L. ryak-vydt 
and tso-vydt; do-cet kydp-lun or do-cet 
mat-lun tyak vb. to find out by investi- 
gation; do-mo to make much inquiry, to 
seek after a thing lost; dd-mo kyop or 
mat vb. ditto; do kyop or do klon or do 
ton vb. to publish, to proclaim, ko d6-t6n 
to publish an order. 

(dd 3.) a-do a-dak s. the hard part of 
yam (thrown away). M. 

ddk 1. vb. n. to dazzle, a-tsur-nun 
a-mik ddk my eyes are dazzled by the 

*ddk 2. T. dag in comp. : tdn-ddk, tu/i- 
dok, tun-ddk see under tan, T. don-dag; 
e. c. tun-ddk mat i. q. dok-bo mat, see 
ddk 3. go duk zdk bam-ba hu kd-sii tun- 
ddk mat when I was in trouble, he be- 
friended me. 

*ddk 3. T. bdag s. owner, proprietor, 
master of, protector; guarding, patronage; 
vb. to own; *ddk-bo T. bdag-po s. one 
having, an owner, a master, a lord of, 
a-jdn a-kyon-sd ddk-bo s. protector of the 
poQr; — *c?dA(-io) mat T. bdag{-po) byed- 
(joa) vb. to protect, to defend, to patronize, 
to guard, a- mo -nun a-kup buk-kun-sd 
a-nyu ddk mat the aunt protects the child 
from the beating of the mother. — *ddk 

kyem see under kyem i. q. da kyem. +— 
a-ddk s. t|ie owner. 

*ddk 4. T. bsdogs(-pa) M., nd ddk s. a 
reciter of truth. M. 

*ddk-zun T. dag and 'dsin(-pd)? s. pre- 
cision, exactness, accuracy, ddk-zun-ld 
mat vb. to be precise, rin-ka li-ba ddk- 
zun mat vb. to be precise, when speak- 
ing; ayok ddk-zun-ld mat vb. to do work 
with precision. 

ddii 1. see ddA and dan 4. 

ddii 2. s. a portentuous or inauspicious 
event: U ddn gydm-md said on entering 
a new built house, 24 hours (or more) 
after which no work is done: "remain 
quiet in the house during d."; ra ddn 
gydm-md "beware of the inauspicious 
season of the Ra tree" i. e. during the 
time of its' shedding its leaves, during 
which time for about a week it is un- 
lucky to sow or plant (if you do so, the 
plant on sprouting up will whither away). 

*ddn 3. or ddn-jdk T. mdan or mdan- 
zag adv. yesterday M. 

ddn 4. vb. n. to be black and white, 
variegated, num-bdn ddn a person piebald 
from scalding or disease; sd-ar-pdn sd- 
ndn-ka to sd-re pur-tak-bo sd a-ddii un 
luk-pdn sd-ndn-ka a-ndk md-go-niim-bo 
gun-nd kd-sii dyep-ka nyi gdn o-re tuk-mo 
ayum-ba every one that is not speckled 
and spotted among the goats and brown 
among the sheep, that shall be counted 
stolen with me G. — ddn tam-blydk s. n. 
of spec, of butterfly; kd-li ddn (see tun- 
ddn) s. a spec, of squirrel. — dun-nd ddn- 
nd adjly. spotted, red and white (as fruit), 
d.-nd ddn-nd mydn vb. to be partially 
ripe (as fruit). — a-ddn adj. black and 
white (as a horse), applied to any part 
of the body scorched by fire mi ddn. — 
tun-don and nun-ddn 1. i. q. a-ddn., 2. s. 
n. of tree, 3. s. a spec, of squirrel, 
Sciurus; — tufi^dun tun-ddn(^la) i. q. dwm- 
nd d6h-nd. — Also dydn and tun-dydn, 

ddn 5., a-ddn s. a house or roosting- 
place for birds: fo-ddn; hik-ddn. 

ddii— ddp 



ddn, don (j. vb. t. to search, to seek 
after, go-niin hum ddn-ndn I went search 
of him; ho do-sd don-niin nyi you brought 
it on yourself or it -was your own seek- 
ing; to follow after females, applied to 
beasts, kd-ju a-mot doi'i bam the dog 
follows the bitch; dorl mu-suk-ne not to 
care for females; — don ger. don kon let 
(him) search; don-bo s. a seeker, a-vi 
don-bo bloody Ex.; don-set s. means of 
searching; ddn-vydt s. a question, J. 

ddii -din bik i. q. tun-din bik s. a spec, 
of beetle. 

d6t vb. to leave a part, to leave un- 
fiaished; applied also to the pray of 
wild animals from the custom of leaving 
a part, ho sd-Mn dot nun-nu-a may you 
become the pray of a tiger; to lose one's 
appetite, applied chiefly to the loss of 
appetite thro' pregnancy: td-dyu a-kup 
bu-ba dot bam. 

a-dot s. the remainder, balance, a frag- 

ddn 1., tun-don see tun-ddn see dan. 

ddn 2. vb. to be red hot, to glow (as 
fire), pun-jen don red hot iron; sun-gyor 
don a glowing coal; fat don red burnt 
earth, a brick. 

ddn 3. adj. thinly, finely and uniformly 
applied to snow etc., td-i don-nd don-nd 
pot vb. to sprinkle flour finely; sd-noii 
don-nd don-nd yu vb. (snow) to fall uni- 
formly; so d. d. y. (rain) ditto. 

ddn 4. see under ddn. 

ddp 1. (see top) vb. to support; — pun- 
dop s. a large stick for lever, a lever, pvn- 
ddp-sd lu vb. to raise with large stick. 

ddp 2. 1. vb. n. to be opposite, to be 
vis a vis, ddp din vb. to stand before, 
dop kyop vb. to meet opposite, to have 
fruitless labour, dop nan vb. to sit 
opposite; to be perpendicularly inclined; 
to be equal, dop nan to be equal. 2. adj. 
very steep, perpendicular as a precipice, 
lyan dop a precipitous place, a ravine; 
sd-gor ddp s. a precipice tho' steep but 
that can be ascended; 3. vb. t. to drive 
in as nail zer dop; to be penetrating as 

heat, rays: a-tsur dop. — Caus. dyop to 
lean against as one tree against another 
or stick against wall, kun kat-nUn kat-ka 
dydp the one tree rests against the other. 
ddp 3., a-dop s. a flight of birds, a herd, 
a troup fo-dop; li/k-dop; mag-mi dop. 

*ddp 4. T. Idab s. a repetition, a re- 
turning, "nyi ddp T. nyis Idab double, 
twice; — ddp kydp vb. to repeat, to per- 
form twice; to perform fruitless labour. 
ddm 1. vb. t. to choose, to select, to 
pick, ddm Mo kydp vb. to do as one 
chooses, ddm fdm-bo or ddm lyo fdm-bo 
or d. lyom-bo chosen, elect, ddm lyo vb. 
to take by choice. — ddm-ldt s. choice, 

ddm 2. vb. T. sdom(^pa to bind) see 
dam, 1. to be bound, to be tied; 2. to 
be restrained, to be reserved as land 
lyan ddm; to be frozen: Kyek ddm. 

ddm 3. in compos, thumb or big-toe 
kd ddm, (on ddm. 

ddm 4., run-ddm s. a slope, a bank, 
an acclivity, see dom. 

ddm 5. for T. dam see fu-ddm, fu-dam, 
yi-ddm, yi-dam. 

ddm kun s. a spec, of tree Acer camp- 
bellii, used as tea, the fallen leaves are 
gathered i. q. ya-li sin Wtt. A. 331., ddm 
nydm the leaves of A. c. 

ddr I. s. a shoulder-strap, a sh.-belt, 
ddr-ka or ddr-ri; dor (^ka) krap the 
shoulder-belt is too tight; ddr(^-ka^ vydl 
the sh. is too long or broad; ddr-ka rik 
the sh. is right; ddr-ka a-tan zuk make 
it shorter; ddr-ka a-hrydn zuk make it 
longer; ddr-ka bii to carry shoulder-strap 
or with it. 

ddr 2. T. dar{-ba to be diffused) vb. t. 
to propagate, Id-yo ddr to disseminate 
evil; yen ddr to divert the mind; see 
ddr., tar., tar. 

ddr 3. vb. to be crooked, kun ddr-ndn 
the tree is crooked. See also dar. 

ddr 4. vb. to be awry, a-mik ddr bam 
to have cast in eye. 

ddl s. an ornament on sheath of sword 
or shield, pd-yuk ddl; Idp ddl. 


(ddlj— dyam 

dyam— dyaii 

(d6l) 2. see under dal 2. 

(ddl) 3., dol-ld ddl-ld flowing (hair): 
a-ts6m d.-ld d.-ld. 

dya 1. i. q. dya see under da. 

dya 2. (ft. dya?), a-cik-kd dya a certain 
quantity. M. 

dyak 1. expletive to Mk, sdk dyak to 
counsel; 2. cans, of ddk q. t. 

dyan 1. 1. vb. n. to split from orer- 
straining, sd-li dydn the bow is split 
from overstraining; 2. vb. t. to publish, 
to promulgate. 

dyan 2. striped, also den zdn, see ddn 4. 

dydt i. q. hydt q. v. 

dyat, dyet and det adj. fond of, agree- 
able to, having a passjon for; ci dydt- 
nyim-bo one fond of strong drink, mik- 
krap dydt-nyim-bo one fond of sleep; 
man ryak dydt-nyim-bo one having a 
passion for hunting. — s. lust, passion, 
bo-sd dydt-pdn the lusts of (your) father 
J. — a verbal particle forming' an active 
present participle, go n6n dydt bam I am 
going or just about to go; hu mak dydt 
he is dying or just about to die; /. fdl 
dydt-tun-sd i.-kup-pdn-niin a-mlem luk-ba 
ndk-kd minzdr-mo-sdn hd-yum ryak 16m 
dydt when Ph. drew nigh, the children 
of I. lifted up their eyes and behold the 
Egyptians marched after them. Ex. 

dyan see den. See also mii-dydn s. v. mix.. 

dydn see dan. 

dyap see dyep (along with -). 

dydm vb. to reflect, to consider, to as- 
certain, to judge, so-yic pu dydm-md to 
judge whether it will rain or not; td- 
lyan ts'dt dyam md-nyin-ne there is no 
judging of the weather; kam dyam. ham- 
md to reflect a little; md-dydm-nd-ba 
md-li-nun do not speak without reflection; 
dydm-lun yd vb. to know certainly, d.-l. 
md-yd-ne not to be able to discern. — 
dydm-ld zuk vb. to do it deliberately 
with thoughtfulness, also designedly; — 
dyam ndk to reflect how anything will 
turn out, to judge. — dydm-ldt s. judge- 
ment, discrimination, consideration. 

dyam 1. cans, of diim vb. to put on 

dress, to dress, diim dydm to put on 
clothes, M-do vdn-tsdt^sd dUm-pdH dydm 
(she) put on the garments of her widow- 
hood Gr. — dydm byi vb. to clothe as 
children who cannot clothe themselves. 

a-dydm s. a dress. See also dyam. 

dyam 2., a-dydm s. profit, improve- 
ment M. 

(dyam 3.) tuk-dydm see iHk-fyil. 

dy4m caus. of de vb. to sooth (irritation 
of child), dyen boh dydm to sooth child. 

dySr, dydr 1. adj. slight, weak, feable, 
able to fly a little, justfledged, fo dydr- 
non the bird is able to fly a little. 

dydr-rd dydr-rd long and thin, slender; 
— a-dydr adj. slack (as a bow). 

dyar 2. expletive to dam, dam dydr-bo 
a leper. 

dyar 3. side by side, see dyer, jer. 

dyar ci bik see sd-dydr ci bik. 

dyal redupl. td-dydl open-mouthed, tdr 
dydl-bo da vb. to lie with mouth open. 

dydl-bo see dyol and dydr 1. adj. weak, 
shaky, slight, dydl-ld dydl-ld slack (as 

dya, dya-m caus. of da q. v. 

dyak 1. vb. to become sour and de- 
stroyed (as chi), ci so-liih dyak non the 
chi has become sour and completely bad. 

dyak 2. vb. to flame up mi dyak, a-rdt 
dyak, a-rdt muri dyak the flame of sudden 
or violent death, a-dyak s. blaze, flame. 

dyak 3. vb. dyak bam to be good, 
auspicious, a-kin dyak bam id. kd-su kin 
dyak duk-niin for my fate is auspicious, 
I have escaped the misfortune. 

dyan 1. vb. to be trodden down as field 
lyah dyan, to pound as in a mortar, to 
bray ttik tsam-ka dyaii. 

dyan 2., a-dyan s. the leg, the foot, 
a-dyah kdn tydl vb. to trip up by catch- 
ing hold of one leg; a-dyah gyap-bo s. 
an unsettled person, a-dyan s6r-bo s. a 
lame p. — a-dyan tsdt s. the measure of 
the foot. — muk-nydm lyah-ka a-dyaii 
kryak to have one foot in the grave; 
a-dyah kd-ta-sd l6m-bo a prop for a 
basket. — dyan por vb. to kick forwards, 

dyan— dyuk 

dyun — dyuk 


dyaii g&r biik or ay ok to kick backwards. 
— Comp. dyan fyau the leg; dyan lydk 
the sole of feet. 

dyan 3., a-dyan explet. to kydt, a-kydt. 
(dyan 4.) reduplic. tun-dyan fair as com- 
plexion, clean, white a-mlem tun-dyan. 

dyaii-diii-bik i. q. tun-dm-bik s. a spec, 
of coleopterous insect, Oalandra heros. 

dyan hlyam s. the small cuckoo, Cuculus 
poliocephalus, Je. 324. R. 207. 

dyap adj. fine as powder of meal, tu-i 
dyap fine flour, said of grain : well separat- 
ed from husk dya'p-la tsu; well trodden, 
said of anything, zo dyap-Un ci vb. to 
thrash corn well, dyap-ld tsop vb. to be 
well trodden, said of clay etc.; ayok zuk 
dyap-bo s. one who performs work well; 
efficient, efPectiye. 

dyam 1. vb. to blab, to tell tales, to 
inform, md-dyam-mun or dyam md-dim- 
nvn do not tell; tam dyam-bo s. a blabber, 
a telltale. 

dyam 2., a-dyam, a-dyam a-kap s. ap- 
parel, see dyam, han td-se fin-nun fun 
prok-sd ka-den diim-pdn dt-liin dyam-ld 
bam-md-o then Padmasambhava took 
away the grareclothes of the dead and 
put on them. P. 

dyam 3., dyam dyam bushy, shaggy, 
a-tsdm dyam-dyam thick hair. 
dyi, dyin, dyit, dyin, dyim see di-. 
dyu 1. applied to very small bird i.q. di, 
fo dyu i. q. fo di. — a-dyiit s. a young sprout; 
siin-kri dyiit s. a young sprout of svn-kri. 
dyu 2. s. a record, register. 
dyu 3. vb. to fight, to make war, to 
quarrel, pd-no-lem dyU vb. to fight against 
king; pd-no lol-ld dyH to fight on the 
side of or for king. — dyii cok vb. to 
make tumult, roar, contention; — dyut-bo 
s. one, who fights, a warrior. — a-dyijt 
s. war, battle; a-dyit pld or a-dytit nun 
there was a war; a-dyiit rin li vb. to 
promote war; a-dyixt-sd pd-hu s. the 
demon of war; a-dyiit fed vb. to provoke 
war. — dyut-nut s. fighting. 

dyuk or kd-dyHk s. Tbr. for sa-hii s. a 
monkey, dyHk kHp a small ditto Tbr. 

dyun v^b. to be vertical, to . erect or 
transmit in a vertical direction; t$6A dyxm 
or tsdn dyHn-liin op vb. to discharge arrow 
straight up in the air; tHk-nom dyHh to 
elevate nose (as spirited horse or person 
when snuffing anything). — dyiin-ld nan 
vb. to be in a vertical position. 

dyup vb. to fall in great quantities as 
leaves from trees; rain, snow etc., sd- 
non dyup-lHu md-ro duk-ka zdk the snow 
having fallen in great quantities, the man 
fell into trouble; sd-n6n dyi/p s. an ava- 
lanche, T. Ka rud. 

dyum s. 1. a small midge abundant 
near water and troublesome to the, eyes. 
2. expletive to blyok, blyok dyiim s. a 
shade, a ghost. 

(dyur) redupl., td-dyiir s. shady, cloudy, 
td-lyan sd-tsHk td-dyiir Id di great multi- 
tudes to come, sufficient to darken the 
heaven; t.-d. tet kok to screen the sun's 
rays. See under nUm-yil. 

dyul s. moving of bushes by wind etc.; 
dyiil-ld or dyul-ld dyiil-ld tyii to move as 
bushes by the wind (or animal passing 

dyu 1. s. ball of gun, cannon etc., dyu 
fyok-kHn ndn the bullets fly in abundance 
one across the other; dyu-pot s. ball of 
gun or musket; dyu kup s. a small b., 
a pellet. 

dyu 2., dyu-m vb. t. to measure, vb. n. 
to correspond with, to be equal, dyu pu 
id. — dyum gerund. of dyu; dyum-bo 1 . one 
who measures, 2. an equal or correspond- 
ing a measure, dyum pd-tin s. a measuring 
yard or rod. — a-dyum adj. corresponding 
to, equal; s. a measure, a-dyum mat vb. 
to compare, to measure, a-dyum mlo (or 
-se{) s. a measure. — niin-dyu s. exactitude, 
corresponding seize. 

dyu 3. s. account, register, record, dyu 
a-nok black list, record of evil deeds. 
See dyii. 

dyuk (see tyuk) s. spittle, saliva, dyuk 
lyiim kat or dyuk lyiim m,d-yd-nd-pa-ka 
in the time that spittle takes to dry: 
expressive of speed, dyuk blydn (mouth) 



dyun— dyur 

dyul— dyon 

to fill -with spittle, (mouth) to water 
from anything sour; dyuk tep for spittle 
to collect in mouth; dyuk tyuh vb. to 
spit, to despise, to show contempt of; 
dyuk tyuk gydn sit -bo a contemptible 
person. — dyuk gyon s. slabber, d. g. cil 
vb. to slabber, d. g. cil-bo s. a driveller; 
a contemptible person. 

dyun, dyun Tb.t. to dance a baby in arms 
a-kvp d.\ to caress child or animal, to 
exercise arms, to perform gymnastics; 
mu-zu dyun; — vb. n. to alternate, to 
change, to vary, so dyun (weather) to 
alternate between fair and rain. — dyun- 
bo s. 1. a caresser, etc. 2. a gymnast, 
athlet, 3. alternation, vicissitudes. 

a-dyun s. fondling, caressing, vb. to 
caress, a-dyun rin li to take notice of. 

dyut 1. vb. t. to boil meat or vegetables 
till quite soft, to boil to a pulp, kun-fun 
dyut to boil down hide or leather as when 
making glue. 

dyut 2., a-dyut s. the tubers of bulbous 
root, sun-kri dyut the t.'s of the Arum; 
nyin dyut the t.'s of the Aconitum ferox. 

dyun see under dyun. 

dyup vb. to compare or liken one thing 
to another, to make comparison; dywp 
ndk vb. to make trial as to see whether 
boy knows his lesson or not, to examine 
by comparison; dywp- fun -sd li vb. to 
speak in comparisons or parables ; dyup- 
Mn li to compare one thing to another; 
dyup-lun nydt vb. to show by comparison; 
dyup-liin rin li vb. to compare, to speak 
by comparison, to illustrate by examples; 
dyup-lyan md-nyin-ne there is no way of 
comparing; dyup-M md-zdk-ne the com- 
parison is not correct; — dyup-ldt s. 
1. comparison, 2. trial, probation, proof. 

fam-dyup s. 1. experiment, trial, 2. com- 
parison, fam-dyup mat vb. 1. to make 
. experiment or trial, 2. to compare, fam- 
dyup mat -bo s. an experimenter, an 
examiner. See also dy&m. 

dyum see dyu. 

dyur i. q. dydr young; a-dyur s. a young 
bird just fledged. 

dyul vb. to examine, to try, to in- 
vestigate, to prove, rin a-re M-nvn Mm 
dyul-sdn-ka li this he said to prove him J. 
■^dyul ndk vb. to try, to inquire into, to 
investigate; myel ul myel dyul to ask for 
testing; see also dyup; — dyul-ld adv. 
tempting. — dyul-ldt s. test, proof, trial, 
experience, research. — a-dyul s. examin- 
ation, trial, a-dyul-ka ndn vb. to go to 
be examined, a-dyul zuk vb. to make 
trial of. 

dye, see de, dye ndk i. q. dyom ndk, dyek, 
dyen, dyet, dyen, dyep see de-, dyd-. 

dyep 1. s. a quire of paper containing 
ten sheets. 

dyep 2. along with, in company of, the 
presence of, kd-sii dyep(-ka} di-o come 
along with me; su go yo gdn jdn-bo-sdn 
sd-fa-ld a-yu dyep(-kd) bam for the poor 
ye have always with you J. — o-ba kd- 
nyi dyep-ka fd-lyen kat nyi there was 
there with us a young man Ex. — dyep- 
dun-ka before, kur dyep-dHn-ka lom-bo 
which went before the camp Ex. — used 
in the sense of classing, species, fo fam- 
cdn dyep ka vb. to class birds and animals; 
si-sd dyep-ka md-sut-ne it do^s not come 
under the class of si. 

dyem see de-, dyer see dydr etc. 

dyer on the side of, along-side of, li 
dyer houses along -side of each other; 
nydt dyer fields along-side of each other; 
dyer fo vb. to place along-side as poles. 
See jer. 

(dyo), dyo-la open, clear, unconfined, 
free, said of house, road, field, country; 
lyan sd lom dyo-ld a free country and open 
road; dyo-ld lydt vb. to give full liberty. 

dyon 1. vb. to break, to split up, to 
warp, applied to trees of small seize as 
in cutting wood when it breaks and 
splits up of itself, and cracking to fall, 
san bik-Mn tsol-ld dyon wood, when being 
split to break up from one end to the 

dyon 2. s. a-dyon s. a sapling, a young 
tree, kuii dyon G.; kvn-tson dyon s. a 
young stalk of maize. 

dyon— dydl 



dyon, dyon-nd dyon-nd shaggy and long 
as fur, train of animals. 

dyop see nyi, nyi-dyop s. a cold, catarrh. 

dydn vb. t. to place out (as fresh cotton 
newly plucked) to dry ki dyon. 

dy6t s. a course of work as man digging 
from top to bottom of a field and having 
reached the bottom to recommence from 
top, ayok dyot fye-na tye-nd di a series of 
work to follow one another in succession. 
— a-dyot s. a layer of thatch or tiles. 

dydn vb. t. to expand, to swell out, 
dyon nyon to puff out, to dilate. — dyon 
td-blyon s. p. in cheek of monkeys. — 
pul-dyon s. pouch in cheek. 

dydp 1. cans, of dop q. v. 

dydp 2. Tb. t. 1. to throw out, kd-cor 
dyop to throw out hands as in disgust, 
2. vb. n. to be answerable for, to lay 
upon one the fault of another, to be 
responsible for, a-kup rin a-bo-ka dyop 
the father is answerable for the son's 
speach; a-do-nun mat-ba kd-silm dyop li 
you lay the fault of your own action 
upon me. 3. vb. t. to lay one's own on 
another, to charge, to impute, to ascribe 
to; td-do-sd le-nen kicm-dum-ka dyop to 
throw the blame of one's own fault on 
another; yo a-do-sd dyok-ka md-dy&p-ne 
I am not responsible for your acts. 

dydm 1. vb. to compare, dyom-ndk vb. 
to compose, to put together to see which 
is best: sd-re ryu dyom iidk-kd compare — . 

dydm 2., a-dy&m s. a period or space 
of time, a time, kat dydm once, md-li-nd 
dydm noh i. q. md-U-pa-ka non to go away 

without giving time to speak; md-lik-nd 
dydm fam i. q. md-lik-nd-pa-ka fam i. q. 
md-lik md-ydn-nd tarn to answer without 
giving time to call, to anticipate answer. 
dydr 1. y\). n. to recline against, to 
slope, dydr da to recline as on a couch, 
run-dom dyor-da-bo a sloping bank; — 
to sit down, md-ro-sdn-ka dydr kon-nd tin 
lyaii o-re-ka pon a-gyap nyi o-re-nun mat- 
lu/'i td-gri a-fron-ka ton fd-no zor't dydr 
make the men sit down; now there was 
much grass in the place; so the men 
sat down, in number about five thousand 
J. — 2. to be successful, fortunate, bon- 
fin su-ld dydr the exorcist is s. in every 
thing; md-dyor-ne not to be successful, 
to be illfated; lom-ba dydr to be s. in 
travelling; li zuk nydt zuk dydr to be 
successful in house and farm affair; prydk 
dyor to be successful in business; li md- 
dyor-ne to be unfortunate in household 

a-dydr s. 1. leaning, 2. success, a-dyor 
lyaii s. place to lean on, a-dyor nyim-bo 
adj. successful. 

dydl 1. shaking, not supported as wall 
etc., shaky, dum-po dydl a loose post; • — 
dyol-ld dyol-ld adv. loose, shaky, flappy; 
dyol-ld 6t vb. to open a little as mouth. 

td-dyol adj. large as stomach, or lips 
only, expanded, td-bdk td-dydl, a-dul td- 
dyol; — tun-gip td-dyol a wide-mouthed 

dydl 2. see dydl; — tuk-dydl adj. destitute, 
wretched, naked, on t.-d.-bo a destitute 
child, td-gol t.-d. id. 


na the twelfth letter of the L. alphabet 
T. 3^ = English w (never combined with 
i vowel). 

-n I. verbal increment forms nomina 
(substantiva, opp. -m) fr. verbal roots, 

a-hru-n s. heat fr. hru vb. to be hot, 
a-hru-m adj. hot. See -t. 

n. gives a transitive or causative s. 
an to break fr. d broken; dn to charm, 
to warm one's self fr. d to be warm; — 


na — na 

na— na-zdr 

the roots byi to give, li to speak are 
complified by the increment -n, when 
succeeded by -k&n q. v. byin kon let him 
give, lin kon let him speak, and when 
combined with Jcii; lin liu q. v. 

in. abbrev. fr. -ne, -nd: md-Ku-n i. q. 
md-Ku-nd see under md; verbs ending 
in a vowel (esp. i and t«) may generally 
have an euphonic n surposed in addition 
to the affixed negative postp. -nd, -ne, 
-num, -nmi e. c. md-nyin-ne not to be fr. 
nyi to be; md-Kun-num-bo impracticable, 
unable fr. Kii, to be able. 

na- 1, pref. forms nomina and adjectiva, 
see nd-han under han\ nd-ru under rw; 
especially names of trees (plants) and 
beasts (birds, insects etc.) also a few 
nomina propria (female consorts of gods, 
demons etc.); — in certain cases inter- 
changeable with num- or nun q. q. v. — 
n. reduplication of nar etc.: nd-nar-ld, 
nd-nom grey fr. nom, etc. See under the 
respective roots. 

-na postp. 1. should be -n-d i.e. d after 
final (geminated) n see M. Gr. 46 e. c. 
diin-nd imperat. of dun, gun-nd emphat. 
(frequ.) form of gun etc. 2. affixed to 
verbs preceded by md- (and followed by 
the verbal affix) forms negative as go 
md-di-nd-so I shall not come, ho md- 
nm-nd gdn if you do not go; it also 
singly forms negative as mak nd mak 
dying or not dying; zu nd zu living or 
dead M. Gr. 108. 

na 1. emphatic particle, hu nd si go- 
run g& den md-ri-ne even if he had seen 
it he would not believe; go nd md-go-ne; 
rikn-nun f.-ka a-kydt-sd rin dun-so it is 
not in me : God shall give Ph. an answer 
of peace Ex.; — go-nd hd-yu tm-sd ik 
a-hldk-nyi-Mn-ka ti I am come that they 
might have life etc. J. — expresses : even, 
altogether, inclusive, as go nd md-bam- 
nd-so I even or inclusive will not remain; 
kd-sH bat sd a-do bat nd hu-nun bii, non 
he took my bundle and yours also; see 
also gdn-nd gdn-nd under gdn, yan-nd 

under yan> — nd-e i. q. pan verbal-par- 
ticle kd-yu mak nd-e we would die. 

na 1. exclam. alas! ul-bo nyi gdn nd 
alas! if there be petitioners? See a-tsa 
a-ya nd. 

na 2. vb. n. 1. to be injured, to be 
dislocated as limbs, a-kd nd-non the hand 
is dislocated; 2. to be passed (as time), 
to be elapsed, to be gone, sd-dyak nd 
non-ne pi-non the day has passed, it is 
too late; — 3. vb. t. to violate as pro- 
mise, hu-nun hu-do-sd rin-cet nd-non he 
broke his promise. 

na 3. vb. n. to be level, even, to be 
straight, md-nd-ne adj. uneven; nd-ld 

1. adv. even etc., nd-ld zuk vb. to make 
even, to level, to smooth, 2. (also nd- 
klya-ld) always, continually, regularly 
lyan kat-ka nd-ld bam to remain always 
in one place; nd-ld pi vb. to write con- 
tinually also evenly. 

nd 4. see pd-nd ignorant. 

"na 5. (see also na') T. sna nose, in 
comp. nd-fdr s. the snout of a pig mon- 
sd nd-fdr; nd mar (T. sna nose, dmar red) 
bleeding at nose, nd mar vi dan to have 
bleeding at nose. 

na-gron nyo i. q. nd-zon nyo. 

na-nom, nun-nom see nom 1. grey colour, 

2. a spec, of grain. 

na-nram i. q. ndn-rdm s. a pimple. 

na-nrem rik s. spec, of Acacia, ace. Wtt. 
A. 233 '■'■ngraen rik'''' A. Intsia; nd-nrem 
kun s. Albizzia lucida M., ace. Wtt. A. 709 
'■'■ngraem'" Albizzia procera. 

na-jfl kun or niim-jil-kun and jil-kun 
n. of tree. Euphorbia macaranga. 

na-td i. q. nye-to q. v. 

na-min rik (?) ace. Wtt. K. 613 "numing- 
rik" s. Rubus panicnlatus. 

na-mdr s. a spec, of rice, nd-mor zo 
the chief grain that is rice in opp. fam- 
zok; nd-mdr ci mok fermented liquor («) 
made from that rice; nd-mor ci byep rik 
n. of creeper. Ace. Hooker 2, 198 "mo- 
morchi" Decaisnea, D.insignisWtt.D.206. 

na-zdr s. a spec, of butterfly. 

na-zdn-nyo— na-var 

na-vyar — * nat 


na-z6n-nyo or nuh-zon-nyo or nd-gron- 
nyo s. the goddess of procreation, wife 
of fd-gron-fin see nmi-de. 

na-ran s. a silvan spirit, wife of td-ran 
see nyo kun nd-ran. 

na-rdm, nun-ram see nd-nram. 
na-ru (see rvi) s. nd-ru mun, ru-mun 
an evil spirit of wasting diseases, atrophy, 
consumption nd-rii mim-nun mak to die 
of consumption. 

na-rut n. p. the recording angel. M. 
na-rdk kun n. of tree Amyris agallocha, 
M. nd-rdk pa s. ace. Wtt. C. 273 Canarium 

na-lan or nvn-lan s. a spec, of fungus 
(boletus), nd-ldn dor; so nd-ldn dor spec, 
of tree-fungus peculiar to the chestnut- 
oak; — nd-ldn rik s. a creeper; — nm- 
Idn pot s. seed of do., roasted and eaten. 
na-lf pun-df s. n. pr. queen Na-li, wife 
of rum zon pd-no; she taught females 
the art of weaving cloth and domestic 
duties, also presented them with the 
sickle ban Jiur and instructed them in 
agriculture. — nd-li pun-di fo s. the brown- 
eared bulbul, Hemixus flavulus M. ace. 
Je. 2, 86 "■nalUpindi" id. 

na-lum (?) ace. Hooker 2, 182 "nalum" 

na-han (nd- and Jian q. v.) part. loc. 
temp, before, kd-su fit-re-sd nd-han be- 
fore my arrival; nd-han no go before, 
nd-han non-ne gone before, nd-han hrit- 
no-o go on in advance, ca nd-han first, 
at first, ca nd-han a-ywm sd-re li-ho o-re 
gum even the same that I said unto you 
from the -beginning; nd-han mo or na- 
han mot the first, the foremost, most, 
see han-mot; nd-han-bo s. the first. 
na-hrop see *na. 
na-hryep see *na. 

na-var (fr. Bangali, Skt. nau) s. a boat, 
a ship P. J., see also *h'u; nd-var kii 
vb. to manage a boat, to cause the ship 
to sail; nd-var gyam-non the boat is up- 
set; — nd-var kup a small boat; nd-var 
td-li the oar of ship; nd-var tor the sail 
of boat; nd-var (yah the praw; nd-var 

dek the stern; nd-var pun the side; nd- 
var sum-pydr the rudder, nd-var sum- 
pydr Ion vb. to steer boat. 

na-vyar (mufi) s. an evil spirit of ex- 
citable passion, hence nd-vydr a hasty 
mad way, nd-vydr jen-sd dyok a hasty 
mad mode of work; nd-vydr jen-sd dyok 
mat vb. to do work in hasty manner; 
nd-vydr mun jen applied to a passionate, 
excitable person. 

na-vyer (see nd-vydr?) s. cracks or sores 
at corners of mouth, a-bon-nun nd-vyer 
pld (sores) to break out in corners of 

na-dn s. n. pr. of a foolish class of 
Lepcha's, the tribes have become extinct, 
the word is now applied to any foolish 
person; nd-6h zd/i, nd-oh sun-van id.; 
nd-6h-sd dyok s. awkward, clownish sort 
of work. See M. Gr. XX n, Journ. Buddh. 
Text. Soc. IV, 1, 5. 1896. 

n&V. vb. n. to be hurt by the pressure 
of any uneven thing as carrying a burden 
unevenly, da-ba, ndk to feel pain from 
some pressure (as stone or anything) 
when lying down; (sometimes) means 
also to feel any sort of pain, as ndk ju 
huk-re zon nyoh to feel a pain as if 
scratched by a thorn; — to suffer; mw 
som ndk to feel body cramped. 

nak vb. t. to gasp for, to attempt to 
subjugate, to rough-cast, to fashion into 
shape, a-som ndk to vb. to gasp for breath, 
to attempt to overcome the difficulty, to 
struggle for life, to push, to thrust, to 
push on, to urge, td-hlam ndk vb. to push 
forward; sd-li ndk to vb. to cut a bamboo 
half thro' while still young, allowing it 
to grow to maturity which renders it 
pliant for a bow. — See td-lyd ndk. 

naii 1. see mo-nan (elderly woman). 

*nan 2. T. nons (from non-bd) s. a fault, 
an offence. 

*nat 1., ncit and ndt T. nad, snad and 
. gnad vb. t. to afflict, to injure, to hurt, 
to make mischief, a-kd not to hurt hand; 
a-dom su ndt-tim g&n in what have I in- 
jured you; ho md-r^d-ka ndt-ba sd-lom 


nat— ndin 

nam— nak 

viat-lufi ndt-Mii go yo vydt-sen (P.) asked : 
what doing make you mischief if you 
injure mankind? P. — ndt-ho hurtful, in- 
jurious, noxious; ndt-tun s. harm, injury, 
damage; ndt mun a baneful evil spirit, 
a noxious demon; — Tb.n. to be afflicted, 
mun-nun ndt to be afflicted by evil sp.; 
expletive to dak: dak not to be ill, to be 
unwell, to be injured;' dii not 1. vb. to 
be ill, to have fever, 2. s. illness. 
nat 2. see n^t. 

nat 3. vb. n. to be winding as road 
also from the same sense it means a 
place apparently near but in fact far 
lyan ndt-lun ndk; lorn ndt a winding 
road. — a-ndt adj. contracted, drawn to- 
gether, lyan a-ndt si said of a place 
which appears near but is far away; 
s. wriggling, twist, curl, a-ndt a-ndt mat 
vb. to wriggle along as a snake. 

nat 4. vb. t. to push, to push against, 
to strive for, vyen ndt-lun hap to shut 
the door by pushing; ndt-lun ndn to go 
pushing along; po sd-dydr mi ndt to fire 
off a pop-gun. 

n^n vb. t. to overcome, to be able to 
overcome, to be able to do anything; 
go-niin hum ndn I have overcome him. 
ndn-bo p. potent, mighty etc., fydn ndn- 
bo a mighty warrior; dyok pryok ndn-bo 
one potent or skilled in work. — a-ndn 
s. trustiness, superiority in strength. 

nan 2. vb. t. to be able to judge by 
the eye, to measure with eye the distance 
of place or the capabilites of another, 
a-mik-nun ndn. 

ndn 3. (see 1.?) vb. n. to be lusty, to 

be able to procreate (as bull), Ion ndn-bo. 

ndn 4. vb. t. to degrade, to humble, to 

disgrace, hrim mat-sdn ndn to d. as a 


*nin 5. vb. t. T. snon^-pa) to enlarge 
i. q. par q. v., nyot ndn to increase field 
or cultivation. 

ndp vb. to add a little, to increase a 

ndm 1. vb. to desire to ease nature 
dyit nam, jit nam. 

(ndm 2.) ndm-md or ndm ndm excessive, 

great quantities, exceedingly, very, so ndm 

ndm yii rain to fall in great quantities, 

to fall and fall; ndm-md Id-yo excessive 

sin; hu ndm ddk giim he is excessively ill. 

ndm-bik and ndm-bu s. a spec, of insect. 

nar 1. applied to a kind of glassbead, 

ndr ndk lyak s. a black glassbead. 

nar 2. see nar. 

nar 3. vb. t. to grub as pig with snout; 
nd-tar-nim ndr, fat ndr. 
na 1. see under ndn to go. 
na 2. vb. to be superabundant, to be 
superfluous; na dydn to fling away what 
is superfluous; na-liin z6m md-KHn-ne 
there is too much, I cannot eat it. 

*na 3. T. sna, see also nd, in comp. 
na-hrop the nasal bone; na-hrep and na- 
hryep the nasal cartilage. 

*na 4. T. na(^-bd) or nad, na-h'ip see 
under krip. *na zun tap T. nod rdsun 
stabs (or ' debs-pa f) vb. to pretend illness; 
na ziin tap-bo s. a maligner. 

na-gf s. a small bivalve shell when 

ground used as a stimulant with snuff. 

na-nyi vik s. ace. W. R. 216 the fairy 

blue chat, Mltava grandis, and a spec. 

of flowerpecker, Irena puella ibd. 213. 

na-wo or na-w6 s. the wild sheep, ace. 
Hooker "gnow" Ovis ammon. 

nak 1. (see nan to be straight) vb. t. 
1. to make straight, as anything bent, 
sd-li nak to straighten bow; nak-lun zuk 
vb. to straighten anything; 2. to correct 
(as language) rin nak-lun li vb. to correct 
language. — nyak cans, to cause to make 
straight etc. rin nyak-Mn li to correct 
one's self in speach. — nak-gri (nak 
straight and gri stockaded fort) anglice 
Nagri n. pr. of a L. village W. 71. 

nak 2. i. q. ndk, nak-nok i. q. nok q. v., 
nak- CO 1. the black quarter, 2. black 
arts, divination, T. nag-pyogs; — nak < 

s. a black sausage; — *nak-tsii T. na^gs- 
rtsis s. a book of auspices regarding necror 
many, journeys etc., astrology; n.-ts.-bo 
an astrologer, a necromancer, also n.-ts.- 
ydm-bo, n.-ts.-mydm-bo, n.-ts.myori-bo. 

nan— nat 

nat — nap 


nan 1. vb. to be straight as thing, to 
be correct, to be upright, to be just, to 
be impartial, to be honest, to be exact; 
s. straightforwardness, sincerity, nan-Id 
adv. straightly, correctly, justly; nan-Id 
to vb. to place straight; — kun nan-bo s. 
a straight tree; — a-nan adj. straight, 
a-nan kdl s. an earpick; straightforward, 
upright; impartial, just, even, candid J. 
a-nan-ka in the same line with; a-nan- 
ka lorn vb. to walk uprightly; a-nan din 
vb. to stand upright; a-nan mat vb. to 
set things straight or in order; a-nan 
nan vb. to be perpendicular; a-nan fi-ka 
opposite to; a-nan tsdk vb. to put down 
one above another. — nan-ldt or nan-lu 
s. straightness, evenness, uprightness, just- 
ness, rectitude, honesty, equity, honour. 
— naii-to s. (the sign of straightness) 

1. correctness, accuracy, exactitude, pro- 
priety, rectitude, uprightness, integrity; 

2. neatness, tidiness, nan-td mat vb. to 
be correct, accurate, to be upright etc., 
to be careful, tidy etc.; nah-to md-mat-ne 
to be careless, inaccurate, to be headless 
etc.; see also non-to; — nan-fi adv. be- 
side b. Ka-dyd p.-sd nari-fi td-lyd dd pun- 
ka kwr ran bam,-mun ndm he overtook 
them encamping by the sea, beside P., 
before B. Ex. — nan-tson T. nan-tsans s. 
probity, honesty, virtue, holiness. — nan- 
nd nan-nd directly upwards, above as 
sun, tsuk nan-nd nan-nd yo sun to be 
vertically above, to be noon. — nun-nan- 
Id adv. straightly; nixn-nd nan-nd straight, 
equal, correct; nan-nd tan-nd always, 
regularly, li-ka nan-nd tan-nd ba7n-bo s. 
one who always remains at home, a stay- 

"nan 2. T. nan or snarl or gnan see 
non 2. 3. 4. 

nah-ku mo or nan-lo s. a flat basket 
used for placing winnowed grain in; 
n.-lo fydr vb. to plait the basket. 

nan-hra kun i. q. tun-hryil tsdk kun, td- 
hril etc. 

nat 1. adj. rugged, rough, knotty, vb. 
to be rugged, po ciikpo nat knotty bamboo 

abounding in joints; td-bdk wa^ a rugged 
wrinkled belly. — piir-nat adj. knotty as 
string, or numerous joints in cane, rugged; 
pur-nat-ld adv. knotty, ruggedly; piir- 
nat-ld dam, string tied with knots close 
to eachother. — pur-nat-bu s. a spec, 

(nat 2.), a-nat s. a furrow. 

nan 1. vb. to press, to press down 
(a thing), to subdue, to overcome, to 
oppress, Ex. nan-lun li vb. to oppress, 
to brow-beat, nan-lun zo vb. to eat the 
food of oppression, used in s. of "to 
withhold" or "refuse anything" go ul-ba 
hu nan to when I asked him he refused 
me ; — to suppress (as passion, tears, to 
restrain. — nan-ldt i. q. a-nan. ■ — • nan zop 
vb. to oppress, nan zop-lun zo vb. to live 
on oppression, nan zop-lun li vb. to brow- 

a-nan s. pressing down, oppressing, 
a-nan rin overbearing language, a-nan 
a-zop s. oppression, o-re-nim mat-ltin i.- 
kup-sdn-sd a-hryop a-lik kd-su lyan-ka 
Uyd un go-nim Id a-nan a-zop sd-re sd 
mi-zdr-mo-sdn-nun hd-yum nan-bo-rem si 
the cry of the children of J. is come 
unto me: and I have also seen the op- 
pression wherewith the Egyptians oppress 
them Ex. 

*nan 2. T. earnestly, accurately, nan- 
tan or nan- fen T. nan-tan or nan- fan 
s. stedfulness, adv. zealously, ardently, 
exceedingly, excessively, ay ok nan -ten 
mat to work zealously; nan-ten mat-td-o 
farewell, take care of yourself, sd-ta-ld 
kyet-tun-re gat Id gdn nd nan-fen mat-Mn 
CO mat-td-o if you wish to enjoy eternal 
bliss be righteous with earnestness P.; 
nan-ten mydn to be excessively ripe; in 
L. "precious" "having regard for" fam 
nan- fen fat non (I) have lost a most 
precious article. « 

nan 3. ace. W. level W. 65. ace. W. 
na-tam cu T. ka-bur n. pr. of a mountain 
W. 58, nan-t. c. ("level" "cut away" or 

nap 1. cfr. T. nub, nub -mo s. night. 


nap— nam 



evening so -nap; nap -pa luk-kd adv. 
morning and evening, night and day, 
nap sdn id.; luk nap luk-lun rising early 
in the morning, before day-break; nap 
sdn 16m mat non vb. to travel night and 
day; — nap-pyet s. midnight; — nap-mo 
s. the evening, nap-mo-ka in the evening; 

— nap-zd s. evening, before night. 
kur^nap s. the evening star, Venus, see 


(nap 2.), pa-nap or pur-nap s. repairing, 
retrieving, reformation, amelioration; pa- 
nap mat vb. to repair, to amend, U p.-n. 
mat vb. to repair a house; md-ro-sd gyu 
p.-n. mat vb. to retrieve one's fortunes; 
16m p.-n. mat to amend one's ways; td- 
bdk p.-n. mat to refresh an empty stomach. 

nam 1. like i. q. zon; kd-su ban a-do 
ban nam gum my knife resembles yours; 

— nam mat vb. 1. to have the appear- 
ance of, to resemble, 2. to make believe, 
to simulate; fo-re nam mat to do as if 
placing; fyul-re nam mat to do as if 
taking off. 

nam 2. s. a year, nam sok klak-sd when 
the year comes round, in the anniversary 
P.; nam, gy6-ka by centuries; nam kd-ti 
ten years; nam hat nydt-sd a-byek-ka in 
the course of a few years; nam nam 
yearly; nam fd-li n6n four years ago; 
nam td-uydn last year; nam rel-ld each 
year, nam rel-ld a-po rel-ld once a year; 
nara svm-bydt next year; wawi ««-/!« what 
year, nam. sd-fa-ld for ever; nam no the 
old y.; nam dl or nam bu a new y., jiam 
dl bu vb. to introduce new y. with festivity; 
nam dl bun-bo-ka at time of new y., nam 
ru dydn vb. to cast off old y. with festivity; 
nam tak or tik y. to be ended; nam piit 
id.; nam kor-ka by cycles of years; navt 
md-ryun-nd a year of misfortune T. mu- 
ge P. i. q. nam tok, nam tok zdk ^ y. of 
misfortune to befall; a nam the year, the 
present year, a nam kvp of this y. ; a nam 
nam luk this is a good y.; a nam sak 
md-cin-ne to reflect not on the flight of 
time; — season, time, nam n6n-ne the 
season is gone; nam pld the season has 

come; ik nam m.d-pld-ne the s. has not 
yet come; nam rik to be in proper s.; 
nam, j6m an excessively rainy s.; nam 
du i. q. tok d-u the harvest season; nam 
turn s. time, season, nam, turn, a-uyit a-de 
the commencement of time P.; nam muk 
ryak in the proper s., in the natural 
course of events, nam miik ryak-kun tam 
grdm-md mydn the fruits quickly ripen 
in their proper s.; — age, period of life, 
nam kd-ti-ka at the age of ten. 

nam gdn the last day of the moon; — 
nam fr6n fo s. a bird of passage. 

*nam 3. T. gnam s. the sky, the heaven, 
namr-Ka T. nam-mlcd s. the firmament. 

nam ko ace. M. nam ko nyim-bo s. a 
friend, an acquaintance; nam ko hy6k vb. 
to be united together. 

nam-kyan or nam-kydn mun s. an evil 
spirit, the evil sp. of destiny, nam-kydn 
zdk vb. to be affected by n.-k., i. e. to 
have a fit of apoplexy. 

*nam-gyur T. rnam-gyur s. air, manner, 
aspect, bearing, look, nam-gyur mat vb. 
to affect an air, to be proud. 

nam-jot s. pride, conceit, affectation, 
vanity, nam-jot mat vb. to be proud, 
conceited, nam-jot mat-lun I6m vb. to 
walk conceitedly. 

*nam-tok T.m/ion-rtags s. proof, evidence, 
nam-tok nun-n6n to be proved M. 

*nam-ta fr. T. rnam-mfd foreign: nam- 
fa bik a small Gorkha cow. 

*nam-t'ar T. mam-mfar s. a legend, 
legendary lore, something that has escaped 
the destruction of time, records, lyan un 
md-ayit-nd-ba so nam-far g-iim this is a 
book containing a record of events be- 
fore the earth or waters were created P. ' 

'^nam-bu T. snam-bu woolen cloth, nam- 
bu dum. 

nam-bun kuii i. q. num-hun kun. 

nam-frdn i. q. ter luk-bo "the exhumer 
of hidden treasures" "the revealer of 
future events" "the discloser of secrets": 
Padmasambhava P. 

*nam-zi5 T. na-bzd s. hon. apparel, a 
respectful term, applied to the wearing- 

nam-yar— nal 

apparel of king or great person; dress, 
clothes, hri nam-zo hon. bed-clothes; 
nam-zd je vb. hon. to dress. 

nam-yar s. conceit, yanity, pride, nam- 
ydr mat Yb. to display conceit, to give 
one's self airs. 

*nam-yuk fr. T. gnam and yig s. 1. a 
religious work, a divine work handed 
down from heaven; 2. a charm to be 

*nam-se s. T. mam-ses "perfect know- 
ledge" L.: the soul i. q. num-jum (see 
jurri); nam-se dot vb. to deliver soul from 
dead body which after incantation the 
lama releases by pulling out a handful 
of hair from the head. 

nar 1. vb. n. to be cocked up (as nose), 
tiik-ndm, nar-bo a snub-nose: nar bam-bo 
id. — nd-nar-bo, nd-nar-ld cocked up as 
nose tuk-ndm nd-nar-ld, a snub-nose; 
a-mlem nd-nar-ld id. 

nar 2. (also nar) nar-rd, nar-ld regularly, 
systematically, equally, ndr-rd mydn vb. 
to be well cooked to the very centre; 
so fat ndr-rd yu-wun-sd, fdt nydr-rd hron 
when the rain well penetrates the earth 
will rise up soft; nar-ld v6n vb. to enter 
uniformly, to penetrate equally every- 
where as moisture; — nar-rd nar-rd adv. 
or nar-ld regularly, nar-rd nar-rd tydt 
vb. to cut small and regularly, to mince, 
nar-rd nar-rd fa vb. to eat regularly 
away as insect wood; nar-rd nar-rd dop 
vb. to burn by degrees regularly away; 
nar-rd nar-rd dyok zuk vb. to perform 
work systematically. 

nal vb. t. to beat down, pd-tun-niin nal 
vb. to beat down with a stick; rin nal- 
liin li vb. to repeat, to badger one with 
repetition of words (see nyel, cans, of 
nal?) — vb. n. to be beaten down or 
otherwise dislocated, to lie backwards, 
to roll backwards, zo nyot so-tap-nun nal 
cultivation to be beaten down by hail; 
td-go ban nal da-nyi the sleeve of your 
jacket is lying backwards; to be bent or 
twisted by a poke, pd-tin nal vb. t. to 
bend stick by poking it as in wet ground; 

*nal-jor— nu 


— met. to be perplexed, to be confused, 
a-fyak nal non sak-cin md-Eun-ne my head 
is distracted, I cannot think. 

tuk-nal witless, foolish, tuk-nal ban s. 
"a person who follows his nose" a half- 
witted sort of person, who whatever he 
does keeps on doing it without desisting, 
t.-n. zan lin-bo one who goes jabbering 
incessantly like a fool. 

*nal-jor T. rnal-byor {-pa) Skt. yogin 
s. ascetic. 

*nal-Idm T. mnal-lam hon. i. q. ■mow s. 
a dream. 

nu 1. s. younger brother cfr. T. nu(_-bo), 
affixed in s. of family, friendship, affinity, 
bo nu mo nu parents and their children; 
bri nu kyol nu affinity by marriage. 

a-num s. elder brother, friend (applied 
to person older than self), ho a-do niim- 
sd a-yu lyan-ka von-bdn a-nop lon-liin . . . 
a-gyit plyd-o go unto thy brother's wife 
and marry her and raise up seed G. — 
in the above sense as in familiar 1. used 
verbally "to be elder" as ho kd-su-len 
num bam-d are you elder than I? — 
num kup s. a nephew or niece (of elder 
brother); num zon s. friends, relatives. 

niim-nu lit. elder and younger brother, 
T. nu-bo a y. br.) relations, relatives; 
num-nu-ka fi vb. to be related; num-nu 
a-fyen near relationship, see a-fdl; niim- 
nu a-prya a-dum distant relationship; 
niim-nu tyol-nO, friends and acquaintances, 
help-mates, companions, num-nii tyol-nu 
mat vb. to be friend, to act charitably 
towards, to aid; num-nii num-dyen re- 
latives, connexions; niim-nu num-ayen 
md-tyak-nd tet implies: the evening dusk, 
also to be in a state of drunkenness etc. 
"so that he could not recognize his own 

nu 2. (cfr. T. nu-ba, see also nut) vb. to 
suck up, to draw up in a stream, to ab- 
sorb as cloth water; to suck as thro' 
reed milk, blood, pd-hip-niin nu to suck 
up thro' a pipe. 

a-kup nyen nu-bo a suckling babe; nii, 
byi vb. to suckle i. q. nut. 



"nu— nun- 

nun — nuii-lut 

*nu 3. T. mcs(-pa) (ability, force, effi- 
cacy) neg. md-nun-nd vb. to dare, to 
venture, to presume, to hazard, to risk, 
to brave i. q. td, a-do tdn-dok-ka go-nun 
kd-do-sd soh nu-so for your sake I would 
risk my life; ho a-lom su nu mat-tun-gd 
how dare you do this? fydn dyut-ka nu 
to dare to fight the enemy ; to undertake 
or engage to do anything, to chance, 
md-ndn-nd gdn su mat nu-wiln-gd if you 
were unable to do it, why did you say 
you would undertake it; — nu nyim-bo 
daring, venturesome, hazardous, risky; 
2. courageous spirited, 3. presumptuous; 
— md-nu-num-bo one who will not 
venture, shy, bashful, timid, reserved. — 
nu-ldt s. 1. daring, risk, hazard; 2. pre- 
sumption, arrogance, 3. adventure, under- 
taking, engagement, chance, enterprise. 

ntik vb. t. to stop, to arrest progress, 
to deny admittance; to stop as person, 
. acts or intentions; to cause to cease, 
md-r6 nuk nyon to stop a person; rin-jok 
nuk to stop a wrangling; sur nuk s. a 
sign set up to stop the approach of any- 
one (as to a house where there is sick- 
ness etc.); to put off, to evade, to make 
excuses as visitor, fydn nuk vb. to put 
off an enemy with an excuse. — nuk-ldt 
s. evasion, excuse. 

nuk- reduplic. see nyek, nok etc. ; i. q. 
nun q. v. 

-nun 1. affixed forms negative present 
participle and is merely the -un with 
the -nd imbodied as go Tnat-tun I am 
doing, go md-mat-nml I am not doing. 
2. should be n-iin, see under -un. 

nun- 1. is prefixed to many words form- 
ing substantives and pseudo -verbs but 
I have not inserted them in the diet.; 
the root of the words will be found in 
their proper places; e. c. nun-de see de; 
nun-cd see cd. See also nd-, num- and 
the following roots: gli, cd, cu, jit:, da, 
de, ddn, dyti, no, fa, fan, bar, ydl, ru, la, 
sdn etc. — 2. reduplic. of nan, nek, nok 
etc. — 3. incorr. for nan in comp. niin- 

ku-mo i. q. nan-hu-mo ; nun-to i. q. nan-t6; 
nuii-lu i. q. nan-lu. 

nun 1. emphatic particle a-re su nun 
go te what can this be; hum nun so bii 
no convey him away. 

nun 2. adj. wide-spreading kun nvn; — 
a-nun s. a branch of antler, a cross- 
branch of tree. 

nuh-kydn, nvm-kydn i. q. mun-kyon s. the 

nuii-gi explet. to nun-go q. v. 

nun -go mun or nun-go nun-gi mun or 
nun-go nun-ju mun or num-go num-cd s. 
the spirit of evil passions, n.-g. n.-g. mun 
zdk vb. to be afflicted by n. 

nun-grf said of a field when still fit 
for cultivation that has not yet been 
exhausted; nun-gri fo s. chestnut-bellied 
thrush Orocetes erythrogastra, also applied 
to the blue rock-thrush Petrocossyphus 
cyaneus Je. 511; see min met fo. 

nun-cuii bi s. a spec, of nun-lut. 

nun-cd i. q. nan-co s. internal organs. 

nun-ju explet. to nun-go. 

nuii-dyen s. a spec, of cowitch, nun dyen 

nuh-naii or num-nan muk s. a plant. 

nuh-ndii bi i. q. num-nan muk. 

niin-ndm muk s. name of plant. 

nuii-puk fo or num-puk fo or niim-pydk 
fo s. a bird, Grammatoptila garrulus 
streaked jay-thrush Je. 2, 11. 

nuii-fun fo for run-. 

nun-bf expletive to nun-cun. 

nuh-bu said of a new cultivation nUn- 
bu nyot: nun-gri nyot. 

nun-ma s. the call to animals, ntin-md 
ma vb. to call ditto. 

nun-yan or mlm-ydn s. Hades, the place 
of departed spirits, n.-y. niin-lit id. niin- 
ydn niin-lit pik sdm or n.-y. n.-l. dek bar 
p'ik sdm vb. to prepare the fate of the 
soul in Hades by purification. See mii.k- 
nyam lyan. 

nun-zen fo i. q. ndn-zen fo. 

nun-lit see niin-ydn. 

nun-lut s. 1. name of a plant, the seeds 

nun-lo — nun 

nun — num 


of which are used as medicine, n.-l. nyi- 
cun a variety, n.-l. nin'i-cun another v., 
n.-l. nyok a pseudo-ji.-Z. another v.; 
2. i. q. lun-liit soap. 

niin-lo see nan-lo i. q. nan-hi mo. 

nun-lyen no s. the guardian spirit and 
bestower of good gifts to man kd-fdn-fi, 
see mut; Id-yo mat-so-ba nun-lyen-no rum 
a-yum tsut-so hum nydn-nd when about 
to commit sin, your guardian spirit will 
protect you, listen to him. — nun-lyen-no 
rip s. a small bush with scented root. 

nuh-a rik s. a spec, of creeper. 

nun- (or num-) cim zo s. a spec, of grain. 

nun-ol rik for kd-ol rik. 

nut, a-nut s. the mucus in which a 
child is enveloped. 

-nun (-wa-Mw?) cfr. -un in the Luschai- 
dialect; postp. forms 1. the instrumental, 
cf. T. -kyii etc., Newari: -se-nani, Hind, -ne, 
indicating the personal subject (agens) 
of the action, go-niin a-dom li I spoke 
to you, litly. "it was spoken by me to 
you'', han-td pd-no-niin li-ba then the 
king said P. — 2. the ablat. cf. T. -nas, 
-las from, by, through, out of, a-d6p lyan- 
nun sd-ar kiip kat a kid from the flock 
G. h6 kd-sii-niin fop you got it from me. 
— hiim tsdn-don-nUn ren kdn they brought 
him hastily out of the dungeon Ex. tin- 
nun dor-je-lin-ka from the plains to Dar- 
jeeling. — a-re-niin pld-wHn it is owing 
to this. lyan-nUn po to depart from the 
place, un-kyon-nixn hik kd-kydk ndk-ba 
a-ryum mdn-sum-bo hron-lun pon-ka zot- 
bam there came up out of the river seven 
wellfavoured kine and fatfleshed; and they 
fed in a meadow Ex. mi-nun ak pluck 
it out of the fire, a-jdn-niin a-ryum Mm 
to select the good from the bad. — a-re- 
nun through this, owing to this; go a-re- 
niin ddk-bam through this I am sick; — 
o-re-niin mat-ren hH bryan d. ydn tik 
therefore called she his name D. G. — 
i. q. -len q. v. a-re-niin pldn-ka more 
than, used in comparison as td-so-niin 
pldn-ka gon dearer than yesterday. 
-nun affixed to verbs with md- pre- 

ceding forms negative imperative, as md- 
mat-nim do not, which apparently is the 
-nd imbodied in the -Un as md-mat-tun 
or md-mat-niin. 

nun 1. used for negative ml 3. q. v. go 
mat md-nun-nd gdn. 

nun 2. vb. to push, to press against, 
to squeeze thro' md-ro nor-ka niin bH non 
to go along pressing thro' a crowd; ^ja- 
zok-ka nitn-lu/l non to squeeze thro' jungle. 

nun 3. name of the final n P (Lepcha- 

nup 1. vb. n. to be covered with water, 
nyot un niip nyon flood the field with 
water; hlo pUm-byon-nUn niip -non the 
hill is overspread with clouds; hH din- 
pan dom-fom-bo-pdn Id td-lyd-dd-ka niip- 
non his chosen captains also are drowned 
in the sea Ex. 

nup 2. see also niim 3., nvp-pd ni/p-pd 
soft, fine, smooth. 

nup-sdr ace. Wtt. "-^nupsor" 1. Cinna- 
momum obtusifolium, see sun-sor "Wtt. 
C. 1165. 2. Lindera pulcherrima Wtt. 
L. 375. 

num- 1. pref. forms nouns e. c. niim- 
sim-nyo num-bam see under sim, nikn- 
prum s. an old woman, nUm-lyen s. a 
young woman, nUm-vom s. copulation, 
c. -mo suff. frequ. Tbr.-compounds: niim- 
l6p-mo Tbr. i. q. td-ayO,, niim-or-mo Tbr. 
i. q. zo men; niim-nal-mo i. q. saA, nikn- 
jur-mo i. q. mon; niim-fyen-mo i. q. ci, 
nUm-sdl-mo i. q. tuk-mo-sd fam mlo. See 
the following roots: kd (kat), kan, jit, 
jil, jam, nyi, nyek, nor, fan, fyefi, fran, 
bam, but, bri, bren, tsUrn, tsUr, zdr, rek, 
lop, lyen, hul, hon, hlep, hlo. Mot, vyen, 
so, Ml, san, si. 2. i. q. niin-, nd- q. v. — 
3. reduplic. e. c. niim-nom i. q. nd-nom 
grey colour. 4. incorr. for nam in comp. 
e. c. num-kyon for nam-kydn, niim-ta for 
nam-fa, niim-zd for nam-z6, nivm-ydr for 

-num 1. affixed to verbs with the pre- 
ceding md- forms negatives and appears 
to be the -nd with -md (sign of present 
tense) imbodied as kyon-dyit md-nyin-nuH 


num— num-fyum 

num-dak— num-bun 

md-go-num-o (or md-go-nd-md-6) I am 
not wanting in pity; ma num yo or ma 
nd md yo it is not thus, it will not do. 
See md-, ma-, -md-o. — 2. i. q. nun 2. 
assimilated form before -bo, as md-nyin- 
num-bo one not possessing, go md-nyin- 
num-bo I am not one possessing; ho md- 
nyin-num-bo thou art not one possessing; 
hu md-nyin-num-bo he is not one p.; kom 
m,d-nyin-num-bo not possessing money, 

num 1. see nii 1. 

num 2. vb. t. to be expert, to hare 
aptitude, dyok num to be expert at work. 

adj. larger, dyo len a-num a-num mat. 

num 3. vb. n. to be soft, to be tender, 
to be yielding, to be flexible, ki yap niom 
soft wool, po num-bo a pliant cane; — 
also met. to be tender or sore, to be 
sensitive, to be suffering from pain, md- 
zu num body to feel stiff or sore as 
from rheumatism; a-lutnum adj. sensitive, 
tender-hearted; — to be gentle, to be 
tractable, to be compliant, to be manage- 
able, a-kup num-bo a tractable child. — 
a-num adj. soft, tender. — num-md num- 
md adv. softly, velvetly. See also niip. 

*num 4. T. snum^-pa) s. 1. oil; grease, 
num hrun-ka vyek kon to cause the test 
of boiling oil to be applied (to prove 
a person's innocence or guilt whether 
he be burnt or not); num'tser vb. 1. to 
express oil, 2. to weep, to shed tears 
Tbr.; 2. a spec, of bean, num tuk-byit 
i. q. num-tsu tuk-byit "the rich bean". 
*num-tsu T. snum-rtsi s. the juice of fat, 
grease, n. pr. of a village, angliee Namchi 
"the government of the fat site" W. 71. 
— num-tsu tuk-byit i. q. niim 2. — niim- 
fok "the fat hollow" n. pr. W. 71. of a 
L. village. 

num-kum s. name of 10th month. 

num-ca expletive to num-go q. v. 

num-fyan s. a wandering bard cfr. miin 
fydn s. a clerical bard. 

num-t'yar expletive to vyen q. v. 

num-t'yum for nyi-fyum s. cheeks, the 
molar bones. 

num-dak or num-dak zo i. q. kHm-dak zo, 
sun-dak zo, s. a spec, of grain, very small 
and very productive; kiim-dak zo zdn\ 
met. very much a-do rin kiim-dak zo zdn 
md-mat-tun do not talk so very much. — 
The species oiniim-ddk are very numerous, 
there are as follows : sd-lo dyur niim-ddk, 
kd-cur or bon jur, kiin-tek-ro niim-ddk, 
ba-ddn n.-d., td-jit n.-d., tam-i n.-d., fdt- 
ji n.-d., sd-Jm tuk-Um n.-d., pa-td n.-d., 
kiim-dak nok, niin-dm n.-d., pHr-myak-gri 
n.-d., tun-kun n.-d., mor kikn-dak, san- 
rik n.-d., td-lin n.-d., miiii-gu it, pitm-fit. 
— niim-dak or kiim-dak nop see nop 2. 

num-dft ndm fo s. n. of bird, the white- 
throated fantail Leucocerca fuscoventris 
Je. 451, the wine-bearer to the fo pd-no 
the king-bird, the nUm-bon on fo (Lepcha 
legend) M.; acc.W. R. 216 ^'■nm-dit-nong" 
a spec, fly-catcher, Rhipidura albicollis. 

num-pan s. a spec, of gryllus nvm-pan 

num-pyak fo s. name of bird, striated 
jay-thrush; Grammatoptila striata. 

niim-pryik fo or num-prek fo s. n. of bird, 
the munia, Munia acuticauda M., ace. Je. 
2, 356 '■•■mm prek-pho"; ace. W. R. 218 
'■'■nam prek" Pyrrhula nepalensis, "AZo 
n. pr." Pyrrhula erythrocephala. Also 
sUm-prek fo. 

num-prum s. an old woman, niimr-prum 
niim-prum a very old woman. 

num-pluh see tHk-nyom. 

num-fdk-mo s. a race of Lepchas, the 
inhabitants of niim-fok in Sikhim; they 
possessed a distinct L. patois, but have 
become now infused with the other race. 

num-bf (^pd-lyixTn) s. a spec, of Conops. 

num-bfm pa-yul for bim pd-yul. 

num-bu sa-ru s. a spec, of fish. 

num -bum i. q. tUn-bUm pd-la s. a spec. 

num-but adj. pale red (colour), hik n.-b. 

num -bun s. n. of tree, Pterospermum 
acerifolium, n.-bun dum id.; n.-buii hyir 
id. (red); n.-bun ayU id. (blue); n.-bun 
nydk pseudo-; niim-bun lop s. the leaf; 
an 8 anapiece Tbr. 

num-ber— num-la 

num-len— *nup 


num-ber (?) ace. Wtt. 0. 516 "numbei-" 
n. of tree, Osbeckia crinita; see tun-bram, 

num-bok i. q. num-bon tuk-nyom. 

num-boii see tuk-nydm. 

num-bon ace. Wtt. G. 287. 5. Gmelina 

num-bol s. a spec, of black ant (large 
head) i. q. rum-bol. 

num-bdn kun s. n. of tree, Rottlera 
tinctoria M.; Mallotus albus ace. Wtt. 
M. 66 (or E. alba); n.-b. kor Mallotus 
nepalensis, Wtt. M. 69; — n.-b. -don kun 
see {a-')d6n id. q. n.-b. kun. — num-bon 
kur-ydk-fo s. name of bird, the water- 
ouzel, Hydrobata asiatica M. Je. 506. — 
nwrn-bon on fo or num-bon pd-no on fo 
s. name of bird, the spec, of the drongo 
(king-crow) Bdolius paradiseus; ace. Je. 
434 Bhringa remifer; it is also called 
the king-bird, see also num-dit nom-fo. 

— num-b6n don bik s. a spec, of beetle. 

— num-bon dan leprosy, num-bon doh- 
bam-bo s. a leper Tbr. 

num-bydn kuii s. n. of tree, spec, of 
mxulberry, ace. M. Morus serrata, aee. Wtt. 
M. 756 M. indica. See mik-krap. 

num-brit tuk-nydm s. a mole-cricket, 

niim-bru kun s. n. of tree, spec. Maea- 
ranga M., ace. Wtt. "wwrnro" M. denti- 
culata M. 9. 

niim-bren see nyot. 

num-tsam s. the name of 8 th month. 

num-tsu s. a bean, see tuk-byit and num. 

num-zin mun '■'■ndmzing mung" s. a thar 
of the L. people H. H.Risley, Tribes 2, 88. 

num-yii or num-yu tuk-nydm s. a locust, 
n.-y. t.-ny. dop s. a flight of locusts, ti.-y. 
t.-ny. dop sd-tsuk td-dyur tet nyi-md there 
was a flight of locusts that obscured the 
rays of the sun. 

num-yu muk n. of plant Ageratum cordi- 

num-yo see tuk-nyom. 

num-ran-bo: a-kup n.-r.-ho s. eldest 
daughter. See nu 1. 

num-la see tuk-nyom. 

num-len explet. to num-fan. 

num-sar explet. to num-jiim (jum). 

num-sdk see tuk-nyom. 

num-sdr i. q. sun-sor kun. 

num-on n. of a spec, of Gryllus. 

num-on tuk-nydm s. Mantis religiosa. See 
zo-s6p num-on. 

num-'ayu for num-yu. 

nur, niir-rd nur-rd gently, nur-rd ntir- 
rd li vb. to speak gently, nur-rd niir-rd 
zuk vb. to work gently. 

nul vb. to be soft, to be yielding, to 
be tender, as flesh of child, to be supple: 
num; man nul bam the meat is tender; 
tam-kup wan zo gdn nul- so if you eat 
the meat of young animals it will be 
tender; — nul-ld nul-ld or nul-ld nol-ld 
soft (as flesh, biscuit, bones of young 

nu (nu-f) explet. to dyu, dyu nu s. fight, 
battle; — nut explet. to dyiit, dyut nut 
s. id. 

nuk s. a band for supporting child or 
its cradle; kyuii nuk s. 1. a cradle, sup- 
port, 2. the womb Tbr.; dyen no nuk s. 
a support for a child. 

nun s. 1. a guest, a visitor, a stranger, 
2. visit, nun jin-dok guest and host, nun- 
ka non vb. to go to visit, nun-ka laf vb. 
to come as guest; nun vyen s. a stranger, 
guest, nun-ka nuk vb. to deny admittance 
to a visitor. 

nun i-i speaking to a baby an ex- 
pression to frighten, do not do so, a 
stranger is coming will carry you off. 

nut 1. s. a spec, of earth. 

nut 2. see under nu. 

*nut T. nud(-pa) s. the act of suckling, 
nut ri-nom s. the smell of ditto. 

nun 1. vb. to pinch, see a-nyor. 

nun 2. old L. s. straw, in comp. with 
zo: zo nun straw, fodder. 

nup 1. vb. to press down, to oppress, 
nup-lun dam vb. to tie down firmly, kat- . 
nun kat nup one to oppress the other; 
— to grasp, to lay hold of, to clench, 
pyil-ld nup vb. to seize a grasp of. 

*nup 2. T. nuh s. the west; nup-kon id.; 




ne— no 

*nup can T. nub hyan the northwest; 
nup hlo T. nub hlo the southwest. 

num 1. vb. to press down, Ian-nun li- 
cap-ka num to p. down a roof with stone. 

num 2. s. a debt, a loan, num cik vb. 
to pay debt; num fan vb. to discharge, 
to pay off debt; num-nun prok to be 
plunged in debt; num-nun dam to be 
oppressed with debt; num-nun fdr vb. to 
be released from debt; num byi vb. to 
lend, nuTn hyin-bo s. a lender; num tson 
vb. to demand debt, to dun, num tson- 
bo nuk vb. to put off a dun; num zdk 
vb. to be in debt, num zdk-bo s. a debter; 
num ryak vb. to dun; num lyo (to) vb. 
to borrow, num, lyo fom-bo s. a borrower; 
num ul vb. to ask a loan, num dok-bo 
s. a creditor. 

nur i. q. nor and nor q. q. v. 

nul 1. vb. to knead, Jcu nul to k. bread, 
td-i nul Ex. 

nul 2. s. a spec, of cane, rii. nul spec. 

-ne affixed to verbs with md- preceding 
forms negative as U to speak, md-li-ne 
not to speak; if the vb. is combined with 
a postpos. e. c. -so (fut., except yam-o, 
yam-md-o etc.) or followed by a particle 
(gdn if etc.) -nd is written. See -nd, 
md- and -n II, III. 

*-ne fr. T. -nas (ace. M. Gr. 52) sign of 
pluperfect affixed to non: non-ne gone, 
mok-non-ne (it) is consumed P., yit-ci- 
ne-yam-o i. q. yit-ci-n6n-yam-(md)-o (they) 
had been astonished P. 

ne 1., n£ ne (infant. 1.) lie, lie down 
(said to child). 

ne 2. vb. t. to knead, to mass together, 
td-i ne to knead flour; to rub between 
hands md-zu ne. 

*ne 3. I. s. T. gnas a place, a cave, 
a cavern; a place of abode, a sacred 
place, ne-ld nan vb. to reside in one 
place; ne-ld nan-bo s. a resident of a place; 
— ne-kor T. gnas-skor s. a pilgrimage, 
ne-kor-bo, ne-kor bam- bo, ne-kor non-bo 
a pilgrim, ne-kor ndn vb. to go on 
pilgrimage; ne-ter s. treasure, ne-ter-sd 

lyan s. a place of treasures, ne-ndn T. 
gnas-snan s. "the inward country", n. of 
Sikhim, ne-ma ydl T. gnas-ma yul or ne 
(-s«) lyan n. pr. "the country of caves" 
Sikhim W. 55, M. X. II. vb. T. gnas(-pa) 
vb. to perform, to act up, to obey, ryak- 
ka ne to act up to oath; rin-cet-ka ne 
to act up, to promise; kd ne vb. to act 
up or obey order. 

ne 4. T. sna chief, principal, ne-bo T. 
sna-bo s. an officer, a chief. 

ne 5. T. rnaf, ne-kon s. a kind of ear- 
ring, ne-gyon s. a kind of blue stone, 
worn as ornament. See also nd. 

nek i. q. nok, nuk-nek and niik-nyek adj. 
crimson, purple, nuk-nek tet jak to scratch 
till skin becomes inflamed. 

nek onom. the call to a pig: n^k-kd 
nek-kd, a-nek or tam-nek (Tbr.) s. a pig. 

neii incorr. for nyen. 

net 1. vb. to be twisted, to be curled, 
convoluted, to be spiral. 

*net 2. T. nad s. disease, net zur-bo s. 
an ailing person. 

*net 3. T. gnad s. the main point, the 
essence, the importance, the properties 
of a thing, the appropriate qualities, the 
peculiarities; kun rip net s. botany, kun 
rip net-ydm-bo s. a botanist; — net-ydm- 
bo one skilled in, a scientific person, 
a-zom net-ydm-bo an epicure, li-sd net 
md-fyak-ne not acquainted with archi- 
tecture; the effect, the consequence, 
the result, net gyiim-ld li vb. to speak 
cautiously, having an eye to the con- 
sequences, net ndk-lUn dyok zuk vb. to 
work carefully, cautiously. 

net-td incorr. for nye-to. 

nen, nem, nel incorr. for nye-. 

no 1. 2nd p. sing, and pi. imperat. of 
ndn q. v. 

no, no-t 2. vb. n. to move along on 
buttocks as person lame on both legs, no 
bit ndn to go moving along on buttocks. 
— sd-not-ld adv. creeping, sd-not-ld non 
to creep as worm. 

no 3., no no s. timidity, shyness, bash- 
fullness, modesty, no no mat vb. to be 



nol— ndk 


timid, to be shy, to be modest, no no 
nyim-bo s. a modest shy person; no no 
md-nyin-ne without fear or timidity; no 
no md-nyin-nmn-bo one without timidity, 
bold, impudent. — nun-no i. q. wo no. 

*no 4. T. mo (sharp) vb. t. to sharpen 
as knife ban no. 

no 5. s. a cradle, a hammock (a basket 
generally used) for child dyen no. 

no 6. T. mno(-ba) vb. to think, to 
reflect, to consider; no-cen T. mno-caxi 
thoughtful, sharp, intellectual, nyin no 
"to think poison" to bear malice, to be 
spiteful, to be animose. — no met T. mno 
med (without thought, foolish) much, too 
much, superfluously, excessively, no met 
byi vb. to give too much, to exceed. 

nok 1. s. a headstall, made of cane etc. 
for carrying child or any load on back; 
nok-sd bu vb. to carry by do.; see dor 
ka, {yak ka. 

nok 2. vb. t. to stuff into (as mouth), 
diim nok to crimp cloth, 7iok-lun zo vb. 
to eat pushing into mouth by degrees 
as sausage. 

nop vb. t. to muffle up, to cover over, 
to place upon, a-fyak nop vb. to cover 
over head; a-kd nop-lun tsam to muffle 
up hand and seize hold ofP. 

(not), sd-not-ld see under no 2. 

nor 1., redupl. nd-nor-bo adj. squat in 
figure, small and stout, nd-nor-ld nan 
nyi to be lazy, slow, like a fat figure. 

*nor 2. T. nor{-ba^ 1. s. error, mistake, 
confusion, a blunder, a fault, fallacy, nor 
mat vb. to make a mistake, to err; 2. vb. 
to err, to blunder, go nor-run md-nyin-ne 
it is not my fault; pi-ba nor {bam) vb. 
to make a mistake while writing; lorn 
nor non vb. to mistake the road; to de- 
bauch a woman; nor fe id. T. nor "tegs 
"to overstep in error"; to be unripe 
(applied to fermented liquor); to be in 
the period of saccharine fermentation ci 
nor. — a-nor adj. raw, fresh, unripe (as 
new spirit [chi]). 

*nor 3. T. nor s. wealth, valuables, 
substance, fortune; *nor-bu, nor-pu T. nor- 

bu s. a precious stone, a gem, jewel P.; 
(nor-pu) to-ka Id sd-re gat go-wun-re bi- 
ka T. yid bzin-gyi nor-bu a jewel that 
grants every wish, Skt. cintdmani P.; 
nor-pu-sd md-zii s. a person of great value ; 

— nor nyim - bo one possessing wealth, 
valuable, opp. nor md-nyin-num-bo poor, 
without value. — nor dik s. wealth, riches. 

— *nor-den T. nor-ldan adj. possessing 
wealth, wealthy. — *nor-ddk-bo T. nor- 
bdag adj. possessing wealth, md-ro nor- 
dok-bo ryu-wun-sd mlo md-nydt-tun-o when 
a wealthy man is good do not exhibit his 
goods (but his goodness) as an example. 

— nor in Tuhbor in the s. of "food for" 
as sd-rydk nor food for the tiger-cat i. e. 
fowls, sd-cak nor f. for the leopard i. e. 
dogs, sd-t'dn nor f. for the tiger i. e. cows. 

— nor-mo i. q. num-n.-mo a pig Tbr. 
(nol), pd-nol and pun-nol vb. to kneel, 

pd-nol tsdk nan vb. id., pd-nol non-Id mat 
vb. to kneel and get up as in salutation. 

nd vb. t. to lengthen, to increase in 
bulk, to augment (size), to extend, to 
enlarge, to expand, to amplify, pun-jen 
no-lu'/l t'o vb. to beat iron into bars. 

*nd 1. s. T. gnod malice, spite ani- 
mosity, illwill, n6 zdk vb. to be male- 
volent; no bu id.; no md-ld-ne to be un- 
able to bear malice. 

* nd 2. T. ana (sua ts'ogs, see mi), mi-no 
people, subjects J.; pd-no-sd mi-nd the 
subjects of the king. 

ndk 1. vb. t. to separate the flesh from 
bone, to skin, to bark as tree; to de- 
prive, a-(un nok vb. to skin; kun pi 
nok vb. to bark tree; man nok vb. to 
deprive bone of flesh; met., gi-co Tiok 
vb. to fleece a man of his goods. — to 
expel, to drive away applied chiefly of 
mun : to send it back to the person, who 
sent it mun nok vb. to cast out evil 
spirit lyan-nicn nok vb. to drive out of 
the land, to banish, l.-niin nok- bo an 
exile, nok dydn vb. to drive out, to 

ndk 2. (T. nag) vb. n. to be black; 
to be dirty; to be bad, nok non to have 


*ndk— ndii 


become black, dirty ndk-ld mat vb. to 
make black, expresses: much, great of 
any thing, bad as nok-kun-sd hryim s. 
heavy punishment; n6k-kun-sd ^et-bo s. a 
heavy fine; nok-bo adj. black, dirty, evil, 
severe (bad); mi nok in sense of the "low", 
the low people; — ndk-ldt s. 1. black- 
ness, 2. badness, evil, intensity, severity 
of badness. 

Deriv. a-nok adj. 1. black, 2. dirty, 
3. bad, evil, I6m a-ndk the path of vice, 
lyan a-nok the place of evil i. e. hell, 
also applied to a distant country; — niik- 
nok or nuk-nek adj. black, cfr. T. nag- 
nog; — td-ndk adj. black, td-nok td-hi s. 
a spec, of dark-coloured crab; tuk-ndk 
id. q. td-nok. 

Comp. nok nye s. an atrocious act, 
atrocity, nok nye-bo s. a great criminal; 
— nok mdn s. a spec, of millet; — ndk 
tun-krok s. spec, of fern; — nok tyan adj. 
dark, black, mow n6k tyan black pig, 
n.-t.-tam-hlyok s. a spec, butterfly; — nok- 
lum kun s. a tree, nok-lum pot fruit of 
do., edible; — nok-lum kun s. a tree, ndk- 
lum pot fruit of w., not edible; — nok sdr 
s. a monster, a hobgoblin. 

*ndk 3. T. snag s. ink, nok-bum T. snag- 
bum s. an inkbottle, an inkstand, *n6k- 
tsd, nok-tid T. snag-tsa s. ink, ndk-tso 
nyo-gu s. ink and pen, writing materials, 
ndk-tsd tycip vb. to dip (pen) into ink, 
n.-ts. tyu vb. to make ink; ndk-tso nu 
vb. to suck up ink as blotting-paper; 
ndk-tso zuk or 7i6k ts6 zuk sor vb. to run 
as thin ink into blots. 

ndn 1., pret. ndn; imp. 2nd p. s. and pi. 
no; hortat. 2nd p. s. na; interrog. non-d; 
fut. n6n-tdn etc.; non-sd-o (Istp.s.); negat. 
non (md-ndn-ne); cans, nydn or ndn-kdn. 
T. 'pyin-pa, 'byon-pa etc., hon. can. 1. to 
go, to go away, to go forth, to proceed, 
hd sd-ba ndn-niin-d where are you going; 
lik ndn profectus, ut vocaret, "gone to 
call"; kd-yu-do rum-ka fat-sdn-ka ndn- 
kon-nd le let us go, we pray thee, .... 
and sacrifice unto the lord, our God Ex.; 
ndn euphonic alteration of ndn before 

m, n, ndn md-Kun-ne (he) cannot go; — 
in s. of to move or remove as si din ndn 
or si ndn to remove household property; 

— nydn cans, of ndn to cause to go, to 
let go as hum md-nydn-nHn-io) do not 
let (him) go; kdm nydn to spend or cause 
money to go; nydn when affixed to verbs 
gives a transitive sense dp nydn jdk vb. 
to fire ofP, glydt nydn to let fall; 2. to 
be effective, jap-tsu a-tsdm-ka md-tidn- 
ne the scissors will not cut the hair, a-re 
kd-su-sd md-ndn-ne this will not do for 
me; to pass; to be swallowed, zo fan 
sdn si yan-ld a-bdn sd-grek sd Idm-niin 
fdr-lUn md-ndn-ne-yam-o when any food 
is found it cannot be ingested through 
the attenuated gullet P.; 3. ndn pret. of 
ndn to be caught in noose or snare; 
fo ndn the bird is caught; nydn caus. in 
sense of passive to be caught in, to stick 
in, to get fixed in as bone in throat 
a-hrdt sd-grek-ka nydn; fish or bird in 
net etc.: fo vydr-ka nydn; — 4. to be 
changed, hu kri ndn it has become bitter; 
5. to become, to grow, go jan ndn-so I 
shall become poor; iin e-no-sd nam sd- 
dyak nam-gyd kd-kydt sd fd-no ndn nun- 
sd mak-ndn and all the days of Enos 
were nine hundred and five years and 
he died Gen. — ndn past time of ndn 
gone, went, affixed to a few verbs (vb. n. 
in opp. to fat q. v.) gives a past tense, 
mak ndn dead, to be dead, m.ak non-gum 
(he) is dead; as Am a-ba ti ndn he has 
arrived here; hu mik-krap ndn he has 
fallen asleep; hu kdm Ink ndn he has ex- 
pended the money; l.-nun hii-do gyek cet- 
ndn ydn si-lun hii-do td-ayu vyet z.-mum 
lyo-bdn hum ay. yu-ka byi-sdn when L. 
saw that she had left bearing she took 
Z. her maid, and gave her J. to wife G. 

— ndn-ne expresses a pluperfect and the 
past of ndn gone: has or had gone, also: 
become, became, nam kd-ti ndn-ne ten 
years ago or gone; hH sd ndn-ne or sd 
nun ndn-ne he has become well; zo gun 
ndn-ne all the rice is expended i. q. zo 
gun mdk ndn-ne; — 6. in sense of an 




eTent to befall; non md-dydr-ne not to 
be successful, non md-s6m-ne to go un- 
designedly. 7. to be, a-lut-rom-bo cet- 
nyim-bo bon-ka non-bam the coward under 
the protection of the strong is bold; ka- 
Id md-mak-nuH sd-ba non td where among 
us exists (is, goes) the man who is not 
mortal; 8. i. q. sak non to remember, 
non kon yb. to cause to remember, to 
remind; kd-yu non ren within our re- 
collection kd-yu non ren md-yd-num-bo re 
we cannot remember it, it is not within 
our recollection; md-non-ne not to re- 
member, to forget, md-non-ne non vb. 
to become insensible, to become in- 
conscious, non lat vb. to remember, to 
come to mind; sak-cin non-Id mat vb. 
1. to recollect also, 2. to bring to re- 
collection, to remind. 

na 1st p. pi. imp. of non let us go, 
a-yu-do go-sd na-o go ye with me, or 
rather: let us go together yourselves and 
myself; na-le or na-ya precative: let us 
go, do let us go. 

noh adv. "going" i. e. about, kd-ti non 
about tea; non-sd id., non-det "just about 
to go", about, mydn-sdn non-det just 
about ripe nearly cooked, non s. going, 
non-kon or noh-fi s. direction of going. 

Deriv. non or a-non s. departure, go- 
ing; destination etc. in comp. — non-ren 
since departure, non gat rem sak-cin-ban 
CO mat-td-o think of your inevitable path 
(death) and practise religion. P.; non 
iyan place of destination or place, means 
of going, kd-sii-sd non- Iyan md-nyin-ne 
1 have no place to go to or no means 
of going; kd-m-sd mlo non-lyaii md-nyin- 
ne I have no place to lose it, I cannot 
lose it; a-ndn sd-ayak s. the day of de- 

non-bo s. 1. a goer; 2. postp. aux. 
passivi, M. Gr. 50. non-bo-pdn goers, said 
of anything as people, money for ex- 
penses; non-zon s. companion, tion-bo 
n.-z. the merchant and his companions. 

*n(5n 2. T. gnan{-ba) hon. vb. to give, 
to grant, to allow, -pd-no non (the Icing) 

to give, kd-yu su-rem non ce grant us 
our request; ko non hon. vb. to give the 
word, to command, to order; see tun-ce; 
s. gift pd-no non s. the g. of king. 

*n6n 3. T. snan(-ba) (light, brightness) 
the Lepchas use it in the s. of value, 
regard, love, a-lum-sdn rum-ka non md- 
nyin-ne most men do not bear love to 
God: have not the light of God. Chr. — 
non mat vb. i. q. non-to mat. — ^non-cen 
T. snan-can (being full of light) valued 
as non cen-sd mlo a valued article ; estim- 
able, worthy, dear; *ndn-ce T. snan-ces 
(much light) much valued, very dear, 
beloved, non-ce mat vb. t. to prize, to 
value greatly, to love, to revere, to adore, 
non-ce mat-nyim-bo adj. precious, revered, 
beloved; — *n6n met T. snan med destitute 
of 1., a despised article, valueless, non 
met mat vb. t. to despise, to disregard; 
non met mat-nyim-bo adj. contemptible, 
valueless, despisable; — *n6n-td T. snan- 
rtags s. care, attention, regard, judgment, 
discretion, honour, non-to mat vb. to 
have regard for; to be careful, to be 
cautious, to be judicious, non-to md-mat- 
ne to be careless, regardless of, to be 
imprudent; kd-sii a-bo-ka non-to mat iin 
a-yu-niin kd-siim non md-mat-ne I honour 
my father and ye do dishonour me J. 

*ndn 4. T. nan 1. the interior, the in- 
side, 2. dwelling, house, non-ka in the 
midst, amongst, in, hd-yu hu-do non-ka 
dyu-bam they fight among themselves, 
sak-ddk-sd non-ka bam to be in the midst 
of grief, to be plunged in gr.; used in 
superlative degree as a-re gun-nd len 
non-ka ryu this is best of all, md-ro- 
sdn-sd non-ka hu ti he is the greatest 
of men; privately non-ka U to speak 
privately opp. to pd-on-ka li. 

Comp. non gyek s. met. "au inward 
birth", a birth of near relative; — *n6n- 
c6 T. nan-ca s. the intestines all within 
the body, ndn-co-sd ddk s. an internal 
disease or injury. — * non- tan T. nan- 
don s. internal or obstruse sense, occult 
meaning, mystery, theology. — *n6h tuk^po 



ndt— ndp 

ndm— ndm 

s. internal rope or link, a combination, 
an alliance, a league, a confederacy, 
n. t.-po mat vb. to combine together, to 
plot; n. t.-fo ma-wun-sd secret com- 
bination, conspiracy. — *ndn-fun T. nan- 
mfun s. reconciliation, internal agree- 
ment, concurrence, n.-f. mat vb. to agree, 
to be in unity; — *ndn-dun T. n.- and 
'dun(-pa) a. argument, debate, discussion, 
n.-d. mat vb. to argue, to discuss, to 
debate, to contest; — *ndn-tson T. naii- 
tmns see nan-tson. — *n6n-zen s. a do- 
mestic servant J.; Tbr. : a wife, non-zen 
fo s. the domestic bird, a sparrow; — 
non zon s. the inmates of the house. — 
non-hruk T. nan-Urug s. internal com- 
motion, sedition, civil war, ndn-hruk sor 
civil war to extend. — See also nan. 

(ndt 1.), pHr-ndt-ld adjly. short and 
clubby, clumsy. 

ndt 2. vb. n. to be undecided, to be 
undetermined, to be wavering; rin not- 
lun li vb. to speak undecidedly. — a-n6t 
adj. undecided (in speach), rin a-not li 
vb. to speak undecidedly. 

ndt 3. s. a stage in journey, a resting- 
place in j.; also a journey; ndt kat a single 
stage or a s. day's journey; not-ka n&h 
vb. to go on a journey; not nan vb. to 
be a sojourner, n.-n.-bo 1. s. a traveller, 
2. a sojourner; ndt bam vb. i. q. n. nan; 
not-ka tsum vb. to meet on journey; not 
gut s. a stage, a journey; not li s. a stage- 
house, an hostelry. 

ndt 4., or^ot explet. of dak q. v. a-ddk 
a-not cfr. T. gnod. 

ndp 1. old L. s. the wind, nop kiip s. a 
breeze, ndp-mo s. a great wind, a tempest, 
nop-mo a-Um a great storm, a hurricane. 

ndp 2. applied to spec, of the bug kind 
(Scutata, Heteroptera etc.) the following 
are some of the spec, nop tsor s. a bug 
Heteroptera, kHm-dak nop a. a spec, of 
rice-weevil (small), pa gdn or po gdn ndp 
s. a spec, of beetle (lives in bamboo), 
mun ndp a. a spec, of woodlouse, zo ndp 
s. a spec, of weevil, on ndp a. a spec, 
of w. under stone. 

ndm 1. cfr. T. mnam(-pa), vb. to have 
a smell, to smell, 2. s. a smell, md-ndm- 
ne there is no smell; a-H ndm it smells, 
there is a smell, there is a bad smell, 
a stink; kot ri ndm there is burnt smell 
as of meat; jop ri ndm there is a smell 
of singing as of feathers, hair, leather; 
fim ri ndm a. an oppressive smell; nut 
ri ndm there is a smell of suckling, fdn 
ri ndm it smells fresh as of new mown 
hay; rip ri ndm a. a smell of flowers. 

Deriv. fam-ndm a. a smell, fam-n/ka 
md-gat-ne not to like the smell. 

tuk-ndm or tun -ndm s. the nose, tuk- 
ndm dym vb. to snuff, to scent, tHk-ndm 
dyun-ld ryak vb. to s. as dog; tuk-ndm 
pdk vb. to be without nose (as nose 
eaten by venereal disease); tHk-ndm luk 
vb. to raise the nose, to be victorious; 
tuk-ndm-niin{^sd') nydm vb. to snub, to 
smell; tHk-ndm-niin nyi-Mp run zdk vb. 
to run at nose, tiik-ndm-niin Idt vb. id.; 
tuk-ndm-nvn sdr vb. to sneeze; ti/k-nom 
kun-kon-ld adv. (with) aquiline nose, tHk- 
ndm nd-nar-ld a snub-nose, a cocked-up 
nose, tuk-ndm pd-bydr-ld hollow sunken 
nose, tuk-ndm md-mlya-ld s. a flat nose, 
tick-ndm sd-sar-ld a sharp nose (narrow), 
tiik-ndm kun s. the bridge or rather ridge 
of nose, tak-ndm nyo a. snot, t.-n. nyo 
hin vb. to blow nose, tiik-ndm fyii s. the 
hollow (depression) on each side of nose ; 
tak-ndm ram a. the bridge of nose or 
the junction at forehead; tiik-ndm hryep 
i. q. nd-h.; tiik-ndm hrop a. the nasal bone; 
tak-ndm art a. the nostrils. See nd-. 

nydm caus. of worn 1. to smell tiik-ndm- 
niin nydm; a-re nydm-md smell this, zo- 
luii md-zo-ne nydm-lUn dydn so (lit. to 
eat nothing but to smell and fling away) 
to eat heartily Tbr. 2. s. an ulcer, a 
sore, nydm pld (ulcer) to appear, to have 
sore, nydm sd (sore) to heal; nydm him 
a foul, putrid ulcer. 

ndm 2., nUm-ndm a dark purple blue, 
niim-ndm-ld black and blue as from extra- 
vasation of blood, bruise, niim-ndm-ld (tet') 
lyiip vb. to beat a person black and blue. 

ndm— ndp 

hdl— ndl 


ndm 3. vb. t. to reach, to overtake, to 
arrive at, to extend to, ryak nom vb. to 
follow and overtake a person, so-sa-nvn 
nom-mun when you are overtaken by 
the fine weather or when it gets fine; 
tok tet n&m vb. to reach the end; a-kd 
nom tet yan vb. to stretch out hand as 
far as it can reach; miin-kyek vyon-ha mik 
cam md-nom-ne when it flashes (lighten- 
ing) you have no time to shut your 
eyes; — nyot zuk-ba so myati-nun nom 
when preparing the cultivation to be 
overtaken by the rainy season; — U-ka 
nom to arrive at the house, to reach to 
the h. ■ — to have leisure, to find op- 
portunity, ayok zuk md-nom-nd gdn to 
aydt-td if you cannot find time to do 
the work, leave it; c. krit to feel hungry, 
krit nom s. hunger; — a-ndm whatever 
comes to hand, as sd-re a-ndm lyo take 
what you can get. 

ndm 4., a-ndm s. elder sister, (a-')n6m 
klip elder sister's child, niece, nephew; 
nom cum-bo the youngest elder sister; ndm 
byek-ho the third elder sister (daughter); 
nom rdn-bo eldest sister; nom hlep-bo the 
second elder sister. 

*ndm 5., ndm-bo T. mam, mam-pa s. 
species, sort, kind, '^nom-bo cen T. mam- 
pa can consisting of sorts. 

ndm kun s. a tree, nom p6t s. fruit of 
do. (not edible). 

ndr 1. vb. t. to sweep or clean away 
rubbish, nor dydn vb. to sweep away; 
s. the place where rubbish is thrown; 
dirt, rubbish, li nor s. the place near the 
house for r., ayit nor s. a dust-hole, a 
dung-hill, a privy. 

ndr 2., a -ndr s. herd, flock, troup, 
numbers, quantities, bik nor a herd of 
cows; kun nor a cluster or numbers of 
tree; vb. to be giddy, to swim as eyes: 

a-mik nor; — n&r-rd n&r-rd in herds, 
flocks etc., so that the eye is confused 
md-rd n.-rd n.-rd ndn people to go in 
numbers; so n.-rd n.-rd yu rain to fall 
in great quantities; fo n.-rd n.-rd lam s. 
a flight of birds, bik ndr-rd ndr-rd ndn 
cow to go in herds; un ndr-rd ndr-rd 
ndn water to flow rapidly and in great 

ndl 1. s. n. of fish, no ndl Silurus 

ndl 2. vb. n. to be half new and half 
old, to have been worn or used as cloth 
etc. dum ndl ndn; to curl up as paper, 
edge of book co kin ndl-ndn i. q. ful-non 
to be dogeared; to be worn by rubbing, 
to be stale by repetition (speach); ban 
fo ndl edge of knife to be turned back- 
wards. — vb. t. to discard, to renounce, 
to repudiate, to push or cast aside (as 
anything old or useless, to cast off, Mem 
ndl vb. to clear away jungle from field; 
a-zdm a-rydm ndl vb. to cast aside re- 
mains of food. 

ndl dydn to push and fling away, to 
discard, to renounce, to repudiate, to 
reject, ndl dydn-nun renunciation, re- 
pudiation, dissipation, waste, kdm jer 
ndl dydn vb. to squander money, k. j. 
ndl-dydn-bo s. a spendthrift. 

ndl 3. see under nid. 

(ndl 4), tuk-ndl s. a snail (Helicidae), 
tuk-ndl td-gak s. the s. and shell; tuk-ndl 
ndk s. a spec, of small s., eaten by the 
Mechi's, tvk-ndl dum s. a spec, of large 
s., tiik-ndl rdn s. the horn (tentacle) tHk- 
ndl hyo s. the slime of s.; vdn t.-n. a slug 
(Limax), tuk-blo t.-n. spec, of snail. 

ndl 5., pd-ndl or pvn-ndl s. a present 
made to relatives or equal, pd-ndl mat 
or byi vb. to give a present. 


pa— *pd 

pa-kf— pa-grat bu 

pa the thirteenth letter of the L. alpha- 
bet, T. ij; it is pronounced as the Eng- 
lish p. 

pa 1. prefix forms nomina (substantiva, 
adjectiva and c. -Id (postp.) adverbia from 
roots: see under the following roots: kip, 
kok, kom, krat, krot, kret, gok, grok, gron, 
gryul, glet, ci, ciii, cet, jd, (ja), ji,. jit, 
jum, jut, nyam, nyi, nyit, tarn, tin, tun, 
tek, tok, tot, top, (am, tar, fyam, (yu, nd, 
nap, nol, nol, man, mlyd; tsat, tsum, zok, 
zok, yu, ruk, lik, Ivk, lot, lop, lyii, lyup, 
hdn, Mn, hu, hop, hon, hydk, hydt, hyur, 
hyon, hran, hrak, hrun, hrdk, hrdn, hryu, 
Ida, hlam. Mum, hl6n, hlyu, hlyiit, hlyum, 
hlyok, hlyom, sdn (son), sun, sd, sok, sol, 
mk, sim, sil, a, dm, aydn, ayo e. c. pd- 
tam s. plain, fr. tam plain, pd-tuk s. (red) 
tiara fr. tiik to cover over, pd-krat point- 
ed fr. krat to have pointed edges; etc. 
See piik-, pun-, piin-, pur-. — 2. reduplic. 
See under the roots: pdk, pdf, pat, pap, 
pal, pu, pop, p6, pram, plan, plu, plup, 
plydk, plyu, plydt, fon, fyum, fyok, frok, 
pi, hd (ha), bar, bak, bat, bal, bik, bu, bok, 
bot, bom, bor, bol, bydp (hyep), byup (byop), 
byer, byop, brap, brit, brut, brok, brot, brom, 
brya, hryu, bryuk, blu, blyot, blyo, blyot. — 
3. in comp. i. q. po bamboo cfr. pd-gryeh 
and po-gryefi, pd-kyon, pd-iyut, pd-hip etc. 

pa vb. to be slow, to be inattentive, 
heedless, sluggish; to sulk, pd-Mn nan 
to sit still and pay no attention, when 
spoken to; pd-Mn ayok mat vb. to work 
in a sulky manner; t'am-ba pa not to 
answer when called. 

*pi T. spos s. francincense, incense. 
pa c6p kyop vb. to sprinkle incense, pd 
fak vb. to fumigate with i., pd fan vb. 
to burn incense; — pd-k6 T. spos-dkar s. 
balsamic resin, used as incense, the gum 
of the Amyris agallocha. — pd-po T. spos- 
po s. Indian spikenard. — pd por T. spos 
por s. a censer. — pd-hren or pd-hreii or 

pd-Tiryerl s. a mixture of different incenses 
formed into a rod or mass T. spos-ren. 

pa-kf s. 1. a spec, of garlic, pd-ki muh- 
gu id.; 2. a spec, of yam pd-ki buk; 
3. a spec, of Aconitum pd-ki nyin. 

pa-kf to or piik-ki fo s. the black bulbul, 
Hypsipetes psaroides M., W. R. 213, Je. 
2. 77. 

pa-kfp and pun-kip s. the armpit, pd- 
kip-ka pit bu vb. to carry under arm. 

pa-ku i. q. pd-ki nyin M. 

pa-kup s. a spec, of yam, of rather in- 
ferior sort also td-kup. See also kHp. 

pa-ku and pUn-ku s. the wing of bird, 
the fin of fish, pun-ku suk-luA lam vb. 
to fly in line, keeping time with wings 
as wild geese. 

pa-k6n or pun-kon s. a spec, of sugar- 
cane, pd-kon pd-am. 

pa-kyoii "cane" "village" n. pr. of a 
village W. 72. See po and pd- 3. 

pa-kyd s. steps, stairs M. 

pa-krak see pa-krak. 

pa-g^n for pa-gdn. 

pa-gu, puk-gu, piin-gu: pd-gu bik s. a 
large cow from Nepal M. 

pa-gu t'am-blyak s. a spec, of butterfly. 

pa-gu (or piir-gu-) kun s. n. of tree, 
Calosanthes indica. 

pa-gun or pHr-gun kun s. n. of tree M., 
pd-gun rik s. a large creeper Bauhinia 
Vahlii, pd-gun rip flower of B. V. 

pa- go bu or pUk-go bH s. a spec, of 
woodgrub, found in bamboo. 

pa-gom or piir-gdm s. a plant, p.-g. 
nyom leaf of p.-g. M. 

pa-gdk bu or pun -gok bH, s. a spec. 

pa-gdn see also po-gdn; pd-gok nop see 
nop 2. pd-goh pd-am spec, of calamus. 

pa -gran or pd-gren s. a plant, spec. 
Sida, pd-gran Tnuk M. 

pa-grat bu or pd-gret bu or put-gret bu 
s. a spec, of black snake. 

pa-gruk— pa-tu 

pa-tu— pa-fok 


pa-gruk for pru-guk s. dust, pd-gruk 
sdn-non dust to fly about. 

pa-glin s. a spec, of good yam. 

pa-no or pun-no s. a spec, of bulbous 
plant, pd-no mut, used as medicine. 

pa-cak (-la) adv. almost, nearly, a little 
more, pd-cak kd-ti almost ten; pd-cak 
mak-non almost dead; pd-cak fi to be 
nearly arrived; pd-cak gdn if a little 
more, nearly, pd-cak gdn mydn-non if a 
little more it would be ripe: nearly ripe. 

pa-cak (6(>) or pur-cak (bii^ s. a spec, 
of insect (caterpillar), cooked and eaten 

pa-cfm bu s. a spec, of caterpillar, cim 
bv, pd-cim fam-blydk s. a spec, of dark 
butterfly with light blue spots. 

pa-cel s. species of bamboo M. 

pa-cd 1. for pa-c6, piin-co, 2. a spec, 
of bamboo- M. 

pa-jfk, puk-jik or pur-jik s. the tree- 
fern, Alsophila gigantea ace. Hooker 2, 13 
A. spinulosa; Polypodium giganteum M. 

pa-jfm, pur-jim s. the arm, the thick 
part of fore-arm below the elbow and 
above kd-pek; see under kd. 

pa-ju i. q. pe-ju kun. 

pa-jdk, pu7i-j6k or piir-jok s. name of a 
spec, of bamboo, pur-juk som s. the farina 
of do. causing worse irritation when 
coming in contact with body. — pd-jok 
bu s. a spec, of snake. 

pa-nyar s. a spec, of yam (buk) of in- 
ferior kind. 

pa-nyel, pur-7iyel see cm pd-nyel fo. 

pa-nydm, pid-nydm s. an old man (in 
Mscpts. also incorr. pdt-nyom), pd-nyom 
tok s. old age. 

pa-tf or pur-ti s. spec, of Osbeckia, 
tun-brap pd-ti; — un pd-ti s. a spec, of 
bird, see un\ — pd-ti s. 1. hemp, 2. tow 
for string, pd-ti tvk-po a hempen rope. 

pa-tun s. a small bowl. 

pa-tun s. a spec, of yam, Dioscorea 
spec, p.-t. rik s. a creeper. 

pa-tum s. a bamboo-cup or bowl. 

pa-tu or put-tu s. a blow, pd-tu kyop 
vb. to strike a blow, kd-tdp-sd pd-tu kyop 

vb. to strike a blow with fist, go a-do 
put-tu bo-so I shall give you a beating. 

pa-tu s. a species of bamboo po pd-tu. 

pa-tdn 1. for pa-ton q. v. 2. for po- 
td/i q. V. 

pa-tdp or piit-tdp s. the neck, pd-top 
lydk md-ryu-ne to have stiff neck; pel- 
top ol vb. to have sprained neck; pd-top 
dek vb. to break one's neck. 

pa-tdm, pd-tom set vb. to make a test 
of speed etc. by spitting on a board and 
if a person sent on business returns be- 
fore the spittle dries, good and well; 
if not he is punished. 

pa-tyan or pfin-tydn s. a term given to 
epiphytic plants, air-plants as Bromelia. 

pa-tydk bu s. a name of hairy caterpillar. 

pa-tydm s. a species of bamboo. 

pa-fa or pfni-fd s. a fillip, also fillip 
from a piece of stick, pun-fa op vb. to 
fillip; pUn-fd zdk vb. 1. to receive fillip, 
2. to be poisoned, also to be haunted by 
evil spirits Tbr. — pi'm-fd sd-U s. a small 
pellet-bow formed by the spring from a 
piece of bent bamboo. 

pa-tin s. n. pr. a district in the north 
part of Sikhim; pu-fin-nw s. the in- 
habitants of ditto. 

pa-tit or pinn-fit s. applied to a spec, 
of bush-warbler p.-f. fo. — jmm-fit ni)m- 
dak s. a spec, of n.-d. 

pa-t'i'm or pvt-fim or pun-fim s. a lay- 
man, one unacquainted with religion and 
exorcism, etc. the laity; pd-fim pd-na 
id. ; p.-f. p.-jia-sd belonging to the laity 

pa-fun s. 1. the upper and lower cross- 
sticks of a loom, on which the warp- 
threads are stretched; 2. Orions belt i. q. 
nimi-jit hik bum see jit. 

pa-fum s. a dibble e. c. to plant grain: 
zo pd-fum\ siJLn-li pd-fum s. a stick for 
catching or releasing net when entangled 
or caught under stone etc.; pd-fum-nun 
mdl vb. to dibble; pd-fum boh s. the 
hole made by dibble; pd-fum la vb. to 
point pa-fum. 

pa-fok s. a small vessel for holding 
bird-lime dyok pd-fok. 


pa-fyan— pa-no 

pa-fdk— pa-zdk 

pa-tyan s. the exploding of bamboo as 
when burning jungle, pd-tyan grik s. the 
noise of exploding bamboo, pd-tyan bu 
vb. to burst with noise. 

pa-t'yut s. a bamboo vessel for holding 
ci, ci pd-fyut sd pd-hip s. a t7'-vessel and 
pipe for imbibing. 

pa-dan for pun-ddn. 

pa- dam s. a large spec, of bamboo, 
Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii (N. et A.) from 
which watervessels (un pd-dam chonga's) 
and marwa-jugs {^pd-hip') are made. W. 71. 
■^pd-dam-tam"the pa-dam bamboo- 
bank" n. pr. Anglice Badamtam W. 71. 

pa-dii 1. see piir-du. 

pa-du 2. see pa-dii sun-kri. 

pa-duii i. q. ruk-dun: pd-dun tun-krok s. 
a spec, of fern. — pd-dun bu s. an earth- 
worm cfr. td-rek, pd-dun bu ml vb. to 
glide along as p.; pd-dun bu zon sdl-non 
to glide along; to have connexion with 
female (unperceived) Tbr. 

pa-dum or pun-dum s. a spec, of very 
fine yam p.-d. buk. 

pa-na adj. ignorant pd-nd kup M. 

pa-na s. expletive to pd-fim (i. q. pd- 

pa-no (see pun-di Sch. 8) s. a king, 
T. rgyal-po, pd-no z6n kinglike, kingly, 
pd-no-nun tun-dar top to receive from 
king the privilege of beating drum; pd- 
no hrim-len co hrim U the laws of re- 
ligion precede the laws of king; pd-no 
ju-Kri-ka tsdt vb. to rise to the throne 
as to sit or to attain to it by rank; pd- 
no mat vb. 1. to act the king i. e. to 
reign, 2. i. q. pd-no lydk to imitate the 
king, pd-no lydk-bo s. one who does so; 
pd-no m vb. to address king, pd-no m 
den ky&p to depredate by presents; ap- 
plied as a respectful term to any great 
man; Tbr.: the sun pd-no t'dt-ndn the 
sun has risen; Christ J.: kd-yu md-si ydn 
a-re dal fom-bo pd-no ydn-re-sd tsum we 
have found the Messias, which is, being 
interpreted Christ. 

pd-no kup, pd-no {-so) kiip s. 1. a kings 
child, a prince, a princess, T. rgyal-bu, 

2. a small king, pd-no tim-bo T. rgyal-po 
cen-po an emperor Skt. maharaja P.; 
pa-wo(-sa) kum di/n s. presence of king; 
pd-no kyon s. a kings city, a capital; pd- 
no (-sd) tem-bo s. the government; pd-no- 
sd pd-tun s. the staff of great man; pd- 
no(-sd) fyum s. the awe-inspiring appear- 
ance of king, the majesty of k.; pd-no- 
(«a) nam-zo s. the apparel of k.; pd-no 
suk-jo s. the crown. — pd-no fo ace. M. 
i. q. num-bon fo s. the king of birds, 
Edolius paradiseus, applied also by L.'s 
to any large and peculiar spec, of bird, 
ace. Je. 434 '■'■nambong punnong" i. e. 
"royal bird" Bhringa remifer. — pd-no bu 
s. the king of snakes, Boa constrictor M. 

pa-fdk or pur-fok s. a spec, of bamboo, 
Pseudostachyum polymorphum. Wtt. P. 

pa-mar s. a spec, of rice mm, pd-mdr 
nd-mor zo eat p. and n. rice. 

pa-mfm or pur-mim 1. a spec, of very 
small ant p.-m. tuk-fyil, 2. i. q. p.-myum. 

pa-mut or pur-mut "without joints" as 
pd-ydn inside, pd-ydn p.-mut jointless p. 
(spec, bamboo) Calamus; p.-miit pa-am 
s. sugarcane. 

pa-mum, pum-mum s. a spec, of bamboo 
Wtt. A. 1532. Arundinaria racemosa. 

pa-men s. mint. M. 

pa-mdi-bu s. n. of a black snake not 
venomous, pd-mol pd-son s. a spec, of 
fern used as a pen, spec. Adiantum. 

lik-m^dk, pur-myak, pul-myak s. Thamno- 
calamus spathiflorus Wtt. T. 379. 

pa-zit, pd-zdt buk s. a spec, of yam. 

pa-zdm i. q. pd-6n, pd-6n pd-zdm 16m 
tsum vb. to meet in a secluded place 
i. q. to meet clandestively as lovers Tbr.; 
pd-zdm mat vb. to ease nature. 

pa-zu i. q. pa-zu s. a spec, of hawk, 
pd-zu kup a king's son Tbr. 

pa-zul or pa-zul s. a piece of cloth to 
cover the privities i. q. fon. 

pa-zen i. q. pa-zen. 

pa-zor, pum-zor or kum,-zor s. a spec, 
of gourd used as a ladle (p.-zor pum). 

pa-zdk, puk-zok s. the jungle, forest; 

pa-ya— pa-rok 

-pa-rd— pa-lit kuii 


n. pr. of a L. village W. 71; p.-z. buk s. 
a spec, yam, Dioscorea. 

pa-ya; tun-ji pd-yd kurl s. a spec, of 

pa-yaii, pa-ydn and pum-ydn s. n. pr. 
of a spec, of bamboo Cephalostachyum 
capitatum, from which arrows are made 
Hooker 1, 158; Wtt. C. 925; W. 73; 
fd-yoH kan "bamboo-ridge" n. pr. of a 
locality in Sikhim; pd-yon nyom the 
leaves of the C. good for horses M.; 
pd-y6n kun n. pr. of tree ; pd-yon muk s. 
a plant, pd-yon bi s. the same eaten as 
a vegetable; pd-yon pd-miit i. q. pd-miit; 
pd-yon mun s. an evil spirit, the sp. of 
dysentery, called pd-yon rum apparently 
out of respect for him thro' fear of his 
formidable attacks; — pd-ydn ka-lut s. 
the coralbilled scimitar-babbler Pomato- 
rhinus ferruginosus Je. 2, 29, R. 211 also 
the rufous-necked do. P. ruficoUis and 
P. erythrogenys. Je. 2, 30. 

pa-yii-no or pd-dyu-no s. hamster M. 

pa-yuk s. a sword J., pd-yuk sd lop s. 
and shield, pd-yuk a-hyu a naked s., pd- 
yuk son s6n a blunt s., pd-yuk lyap vb. 
to brandish s., pd-yuk vya hu vb. to wear 
s. hanging on side. — Comp. pd-yuk ka 
s. a sword-belt, pd-yuk kin s. the back 
of s.; pd-yuk kun-ra s. a scimetar; pd- 
yuk gli s. the haft of s.; pd-yuk dor s. 
a shoulder-belt for s.; pd-yuk dol s. a s.- 
knot or ornament; pd-yuk ply an s. the 
point of s.; pd-yuk fut s. the hilt of s.; 
pd-yuk fo s. the edge of s.; pd-yuk blyoti 
s. the flat side of s.; pd-yuk hyam s. a 
sheath of s.; pd-yuk let a sharp s. 

pa-yel s. 1. n. of snake pd-yel bii, 2. in- 
corr. for yel kun. 

pa-ydk or pun-yok s. an assistant or 
attendant of mun; a Levite Chr.; — mun 
p.-y. or p.-y.-bo s. an assistant to priest. 

pa-ri see under buk. 

pa-ril i. q. pd-rel. 

pa-rufi see under buk. 

pa-rei-bu or pum-rel-bu s. a fabulous 
large watersnake. 

pa-rok i. q. po-rok, po-ruk; p.-r. a-ci 

the young shoots of bamboo dried and 

-pa-r6 an affix which bears much the 
same meaning as dyum-ba or -pa q. q. v. 
It sometimes also bears the meaning of 
-pu or lydk (lyok) possibly, probably, mak 
pd-7'6 he will die or he may possibly die. 

pa-rdn or pun-ron s. a spec, of fly, a 
blue bottle-fly, a blow-fly p.-r. vyan fyit 
vb. (blow-fly) to eject its' maggots. 

pa-ryum or piun-rytim s. a stick (a twig 
of tree) covered with birdlime c'lyok, for 
catching birds. j}.-r. tsdk vb. to set p.-r. 

pa-ldp explet. to sd-hu q. v. 

pa-la see tuh-brap p)d-la, nuvi-biim pd- 
la applied to species of the Amomum. 

pa-lak kun s. a tree, Wtt. 0. 522 (gum 
extracted for adhesive use), Ostodes 

pa-Ian ju rik s. name of creeper, spec, 
of Smilax? 

pa-Ian bdk fo s. the red-tailed thrush, 
Planesticus ruflcoUis pd-lan tarn bdk fo. 

pa-lam kun n. of a tree. 

pa-lf 1. s. a thin slip of bamboo used 
as osier for raddling basket and for string 
pd-li mik the outside of the slip of cane; 
pd-li buk the inside. 

pa-lf 2., put-li or piin-li s. the shoulder- 
blade, the scapula; pd-li tup s. the 
humerus, pd-li fik s. the shoulder-joint; 
pd-U hrat s. the shoulder-blade; pd-li 
zum s. the juncture at back of scapula; 
see pum pd-li\ 2. a shovel Tbr.; s. the 
place where bees build their nest, piit-li 
tsdk md-Mn-nd prov. "the bees cannot 
fix their nest" expresses that a person 
cannot perform what he wishes Tbr. 

pa-lf 3. s. an expletive affixed to kd-ju 
a dog. 

pa-lf 4. ("pale") n. of a tree, Acer 
Hookeri Wtt. A. 336, pd-li nyok Q'-pale- 
gnyok") A. sikkimense Wtt. A. 349. 

pa-lin i. q. pi-lin s. snuff. 

pa-lit s. a flute nyi byok pd-lit s. a double 
flageolet; pd-lit fop vb. to play on fl. 

pa-lit kuii s. a tree, Marlia begonifolia 
M. Wtt. M. 289. 


pa-Iek— pa-sa 

pa-su— pa-am 

pa-Iek s. a parcel of ground J. 4. 5., 
see lek. 

pa-lok tuk tuk s. a low sloping-brimmed 
cap used on ordinary occasions. 

pa-lop bf s. wild buckwheat, Polygonum 
cymosum M. Hooker 2, 31. 

pa-l6k bf s. n. of plant. M. 

pa-l6n bu s. n. of a snake (red belly, 
not venomous). 

pa-l6n kun s. n. of tree. M. 

pa-ldrn bdk fo s. the mango-bird, Oriolus 
kundoo. See also md-lam b.-fo. 

pa-ly^ii s. a spec, of coleopterous insect; 
if it makes its appearance when ci is 
being made, it is considered auspicious, 
the chi will be good; but pd-lydn. 

pa-lyok s. Symplocos racemosus Wtt. 
S. 3062. 

pa-lyon s. n. of kind of cap, pd-lyon 
tiik tuk s. a broad brimmed cap, used 
as a protection against sun and rain. 

pa-vak or pur-vak 1. s. n. of creeper 
p.-v. rik. 2. pd-vak nyom a spec, kd-fydr. 
8. a cup or box made of bamboo. 

pa-va or pur-va rik s. n. of creeper, 
f.-v. pot s. fruit of ditto. 

pa-vfii s. 1. n. of spec, of snake (springs 
fr. trees). 2. a spec, of Amomum. 

pa-vok or piir-vok fo s. 1. large racket- 
tailed drongo, Edolius paradiseus Je. 436. 
2. pd-vok rik or piir-vok rik n. of creeper. 

pa-vdt bu s. n. of spec, of snake. 

pa-hfp s. marwa-jug, a tube, a pipe, a 
syphon made from pd-dam-hamhoo W. 71 ; 
ci pd-liip nil vb. to suck chi thro' pipe. 

pa-hdr see kd-hor kun. 

pa-hydt see kd-hdr kun. 

pa-hryuk bu s. the cobra de capello, 
pd-hryuk bH-sd tuk tok a. the hood, of c, 
pd-hryuk bu-sd tuk tok don don {dari dati) 
hroi'i Tb. to erect the hood. 

pa-hlydk bu s. the n. of a poisonous 
snake (very sluggish), pd-hlyok bit bon- 
re gyon gdn tsuk-so if you trouble the 
pd-hlyok snake, it will bite, do not 
carry matters too far, prov. not to ex- 

pa-sd s. 1. spec, of bamboo, generally 

used with pd-s6n\ 2. a spec, of maggot 

pa-su 1. s. n. of a small spec, of bamboo, 
2. adj. beautiful, elegant, comely, pleasant 
to behold, lyan pd-su pd-dm a pretty place. 

pa-sum bu s. a spec, of snake. 

pa-sdn s. 1. spec, of bamboo; 2. a line 
or rope or cane thrown across a stream 
to facilitate the passage of a raft or boat 
pd-sdn fyen vb. to draw one's self across 
stream by p.-s. 3. a line or course (of 
time or distance) 7nd-rum p.-s. s. the c. 
of one's life. 

pa-som s. n. of plant (spec, of grass), 
the leaf of which irritates the skin causing 
itching; pd-som nyom s. the leaf of ditto. 

pa-Sf kuii s. n. of tree; pd-si tUn-krok 
n. of spec, of fern; pd-si {p6) s. a spec, 
of bamboo. 

pa-sfn bu s. n. of a snake, spec, of 

pa-Suk bu s. a spec, of wood-louse and 
some species of myriapoda. 

pa-§um s. a spec, of snake. 

pa-Sen n. pr. a tree-fern, Alsophila late- 
brosa Hk., the pith of which after allow- 
ing it to rot is eaten, used also when 
fresh as a fermented liquor but dangerous 
in this way on account of its poisonous 
quality; pd-sen tok-ka fi "to be reduced 
to eat pa-sen" prov. to be reduced to 
extremities. — pd-sen bd/i n. pr. of a 
locality in Sikhim W. 73. 

pa-Sdk for pa-sdk q. v. 

pa-Sdr s. n. of grass (elephant -gr.), 
which is used by bon-fin in exorcising 
evil spirits a-nok: three species used as 
brooms; a-dum or tsdk pd-sor devoted 
to holy offerings. 

-pa-a postp. a verbal particle of in- 
definite meaning go di-pd-a I shall or 
may come. 

pa-am s. a n. applied to any stalk like 
sugarcane which is peeled and eaten: 
pd-mid pd-am sugarcane; pd-koh pd-am 
another spec; kUn-dyom pd-am the young 
edible shoots of the k.-d. q. v. ; see dye/'i 
tilt pd-am, pd-gon pd-am etc. 

pa-6n— pak, pdk 

*pak-6o, *pdk-c6 — pan 


pa-dh 1. outwards, outsido, tlio surfaco, 
pd-on Icon s. the outside, adv. outwards, 
pd-on-sd a-tmi'i. outward cleanliness or 
virtue, the appearance of virtue, opp. sd- 
gon-sd a-ts6n inward virtue, pd-on rin sd 
sd-ffdn rin nyi there are outside and in- 
side words i. e. fair and deceitful words; 
2. foreign pd-6h-sd md-ro any person not 
belonging to the family, a stranger; pd- 
on-sd pd-no king of a foreign country; 
pd-on mlo rum nvni-nu-len kd-do niim- 
nfi go-pa affinity with one's own family 
is better than with strangers; 3. public, 
universally, pd-6n-ka outside, publicly, 
pd-6n-ka dim vb. to make known, to 
publish, pd-on-ka li vb. to speak publicly 
opp. to noii-ka li; pd-6n kur-fak-sdn-sd 
bon-niin from the mouth of the public 
ministers. 4. i. s. of easing nature pd- 
on mat vb. to ease nature, pd-on mat 
noil, to go to e. n.; pd-on nam vb. to 
want to do ditto. 

pa-dm-kun s. a tree, Phyllanthus emblica, 
pd-6vi pot the fruit of Ph. c. See also 

pa-'ayu-no i. q. pd-yu-no. 

pak vb. n. to be cut off, to be minus, 
stumped, a-iyak pdk a body without a 
liead; kd-ju tiik-mn pdk dog's tail cut off. 
— pd-pdk-ld or pdk-kd pdk-kd short, dum 
pdk-kd pdk-kd dydm vb. to wear a very 
sliort dress. — a-pdk s. a piece, fragment. 

pak, pdk, a-pak, a-pdk s. the foreleg of. 
animal from hoof to shoulder incl. a-pdk 
fori, man pdk s. a shoulder of meat; pdk- 
vom, p6k-c67n s. the part of arm from 
slioulder to elbow, pdk- com hrdt s. the 
bone of do.; os humerus; pdk-c6m-sd 
man s. a shoulder of meat; pdk-ldm or 
pdk-lam s. the thigh, hu pdk-ldm kul t'yen 
kul fyen 16m bam; o-lom mat-Uii i.-kup- 
sdii-nvn sd-roii fok tet a-so sd-re pdk-lam- 
ka nyim-bo-rem md-fa-ne hi go yo gdit 
hu-niin dy.-sd pdk-ldm so-rem tyap tsam 
he halted upon his thigh; therefore the 
children of J. eat not of the sinew which 
shrank, whicli is upon the hollow, of the 
thigh, unto this day; because he touched 

the hollow of J.'s thigh in the sinew 
that shrank U.; pdk-Uip s. do., p.-l. hrdt 
s. the thighbone. 

*pak-co, *pdk-cd T. bag-cags s. 1. a. 
passion or ardent desire, propensity, pre- 
disposition, pdk- CO a-ryum s. a good 
desire or inclination, pok-co a-jdn s. a 
bad passion; 2. the remembrance, the 
recollection, applied chiefly to an unreal 
spiritual or unearthly remembrance as 
of dream or things of a former life; it 
is also used by the Lepchas as anything 
unsubstaacial or unreal, vain, chimaerical, 
Utopian; pdk-c6 uyok md-lyd-nun do not 
indulge in allusions, in vain works, do 
not build castles in the air; pdk-co mat 
vb. to make remembrance of; 3. a phan- 
tom, a ghost pdk-co zdfi phantomlike; 
ro zdn pdk (-fd) lit. an eater of corpses, 
a term of abuse. 

pak-sol for pvk-sol. 

-part (also -p6ii) cfr. Newari -pani, -])iii 
"a thing" postp. affixed forms plurals 
generally for things in 6pp. to -suii for 
people M. Gr. "27, Brandreth, J. A. S. 10. 
1878 (15) mlo-pdn things; sd-re gun-nd 
pan everything; kd-sv-sd pdii my things, 
mine, hd-yu . . . td-hryak hd-yu-do nyor-ka 
nyim-bo-pdn uy.-ka byi-sen dy.-nnn o-re- 
pdn rem sd-ri kuii sd re k-zut-ka nyim- 
bo-re sd-gram-ka ma lap fo-lun si din-non 
they gave J. . . . all the earrings which 
were in their oars; and J. hid theni under 
the oak which was by Sh. G. — used for 
both md-ro-pdfi (and md-ro-sd//) mon, 
human beings; fam-cdn-pdn animals, dis- 
respectfully: fydn-pdn the enemy, tsii-bo- 
pdii the magicians Ex. — where the pi. 
may be inferred, through the aid of any 
connecting clause, a single sign may be 
sufficient to pluralize several nouns M. ( rr. 
123. a-yu do lUk sd sd-ar-pdii sd noii- 
nun lyo-so ye shall take it out from the 
sheep or from the goats Ex. — ■2. i. q. 
go-run whatever, whoever, fam-cdii a-h) 
favi-pd/'i sot whatever male you get kill, 
a-mdt fam-pdn a-yii mat whatever female 
you get marry P.; hii-mhi sd-dyak o-re- 



paii— *pdt 

pat— par par 

ka l.-ka (am sa-re nyi-wiin-pan-ku sa-ar- 
tsii a-hdii sd ptrr-tak-bo tsci sd-ar-mot piir- 
tak-bo sd a-don ffiin-nd-pd/i sd luk-sdr't 
sd-non-ka a-nok giin-nd-ka rdn-so mai-lwi 
hii-do td-gri kiip-sd/i kd-ka tat-byi hdn . . . 
and he removed that day tho he-goats 
that were ringstroked and all the she- 
goats that were speckled and spotted 
and every one that had some (white) in 
it, and all the brown among the sheep 
and gave them into the hand of his sons G. 
pdn vb. to hold in breath, un-ka myuk- 
ba a-som pan when under water hold in 
the breath. 

pan vb. n. to become musty and stale 
(as grain), to become old and hard (yam), 
to be destroyed by age or keeping, pdn- 
noil to become mouldy. 

*pah 2. ot p>dn T. bail "speed in motion", 
pdn-cen or ^d/i-cew s. a messenger, a 
courier, an express M. P., angel Chr., 
pdn-cen klon vb. to send a courier P.; — 
*pdn gyuk T. ban rgyug vb. to run a race; 
— pan sun dan vb. to run and leap over 
a stick (a game); — pdn (pon) tat ("to 
praise in dance") s. a religious dance, 
pon-tdt-bo s. a r. dancer, "the jumpers". 
*pan 3. T. span in comp. wood, plank, 
*|j«w go T. span-sgo s. a board for door, 
*pdn lep T. span-lep s. a board, a plank. 
pan s. tlie waist, pan svk-jdk-ld a slender 
waist, jjaw rum-rom-ld or |jaw lup-lyop-ld 
a thick waist, pan nyarn ryek ryek vb. to 
gird one's self, a-yv, pdn-pdm nyam-rek 
ryek with your loins girded Ex. pan top 
vb. to rest hand on waist. 

pat 1. vb. n. to be exhausted, to be 
suppressed, pdt-lun mak vb. to die of 
exhaustion as from grief etc., a-lut-ka 
pat to suppress or smother one's feelings; 
som pat to gasp for breath; som put-non 
to lose one's breath, to become overcome 
with loss, grief, fright; to have a fit of 
laughing, coughing, crying etc., hysterics; 
fydn j)dt vb. to have a fit of laughing; 
hrydp pdt vb. to have a fit of crying; 
hlyen put vb. to have a fit of coughing. 
*p5t 2. s. T. bod n. pr. Tibet, a Tibetan, 

pat-mi, pdt-vio T. bod-pa s. a Tibetan, 
pdt-sd md-ro s. id. pdt-mtt a T. female. 

pat see tuk-pat. 

pit-nydm incorr. for pd-nyom s. an 
old man. P. Mscpts. 

pdn 1. vb. 1. to be forgetful, to be 
absent in mind; to be insensible, to be 
unaware of, pdn mik-krap-non vb. to fall 
asleep in an absent sort of manner, as 
whilst doing anything, to become oblivious, 
sd-gor-ka pdn-liin glo-ndn to fall down a 
precipice in absence of mind. 2. to defer, 
to put ofif. — pdn-ld or pdn-nd pdn-nd 
adv. 1. in forgetfulness, in absence of 
mind; 2. putting off, shuffling off, pdn- 
nd pdn-nd kom md-bo-ne shuffling and 
putting off he did not give the money. 
dyok pdn-nd pdn-nd mat vb. to defer and 
put off work and ultimately leave it; 
mak-ld non-ba sak-cin pdn-nd pdn-nd li 
when about to die forgetfulness takes 
place, pdn-ld gal vb. to break a thing 
unconsciously, occidentally. 

pan 2. (for fdn q. v.) vb. to break off, 
pdn-ld klo-non to break and fall down. 

*pdn 3. T. dpon s. lord, chief, master, 
head, superior, ^sol-pdn s. T. gsol-dpon 
a chief cook; *ta-pdn s. T. rta-dp. a 
groom; *mak-pdn s. T. dmag-dp. a com- 
mander of troops; *jon-pdn s. T. rdsons- 
pdn s. a governor of fortress; *lop-pdn 
T. slob-dpon s. (also sometimes pdn-lop) 
a master, professor, teacher; *pdn-lop and 
pdn-lok a chief of the people, T. pon-lob, 
pm-lo the "Penlow". See Jaschke s. v. 

pdn-tset moderation, middling. M. 

pan for pan 4. q. v., pun-pdn see pun- 
nd pun-nd, piin-nd pan-na. 

pdp i. q. pal adj. short, see pt"ip\ pd- 
pdp-ld short as garment. 

par vb. t. to break by twisting round, 
pdr nydn twisted round and broken, pdr- 
lun dydn vb. to twist round, break and 
fling away. 

"par 2. T. bar see p«n 

par-la see par-Id (even, regular). 

par par full bent (bow), p, p. dydt to 
bond b. to its full. 

par-gyan— pa-cit 

pa-cim— pa-ruk 


par-gyan s. a spec, of pulse, jyur-gyeh. 

pal i. q. paZ. 

pal vb. n. to be too short or small, 
also ftil, puj}, pap; Jfnn pal bam the 
cloth is too short. 

pal vb. n. to be broken off, to come off, 
to be disconnected, to be discontinued; 
to fall off, a-rdi'i pdl-non the horns have 
fallen off, see fdl. 

-pa T. -pa verbal postpos. expresses 
emphasis when affixed M. Gr. 52, as ryu- 
pa it is nice; non dydt-pa he is going; 
Uam gat-so-pa it is necessary that lie 
should be caught; go tsu yd-pa-yam-o 
I understand mathematics P.; h'it not-sd 
ham-pa-yam-o (they) live in (constant) 
hunger and thirst F. 

pa 1. vb. to beckon with hand as to 
come, a-kd pa vb. to beckon to come, 
kat-nim kd-sum kd pa, kat-niin kd nyu 
one beckoned me to come, another waved 
me away. 

pa 2. vb. to wear wrapped round as 
shawl, also supported as shawl round 
neck (as male in opp. to kom to shawl 
as female), dum pa, see also dyok. — 
s. band, tor dum pa a silken band; ex- 
pletive of dum. 

pa 3. s. space or interval of time or 
place, a-tet pa-ku or a-tydt-sd pa-ka (or 
a-tydt a-byek-ka) in this interval, md-lik- 
nd pa-ka fi (he) came before (you) had 
time to call, a-ba o-ba pa-ka kd-tsdk kd- 
ti gum between this place and that tliere 
are ten cubits. — pa-ko s. a time, pa-ko 
kat one time, once. 

pa-ku s. a work-basket as female's, a 

pa-krak s. damages in lawsuit, com- 
pensation, pa-krak fyet byi vb. to assign 
do., pa-krak zdk vb. to have to pay do. 

*pa-krok T. bag-grogs (a bride?) s. a 
coronet worn by women. 

pa-g^n s. a kind of dress, pinned at 
the back of neck. 

*pa-g<Jk see ba-gdk, c6 pa-gok. 

pa-cit s. the docking the roots of 
bulbous plants as turnip to increase the 

size of the bulb, pa-cit gyu vb. to dock 

pa-cim i. q. tson-mit tam-blyok. 

*pa-cd s. L. and B. probably from Tib. 
ba-lci (s. cowdung) s. manure, pa-co Idk 
vb. to spread manure. 

pa-ja for pd-jd. 

pa-ta 1. s. a spec, of num-dak. 

pa-ta 2., /Jtt-fa adj. vain, useless, in- 
effective; s. vanities, a thing without any 
use or value, pa-td bam nyi vb. to live 
or to be useless, to have no employment 
or anything; t'am-li pa-td lok-non the seed 
is wasted or uselessly expended; pa-td- 
len on ti md-o spiritual blessings are far 
preferable to the useless vanities of this 
world. — fuiH-pa-td s. a vain, useless 
thing, tam-pa-td-pdn s. vanities. 

pa-tu for pd-tu s. a blow. 

pa-tdh s. pride, haughtiness, arrogance, 
pa-tdn mat vb. to be proud. 

pa pat (soothing a baby) see, see, showing 
anything, |)a pat te te see, see, take, take. 

pa-po i. q. pe-po. 

pa-mo to s. the Indian oriole, Oriolus 

pa-tse s. name of plant, pa-tse bi id. 
as vegetable. 

pa-tsd s. hind, tdnt s. sackcloth, coarse 
liempcloth; sack, hd-yu-min gram gram 
mat-luH md-ro rel-ld hu-do pa-ts6 rem 
fdt-ka nydn-lufl 6t they speedily took 
down every man his sack to the ground, 
and opened every man his sack G. 

pa-zu s. a spec, of hawk. 

pa-zui see pd-zul. 

pa-zen s. fee given to pi-bo an agent 
or negociator in any affair as mai'riage, 
pi-bo-ka pa-zen byi kom hik fiin kat ci 
Idk kat bom-md jam-vid kom fd-no give 
to the pi-bo rupees, the body of a fowl, 
a draught of ci, iu all five rupees. 

pa-z6 s. name of country in Sikhim, 
pa-zo-mo s. the inhabitants of p. 

pa-yom-ko (?) ^'■payomko" s. Tetrameles 
7iudiflora Wtt. I. 372. 

pa-ruk s. a spice-box, a box for holding 


pa-lu- *paii 

part-kap kun— pan 

pa-lu tsu-lu seo {m-lu tm-lu. 

pa-lun i. q. pe-lu/i q. v. 

pa-le s. a lynx? M. 

pa-hf i.q. ^j«-A« i.q. ko-Jd s. a spec. hawk. 

pa-hlydk adv. astride, pa-hlyok tul-nan 
vb. to sit astride. 

*pa-san T. jia-sans s. name of planet 
Venus, za im-sait friday, see za T. gzci. 

pa-$dk s. a partition of house. 

*pa-WO T. dpd-bo Skt. pwra s. the 
glorious, the hero, applied to certain 
priests and enchanters. 

pak I. 1. adj. large in circumference, 
stout, md-ro pak a stout person, 2. s. a 
piece, a fragment. — a-pak adj. large, 
great, round, great in circumference. 

pak II., pak-kd pak-kd hard and dry 
as vegetables, bi pak-kd pak-kd the 
vegetable is hard and dry. — a-pak s. 
an ear of Indian corn. 

pak III., pak-la adv. across, pak-ld tin 
vb. to cut across; pak-ld kok vb. to put 
up; l&m p.-ld kok vb. to put up barrier 
across road; pak-ld to vb. to place across. 

pak IV., pak-tsu s. a book on marriage 
auspices; see under tsii. 

*pak-gdk T. pag-gn s. brick, also ba- 
ffok, see Jo. 

'*pan 1. T. bun (see pun, po/t) s. a heap, 
a store, p.-rim i. q. pon-ri'ni. 

pan 2. vb. to be split, to be cracked; 
pan-non broken; jja« fa to break and 
eat. — pun-pan- Id cutting thro' at one 
stroke, pun-pan-ld fyet to cut thro' at 
one stroke. 

pah 3. vb. 1. to cease from weaping 
hryoj} pan, 2. used actively: cease crying. 

paii 4. thick and short (roll), large, 
applied to things of long, cylindrical 
shapie buk pan; kun-tson pan; dyit pan; 
ki pan. — a-pait 1. adj. large applied to 
yam and a few other things; 2. s. hard 

"pan T. dban, in comp. pan-kar or p>an- 
liar T. dban-Var s. 1. a scourge, a switch, 
pan-kar-sd buk vb. to beat with s. 2. a 
priest's staff. — *pan-c6k T. dban-pyag s. 
a sceptre, p.-c. bu vb. to reign. 

pan-kap kuii n. of tree. M. 

pah-ko i. q. taii-ko s. a sort of basket. 

*pan-sdn T. pa^i and gsail? hon. to ease 

pah-Suh see pon-s. 

pat 1. vb. t. I. 1. to mix, to mingle, 
CO pat to mix, to make tea, un-sd nyen 
pat to mix water with milk; 2. to blend, 
to vary, ts'o pat vb. to variegate, to paiut 
in various colours; — 3. to alter, to 
change, lyan pat (-luii nan) to change 
places, to go to a different country, also 
for the person of that place to go, when ' 
you had left, a-bdn a-ydk pat-lun dam 
vb. to place upside down and tie; — 
4. in comp. compound, , complex, rin pat 
s. vairiations of language, stile of speach. 
— Deriv. pat-ldt s. mixture, mingling, 
a blending; a diversity, a change, an 
alteration; complicity, intricacy, rin-sd 
pat-ldt pyo to understand the intricacies 
of a language. — t'am-pat-pdn articles, 

II. vb. t. to sow, a-li pat vb. t. to sow 
seed. — Deriv. a-pat s. sowing, (a-) pat 
tu-tsdt s. seed-time, a-pat tu-tsdt non the 
soed-time has arrived, a-pat t.-ts. non-fat 
the seed-time has gone. — fam-pat s. crop 
on ground, anything sown. 

pat 2. (see also pa) a space of time 
or place, kum-jMt adv. a short time, 
a-ba-nim grop jjat gum it is a consider- 
able distance from this. — patrtd pat-td 
adv. short space, interval, pat-td pat-td 
ryak vb. to follow at short intervals, pat- 
td pat-td U vb. to speak at short inter- 
vals; — pd-pat and put-pat a little, pa- 
pal tet t'ak a little left to be done, a little 
deficient or wanting; pd-pat-ld adv. at 
a short distance, pd-pat-ld ryak (non) 
vb. to follow at a short d., pd-pat-ld fi 
vb. to be a short d. from arriving, pur- 
pat-ld i. q. pd-p. Id. 

pat 3. (=2.?), pd-pat see te te. 

pan 1. seems to be merely an emphatic 
particle as a-re pan ryu this is good, 
this is indeed good; yiik-mun pan mak- 
kun go-po ka-yu td lo mak-nd e if the 

pan— pam 

par — pal 


priests were indeed to die, we would 
certainly die. 

pan 2. vb. to reach the end, to com- 
plete, to finish, nyot pan-ban a-myo md- 
tsom-na, if you finish the field, there will 
be no work left undone; lyan-ka md- 
pan-ne the place is not finished (have 
not arrived at the p.). 

pan 3., a-pan s. a small piece, pan 
pan by pieces, pan pan fa vb. to eat 
by pieces. 

pan-re kun i. tj. pen-re kun q. v. 

pan-sa (Nepaltjso) s. mediation, agency, 
pan-m-bo s. an agent, a mediator i. q. 

pan-ci [Hind. 'pavctsi\ s. the name of 
game, played with cowries etc., j)an-ci 
dydn vb. to throw do., to play at do. 

'^pan-Sen T. pan-cen [Skt. mahdpancHta] 
s. a great pandit P. 

■'pap 1. T. 'bab{-pa), piab^-pa) and 'bebs 
ij-pa) vb. n. to descend, to come down; 
vb. t. to put down, to curtail; to cause 
to be small, also pap; — vb. n. to be de- 
prived of (as office) to decline, to de- 
generate, to decrease, rum-ka pap vb. 
God to enter in or descend on one, 
s. an incarnation; a-gyit pap-non the 
race is degenerated; yuk-mun co fok-kun 
pa}) the priest descended from his re- 
ligious duties i. e. died; ko jjap ("a de- 
scent on the understanding, explanation") 
vb. to explain, to interpret, to cause to 
understand, a-hrydn-rem pap-lim a-tan 
zuk-kd having curtailed the length make 
it small; (pd-no) papi-non (king) to de- 
scend from throne; gon paj) vb. to abate 
the price, pap nydn or pap fo vb. to place 
down, fyii pap nydn-nd place the pots 
carefully down; — kun pap vb. to prune 

pap 2. vb. to bleat (as deer), sd-viA 
pap the stag bleats. 

pap 3. vb. to muffle up as when cold, 
to wrap (clothes) closely round. — pd- 
pap-ld round (as ball), globular. 

pam, a-pam (see pi/m and pap) s. a 
globe, a bulbous root (as turnip, onions, 

tulip-root etc.; — piim-pam-ld short and 
stout, thick-set; large and stout, large- 
built as person. 

par 1. vb. to buy, par id to b. and 
sell; used also in extended sense as ho 
pd-t'u par-run go-d do you wish (to pur- 
chase) a beating; go-nun kd-do td-gri- 
kiip-sd d.-ka a-dom par-fat I have hired 
thee with my son's d.'s. G. 

par 2. i. q. par, sak-tsum, sak-par to be 
cheerful, happy. 

par 3. vb. n. to be even, to be regular; 
also par; — par-rd and par-Id adv. evenly, 
regularly; pdr-rd id.; par-rd blydn to be 
evenly filled; so lyan-pdn par-Id yii or 
blydri the rain has been fallen equally 
in all places; par-Id lin vb. to sprout 
up all evenly as field. 

'*par 4. or ''par T. bar middle, hence: 
* par-cat, pidr-cet, piir-cdt T. bar-cod "cut 
asunder" in L. : hurt, damage, molestation, 
annoyance, evil influence, applied to that 
of evil spirits, par-cat zdk vb. to suffer 
molestation, pur-cdt kye "hurt to be born" 
to persecute. See sd-hd. — *p)ar-cii, par- 
i'u T. bar gcu{-ba) "to twist the middle", 
to trouble, to harass, to annoy. — *par- 
cok or par-cok T. bar-cag adj. broken 
asunder, sak par-cok trouble, annoyance, 
vexation. — *par-ji'bye(-bu) "divid- 
ed in two" sak par-ji s. trouble, annoy- 
ance. — pur-m&m-tsom T. bar-mttsams 
("between the four cardinal points") s. 
the atmosphere, par-mmn-tmm bam-bo s. 
the dwellers in the atmosphere, the birds; 

— *pdr-to T. bar-do (the time between 
one's death and regeneration) in L. vain, 
empty, without work, free, par-to-sd rin 
vain words; par-to bam nyi to live un- 
employed; — par-byek s. the perineum. 

— *'pdr-ydn T. bar-dhyans s. hollow, rever- 
berating sound as in subterraneous passage ; 
met. a discord. 

par-gok see ba-gok and c6. 

pal and pidl vb. to be finished as book, 
story or as the unfolding or drawing out 
of anything, to come to a crisis, to faint 
away, to decease, to be ended, to have 




no further advance: pal non; riii pdl-non 
the speach is finished; 16m pdl-non there 
is no road further, the road has ended; 
aijen zon fdl-non to break off friendship ; 
kuh fdl tet hron vb. to ascend a tree as 
high as one can go; a-som pdl-non to 
cease to breath, to faint, to be dead; 
kom pal money to be spent (used thus 
but incorrectly); — jmI-M adv. finishing, 
ending, altogether, entire, a-tyak-kvn 
a-fon tet pdl-ld md-ryu-ne to be bad alto- 
gether from head to foot. 

ri/i pdl-ld U vb. to say as much as you 
have to say, rua-gan pdl-ld non dydt the 
ascent is about ended. — pd-pal-ld end- 
ing, finishing, pd-pal-ld tuk-tek ending, 
finishing, terminating, pd-pal-ld tuk-tek 
nun-niin-sd go non-so on the completion 
I shall go. 

pf 1. part, there, thither, pi-ba i. q. pe- 
ba there, just there. 

Deriv. pin, a-pin also pyin, a-pyin s. 
the other side, the opposite place or 
party, the reverse, a-pin a-bon on both 
sides, here anct there, (a-^jnn kon-ka on 
the opposite side, pin bon-sd tiin-dok the 
cause of both parties; pin cul bol bu vb. 
to carry (or wear) slung across on each 
side M.; — adv. beyond, except; a-re 
a-pin su Id md-nyin-nd except this (I) 
have nothing; tm a-pin the next life, 
the life beyond; — zd a-pin the future; 
— a-pin-ka adv. beyond, besides; in the 
other world, a-pin-ka mat non nan sit a 
little further off; — a-pin Idm the other 
side of road. 

pir also pyir, pyur i. q. pe-re there, 
that there; pd-nyom-nun li-ba: pir-re kom- 
sd lyan gum yo dun-bi-yam-o the old man 
replied: that there is silver laud P. 

pil (fr. pi-la), pyil, pil-ld and pyil-ld 
there, 1) yonder, away there (far or near), 
pyil no-o go away yonder; pyil-ld bam- 
md-o keep away, don't come here; hd- 
yu pyil-ld non-ldii diin-nd speak that they 
go forward, lilx. ; pil-ld a-7nlem vun vb. 

1. to turn away face, not to attend to, 

2. to discountenance; not to approve of, 

3. to be dispieased. — 2) moreover, be- 
sides, further, except, a-re-niin pyil-ld ik 
sd-t'a-ld md-U-7id-so ye shall see them 
again no more for ever. Ex. a-z&m kd- 
ta bo-so pyil-ld md-bo-nd-so except or 
beyond food I will give you nothing. — 
3) by degrees, progressively, gradually, 
p.-ld p).-ld Map bam he is learning by 
degrees. (Jiii-sd a-lut) pyil-ld pyil-ld ryu- 
Id non his mind keeps progressing in 
goodness. 4) emphatic adverb: truly, 
ha, p.-ld a-yan yd he truly knows, he is 
verily learned; — p)yil-ld- ba adv. yonder 
there, away yonder; it is indifferent (to 
me), it does not matter a-ldn go nd mak- 
nd mak pil-ld ba un da tim-mo-sd a-pin 
nw-bu lyo-ka go non-so yo sak-cin yam-o 
then (the king Indrabhiiti) had the follow- 
ing thoughts: may I perish or not, but I 
must go beyond the great ocean to ob- 
tain the cintamani P. — pyil-ld pyil-ld 
there far away. — pil cil here and there, 
pil cil ndk to look about around here 
and there. — ^j_i/z7 van yonder direction. 

pf 2., a-pf s. a pod, the bark of tree, 
the outer skin of fruit or corn, a-pi 
dyon to be skinned, peeled, shelled (as 

pf 3. vb. t. to write, to draw as picture, 
du yak pi vb. to write short hand; jem- 
Id pi vb. to write small h.; a-tim pi vb. 
to write large h.; is used in sense of 
"to ascribe, to impute, to charge": tiik- 
mo md-ro-ka pi vb. to charge another 
with theft. — pi lyaii s. the place for 
writing, pi lyan md-nyin-nd there is no 
place to write; pi lyan md-zdk-ne it is 
not written in its proper place. — a-pi 
s. writing, a-pi Map byi vb. to teach 
writing; a-pi Map vb. to learn to write; 
a-re-niin a-pi cet gdn tidfi-ld pi bo should 
there be any error in this writing, cor- 
rect it. 

*pf 4. T. spyi, pi-bo T. spyi-pa s. a 
mediator, an agent, a second, an actor, 
pi-bo tap vb. to appoint a pi-bo, also pi 
tap; pi mon gyom vb. to gather a council 
J. — pi-pdn s. a chief-factor. 

pfk— pfn rik 

pfm— pu 


pfk 1., a-pfk s. the breaJtli of cloth, 

pfk 2. see pik. 

pfn s. tingling or ringing noise in ear, 
a-nyor pin-Id nyon fyom md-Eun-ne vb. 
I have got a ringing sound in my ear, 
and cannot hear. 

pft 1. vb. n. to be narrow (as road), 
to be tight (as clothes), to be close, to 
be compact, to be pressed together; p>it- 
Id tek vb. t. to stow away closely, — to 
be in a strait, in a difficulty, in a di- 
lemma. — a-pit adj. narrow, met. to be 
abstemious, to be economical, to be pru- 
dent, pit-lun zo vb. to eat economically. 

pft 2. or pyit caus. oi pit 1.? vb. t. to 
pinch, to press, to squeeze, pUn-fyet-nun 
pit to press with pincers, a-vo-nun a-yi) 
a-kfip tyum-ld gdn a-yii-nvn a-vo a-kiip 
tyUm-ld gdn td-gri-ka pAn-je/t-sd pUn-fyei 
re mi-ka fan fo-liin hyir hyir tet-ka tsun- 
la.n tuk-tik-ka pyit-ltin hrya-so-yam-o if a 
man commits adultery or a wife com- 
mits adultery, in the first case the man's 
I)rivy parts are pinched with red-hot 
iron-tongs and torn out P. 

a-pit and a-pyit s. the act of pressing 
together or holding by pressure. 

pft 3. vb. n. to be able (obsolete), bi)n 
tnd-pit-ne T am not able to carry it, also 
confounded with pyet to attempt. 

*pft 4. T. byed(-pa) vb. t. to do, to 
work, to perform a-lom md-pit-tiin do 
not do also. 

pft 5. s. peditum, pit I6t vb. pedere. 

pfn 1. vb. t. to poke, to brush away 
dirt, it pin dydn to push aside dung; 
met. to cleanse from evil spirit by the 
sprinkling of water or drawing fowl over 
body, see pik. 

pfn 2. vb. n. to be one-eyed, a-mik pin 
bam to have lost an eye, a-mik j)in-bo s. 
one-eyed Hind. kdnd. 

pfn 3. see pi 1. 

pfn 4. vb. t. to exchange, to alter, also 

pfn rik s. n. of a tree, Combretum de- 
candrum, ''pindik" Wtt. C. 1742. 

pfm, a-pfm. s. skirt of cloth, (li)m pim 
base end of Lepcha dice forming a pouch 
when held out. 

pim-i3uh i. q. pem-cu-A s. a dress similar 
to pem-kom, but smaller. 

pir 1., pyir and pyiir or pydr for pe-re 
see under pz 1. 

pir 2. or pyir vb. to crowd together, 
to agglomerate, to be exceedingly close 
together, td-lu fyur-Mn jdj/w' when raddling 
to lap the plaits; pid-li jup gdn /lir-lnn 
t'ydr md-KHn-ne if the 2^d-li be too close 
together, pressing on each other, I cannot 
plait; tun- gar td-lu fydr-ba pyir when 
working tun-gar and td-lu do it closely. 

pi! 1. or pyil s. a (sudden) firm grasp, 
pyil nup vb. to make a sudden and f. grasp 
of as when one seizes a thing in charm. 

pil, a-pil, also a-pyil s. 1. the shade or 
spirit of man or beast; u-pil blydk s. the 
shadow of man or beast; a-pil mak md- 
nyin-ne' the spirit never dies; a-/'«7 t'dn 
s. the shade of the dead; "In the saciod 
books of the L.'s it is mentioned that 
there are eight "a-pels" (soul) in man 
and six in woman. After death in every 
case, one a. goes to the sky in searcli 
of Paradiese (riim-lyan) ... to see if it 
is anything like Sikkim, his haven of rest. 
Tiie remaining a.'s go to the bossoni of 
the mother-earth." Sri Kali Kumar Das, 
Buddhist Text Soc. 1896. 2. shadow 
a-pil ryak-lAn a-pil sd-re noh-pdii-ka Idii 
kuii to following the shadow of Padma 
whereever it fell they marked the place 
with stone and sticks. P. 

pu 1. explet. to li a house li pu. 

*pu 2. T. bul s. a kind of mineral salt 
[soda] used to put in tea to make it 
draw, also as soap pf( md-fap-nd gdn 
CO md-fdn-ne. 

pu 3. vb. to be possessed, mun pu p. 
with evil spirit; gi no pu to be covetous. 

pu 4., a-pu s. place from which bees 
etc. hang their nest, an external bee's 
nest as from branch of tree (not piir, 
a-piir in hollow q. v.); som-pii s. the 
place where a bridge is fixed. 


"pu-tso— pun 


*pu-teo T. bu-tm s. (a sou iiud grUiKl- 
soii) 1. a generation, 2. posterity. 

puk- 1. see pa-; see gron, ply&m, sol, 
son. — 2. also redupl., see pok, hok, bryeh, 

puk, hm piJik s. a log or piece of 

puk-£dm incorr. for pdk-com. 

puk-pum see buk. 

pun- 1. i. q. pa-, see under kop, klot, 
gdl, pom, hdii, hap, ho/i, ayon {yoi'i) etc. 

— 2. reduplic, see under pan, plyon, 
bin, boil, bryan (bryofi), bron, blon etc. 

-pun, -p-iin see under -un. 

*pun T. span{-ba) vb. 1. to heap up, 
to pile up, 2. to amass, to accumulate, 
3. to store up, 4. vb. n. to be assembled 
together, to be in great numbers ; — pun 
fo vb. t. to heap, to pile together, to 
collect together, to hoard, to treasure. 

— piin-nd pun-nd dek vb. to break in 
numerous pieces. — a-pun s. a heap of any- 
thing, a stock, store; a quantity, numbers, 
a large assembly. See under hlk. 

puii-kar s. i. q. pan-lhtr s. a scourge. 

puii-ko s. a sort of plate basket, pe-lufi. 

pun-Ra for pan-Jhir. 

puii-fydh see pun-f'yon. 

put- 1. i. q. pd-. 2. reduplic. of 2)at, 
pryut, bit, brit, bryet etc. 

put vb. n. to expire (year, time, family, 
race) to be ended, finished; to become 
old and stale, musty, pidii pfit to become 

pun- 1. i. q. pd- q. v., see under the 
roots: klal, kUt, klop, klol, cur, cor, jd 
(jd), jiim, tar, tal, top, ddp, nol, nol, fok, 
fyet, tsu, z6k, zon, zom, 7'am, yon, lep, 
lyop, hyur, hrot, hrop, hlum, hly&m, von, 
sail, so, sor, sol, Ml, sail, sap, ser, uyon. 

— 2. reduplic. of pan, plin, plon, pl6n, 
pldm, plyon, bdi'i, ban, byom, bran, brydn, 
bryon etc. etc. 

pun fr. pun?, pun-nd pun-nd or pun 
pun pieces, meal, piin-nd pun-nd dek 
vb. n. to be torn into pieces as by tiger, 
piin-nd piin-nd uyok zuk vb, to work by 
piece, meal. 

piin-cl s. 1. tliu luiils of hands or feet, 
2. a claw, ]iiin-<H dam s. the skin that 
overgrows nails, pun-ci bor s. the loose 
broken skin that sometimes forms below 
nail, piin-ci bor M to pluck off do.; 
liiin-ci fyer or nar vb. to pare nails. — 
pUn-ci-cak mon or piin-ci kd-da s. a spec, 
of millet. 

pun-cfp i. q. tfm-cip s. a spec, of tUn- 
krok q. v. 

pun-jin s. a chain, a wire. 

pun-jen s. iron, pUn-jen-sd adj. M. 101. 
137.; piin-jen-sd ivyak s. Saturday M. 140. 

pun-fan s. a narrow cleft or fork in 
wood, see pUn-hrot a larger clift. 

pun-fydn, puii-tydh and kum-fydn s. a kite, 
applied to several specc. of the aqui- 
linae, buteoniae and milvinae tribes e. c. 
jmn-fyo/i, ki/m-fyd/i etc. Pandion haliaetus 
M. R. 204. Je. 80; hlo pun-fydn id. M.; 

— kUn-ru pun-fydn "the crested P." 
Limnaetus nepalensis and L. kienierii 
M.; R. 204; — dan pim-fydn (ace. M. tiii 
piin-fydn) the common buzzard Buteo 
vulgaris M., R. 204, Je. 87; —j}un-fydi'i 
ndk ace. W. Buteo plumipes R. 204; — 
un pun-fydn (or "-o-ta-kyen" W.) s. Spi- 
lornis cheela R. 204; — the eagle year 
(4th cycle of y.) M. 141 piin-fydn nam. 

— piin-fydn tiin-krdk s. a spec, of fern; 
pim-fydn rik s. a spec, of creeper: rvp-f. 
rik; piin-fydn sap tiin-krdk s. a spec, of 
fern Asplenium nidus. 

pun -dan s. 1. a sort of roof made by 
bees and wasps over their nest vot-p.-d.; 

2. s. a sacred utensil of mUn: p.-d. mlo; 

3. s. body Tbr. p.-d. lun-sum-bo s. a 
scourge Tbr. M. 

pun-dan i. q. pun-san "ornamental" s. 
dignity, majesty, piin-sati piin-dan orna- 
mented accoutrements, robes of state td- 
van p.-d. a king's court; mun t.-v. p.-d.- 
ka din (to summon) evil spirits to the 
tribunal (performed by mUn). 

pun-df (see pd-no') s. a queen: zdr-bo 
Tbr. — piin-di tH, huk ji rik name of 
creeper; — piin-di diim sdr the 2nd 
stomach of ruminating animals, see id- 

pun-ddn — pum 

piim— pur-du 


dyiin. — pun-dim ace. W. ^^ pan- dim" s. 
a king's minister W. 65; pun- dim Su 
^^ pan-dim cu" "a king's minister" n. pr. 
of a mountain which is considered to 
be an attendant on the god Kan-cen 
dz6-nga W. 65. 

pun-ddn s. a canopy, hence the covering 
(pod) of cotton: ki p.-d.; any mechanism 
that will render one capable of perform- 
ing, a standing engine etc., see pd-hlyom; 
the protecting power of tke people, of 
priest, miin picn-ddn. 

pun-ddr s. jewels, valuables, treasures 
explet. Mn-dyon] pUn^dor tsun fo vb. to 
heap up treasures. 

pun-bon fmuk) s. species of Blumea (very 
numerous specc: p.-h. dum; ndk; hyir). 

pun-zar or piin-zar s. name of fish, 

pun-zot s. spec, gourd. 

pun -ram kun s. name of a shrub from 
which ferment (bUf) for ci is extracted 
from the leaves and roots, Buddleia 
asiatica Wtt. B. 929. 

pun -re kun s. name of tree, Capparis. 

pun-lok s". a monk. 

*pun-hrit [T. Ski. pandital s. a fortune- 
teller; also pun-rit; pUn-rit-ta M. 

pun-hrom kun s. applied to several spec, 
of Leea (ace. Wtt. '■^pantom" Leea robusta 
L. 237), two specc. a-dum, a-ndk'JK. 

pun-hrdt s. a clift in wood. 

piin-san i. q. pUn-dan. 

pup 1. vb. t. to draw in, as hand a-M 
piip\ to draw back or up, M-do kd-i'em 
lot pUp-sen as he drew back his hand G. 
2. to cover over, to overspread, to over- 
shadow, tun-grydn-niin pUp vb. to cover 
with a basket; td-lyan kor pup to over- 
spread the firmament. 

pup 2. s. the abdomen i. q. td-fiik. 

pum- 1. i. q. pa- q. v., pUm-fit i. q. pd- 
fit etc. 2. reduplic. of pam, pom, pl6m, 
plyam, pyam, pyom, bom, byon, hyom, brom. 

pum, a-pum adj. round, as earthen 
cooking-vessel; box, globular, s. anything 
round or globular, e. c. woman's breast 
Tbr. nyen-piim. — tHk-fyil piim an ant's 

nest. — p&m-bo s. a round watervessel, 
a lota; a dome as of co-ten. 

pum abbr. of riim piim, piim tset for 
rii.m piim tset q. v. 

pum pa-fut s. a sound made by blowing 
forcibly between the closed thumbs into 
the hollow of the joined hands or by 
those who cannot efPect this, by the aid 
of a tube, used to decoy birds etc. p. p.- 
t'iit mat vb. to blow ditto. 

pum-buk s. a spec, yam, Dioscorea. 

pum-bon s. a plant, name of bush of 
which there are two or three species 
Hypericum. M. 

pum-zo see td-fyep (s. gourd). 

pur- 1. i. q. pa- q. v. See the follow- 
ing roots kip, kom, glyet, ci, cin, ji, jit, 
jut, tak, tarn, tot, tyiit, fam, dap (dop), 
nat, nap, not, par Cpar), pat, fok, fyUm, 
fyok, bat, bar, bu, byek, byop. — 2. incorr. 
i. q. par- or par- T. bar see under par. 

pur 1. vb. t. to burrow, to excavate 
under earth or in wood as mole, rabbit, 
white ant; to ooze out, said of water of 
spring. — a-piir s. a burrow under earth, 
no pHr a fish's hole; pHr ayam pur a 
mole's burrow; tik pHr a homet-byke; 
— (fig-) the seat or source of anything 
evil, md-r6 tiik-mo pur a thief. 

pHr (a) yam s. a mole (the animal) 
gen. Talpidae, ace. "Wtt. R. 53. Talpa 
micrura, pur ayam piir to burrow; pHtr 
ayam, z6n mik sap blind as a mole; a-fyak 
pHr ayam the cartilagineous skull of new- 
born baby; tUn-ji pHr ayam a shrew-mole. 

pur 2. perfect, thorough, absolute, I'ydt 
pHr a thoroughly perfect, generous person; 
mik krap pHr a constant sleeper, sleepy- 

pur-gyen s. 1. species of pulse, Ervum 
lens, pHr-gyen bi zo to eat lentils i. e. to 
be put into jail M. 132. — 2. see tHk- 

pur-cih mdn s. a species of millet. 

pur-cen rfp i. q. miir-cen rip s. spec. 

pur-dak i. q. pul-ddk, kUl-ddk. 
pur-du s. 1. dust; ashes mi pHr-dii, pHr- 



piir-det— pul dak 

pul-det— pup 

dii kd-gok-ld non to be covered with ashes 
or dust; pur-du tuk-tdk-sd md-rd a foolish 
ignorant person. — 2. explet. to sd-hor q.v. 

pur-det (piir 1.) s. a spec, of beetle; a 
spec, of black small ant tuk-fyil p.-d. 

pur-dyan, pur-dy6n, pul-dyon (pur 1.) s. 
a spec, of small waterrat (kd-lok). 

pur-dyot (pwr 1.) s. a white ant, -p.-d. 
ti-wiin-sd tuk-men nun-so the white ant 
when large becomes (tuk-m.) winged one. 

piir-dydn muk i. q. td-M pul-dydn s. pouch 
in cheek, as monkey's. 

pur-fdk s. a species of bamboo, good 
for thatching. 

pur-fyek 1. (muk) s. a species of grass 
with turquois-blue berries (dan-sd and 
hlo-sd); 2. a spec, tun-fyum. 

pur-fyok ace. Hooker 2, 221 '■'■purphiok'" 

pur-bon ace. Wtt. "purbong" a. Crataeva 
religiosa C. 2039. 

pur- man -bu s. species of [caterpillar 
(hairy, small). 

pur-mo 8. mould, green mould, piir- 
mo tu vb. to become mouldy. 

pur-mo kun s. name of a tree, Maesa 
Indica, also a shrub, M.; Wtt. M. 40. 

pur-myak gri s. a spec, of niim-ddk q.v. 

pur-myum s. high white mould, pur 
myiim din white mould to rise. 

pur yam i. q. pur dyam see pur 1. 

pur-va (?), ace. Wtt. "■puroa" s. a tree 
Mallotus philippensis (Rottlera tinctoria). 

pur-vfm g. the name of 11th month. 
p.-v. ny6m,-ka sun-l6k vi bor in the month 
P. the aun-ldk-tree (Terminalia) buds forth. 

pur-vuii (cfr. vuii q. v.) s. a spinning- 

pur-vdk kun s. name of tree, Alstonia 
scholaris Wtt. A. 871, said to make one 
sick and giddy if sitting under its shade; 
p.-v. turn the evil effect oi p.-v. M. — pur- 
vdk bi s. a plant, Streptolinon volubile. 

pul- i. q. pd- see under dun, dy&n, fydk, 
fop etc. 

pul vb. n. to be too short. See pal. 

pul-dak i. q. kul-ddk s. a spec, of frog 

pul-det, pul-dyot, pul-dydn see under 


*-pu 1. T. -po, -pa or -bu, co-pu i. q. 
co-bo, nor-pu i. q. nor-bu, T. nor-bu. 

-pu 2. affixed forms condicional "if, 
whether" M. Gr. 46. so yii-pu md-yu- 
nd-pu go md-yd-ne I know not whether 
it will rain or not; — td-se hron dydt-pu 
ndk to see if Padma was ascending; — 
go non-pu I may go, I may perhaps go; 
nyv-pu it may be so, it may perhaps be 
so. go-pu it may be so, advly. perhaps. 

pu 1., pu-m vb. to bark, kd-ju pu bam 
the dog is barking. — a-pum s. the bark- 
ing of dog. 

pu 2. vb. to move incorr. for po q. v. J. 

pu 3., pd-pu-ld dishevelled, a-tsdm p.- 
p.-ld-sd md-rd a person with dishevelled 

*pu 4. [T. beu] s. a calf, pu kup (in- 
corr.) a calf, *pu sd [T. beu gsar-pa] a 
newborn calf. 

*pu 5. T. pu: pu-ti s. a book, T. pu- 
sti Skt. pustaka also po-ti; *pu-pe T. pu- 
dpe s. a copy of book P. 

*pu 6. see dyu pu T. dpog(-pa')?. 

puk s. a species of bamboo, puk sd-lu 
s. a quiver made of puk. 

*pun T. spun(-ba), bons s. size, bulk, 
body, a crowd, herd, flock, a number, 
many; md-rd pun s. a crowd, a multitude, 
mak-mi pun s. the body of the army. 

■^ pun-do T. bons-do (a bulky stone) s. 
a putting-stone, pun-do tyok to put ditto. 

pun 1., a-pun s. 1. the side of anything, 
the edge, nyot pun the sides of a field; 
2. apart, aside, 3. the neighbour i. q. pun- 
bo; a-pun-ka t'o vb. to put aside; a-^un 
rirl vydt s. a neighbourly inquiry. 

*pun 2. T. spun s. brother and sister, 
hospitality. — fam-pun s. a present of 
rice, flesh etc., but more especially flesh; 
hospitality, fraternity, (am,-pun byi vb. to 
give do.; t.-p. mat 1. to give food etc., 
2. to show tenderness, to fraternize. 

pup 1., a-pup s. a piece, a thick piece, 
a block, kun pup. 

pup 2., tuk-pup or tun-pup legs drawn 

pum— pe 

*pe — ^*pe-bo 


in, tuk-pup lyan da vb. to lie (on back) 
with legs drawn up. 

pum 1. vb. to proceed from, to emanate, 
to issue from, to be the origin. — pum, 
a-pum s. the chief sprout of plants, fya 
kun pum, buk pum epigeal radicle of 
Dioscoraceae ; met. the chief cause, the 
primitive, the essential, absolute, perfect, 
fi kun pum s. the head of the ancestors, 
un pum 8. the fountain-head, the source 
of the stream; tuk-mo pum s. a thorough 
confirmed thief, a masterthief; a-mak-sd 
a-pum Id Id-yo gum the origin of death 
is sin. — pum pd-li dak vb. to turn head 
over heels, pum-bo s. the chief, the 
principal, God. — pum-zdt s. the element, 
the cause, the origin. 

pum 2. s. paradise, the dwelling-place 
of the gods P., mun-niin a-pil tsam-lun 
pum-ka so the Mun taking the spirit 
conveys it to heaven. — pwm-tin s. the 
chief god. — pum-nyo, pum-mit or pum- 
mo s. a goddess, the chief of goddesses. 
See a-fya-mo. — pum-zu i. q. pum s. the 
heaven, the seat of glory. — pum-vyen 
s. the door of heaven. 

pum 3., mik-krap pum s. a sloth, a 

*pur T. spur hon. (of king), s. a corpse, 
a dead body, L. fun, a-fun, pd-no pur ju 
to burn do., pd-no pur Un s. the pile 
for burning do., pd-no pur gam (T. sgam) 
a coffin, pd-no pur fal (T. fal') s. the 
ashes of body. 

pe 1. there, that there (not far), pe-d, 
pe-e there, that there, pe tet or pe tydt 
so far, to that place, there (not far), pe fi 
there (near), pe ba there . (at some dis- 
tance), pe me there, down there, pe-re 
that one there, the one there, pe-h-ld, 
pe-lol-ld, pe-ldn, pe-lon-kon adv. there, 
thither, that way, pe lom in that manner; 
pe pe that there, there yonder. 

pe 2. (see pe 3.) vb. n. to be according 
to pattern, hence: to accord, to agree 
with, krut pe bam to agree in council. 
— a-pe adj. fit, suitable, fitting; dum 
a-pe clothes which fit; tuk-tuk a-pe a cap 

which fits; pd-yuk a-hyam,-ka pe a sword 
which fits into sheath; a-pe zon an equal. 

*pe 3. T.-cZpe s. 1. pattern, model, 
pe ndk zuk make according to pattern, 
pe lyok to be like the p., to accord with, 
pe md-suk-ne it is unusual, it was never 
so before, I never saw anything like 
this; — a parable, an illustration pe set 
T. dpe gsad vb. to tell a parable, pe set- 
ydm-bo a person skilled in fables, pe- 
(set) dydr vb. to interpret parables, pe 
lyo-lun U vb. to speak in parable; pe gdn 
for instance, for example, pe-ka, pe tdn- 
dok-ka id., pe-ka U gdn to speak for in- 
stance; — pe pe different kinds, de- 
scriptions, sorts; — in L. used in s. of 
form, figure of person and as an exact 
fit, dum pe bam the cloth fit (see pe 1.!); 
2. copy P. book pe-co a book of religious 

Comp. pe-kran, pe-kr6n T. dpe-tad or 
dpe-Kral s. a Tibetan coin, pe-gam T. 
dpe-sgam s. a book-case, pe-ten s. a 
parable, the signification of p., pe-ten byi 
vb. to give illustration of p. pe-tom T. 
dpe-stonQ-pa) s. 1. a flower in rhetoric, 
a moral doctrine, aphorism, proverb, 
2. tradition, chronicles. 

pe-bo one who works ace. to pattern, 
a modeller, a gold- or silversmith. 

pe 4. T. spas, bal s. wool, sheeps-hair, 
pe ki-je woolen thread, pe fiit (lit. a splice 
or roll of wool) a woolen turban worn 
by pa-wo when performing in ceremony. 

pe 5. for pye (fodder) q. v. 

pe 6. tun-gryon pe to go straddling, 
pe: tun-gryon yok. 

*pe-ken T. bad-kan s. (phlegm); general 
eruption on skin from superabundance 
of do., the Lepchas use the expression 
also for the rough skin that comes off 
soles of foot pe-ken-nun fa. 

pe kom s. see pe cun. 

pe-gen see pe-ken. 

pe-nd s. a manger. 

pe 6un s. a dress similar to pe kom, 
but smaller. 

* pe-bo, pe-po, pe yul see pa-po etc. 


"pe-ma— *po 

pe — *po-Se 

T. bal-po, bal-po yul, bal-yul s. Nepal, 
pe-yul-mo s. a Nepalese. 

*pe-ma T. pad-ma, om (also um) ma-nyi 
pe-me hun Skt. om mani padme Mm P. 

pe-tsa s. name of plant (large leaves), 
pe-tsa bi s. the same as vegetable. 

pe-lun s. a sort of fine basket work, 
flat and used as a plate. 

pe-hldk s. aspect, mien, physiognomy, 
face, general appearance, air, pe-hldk 
a-ryum sd a-jdn a good and bad appear- 

pe-Sop (see ban) s. a small knife. 

pek 1. s. a contrivance for catching 
birds pek sak vb. to set pek. 

pek 2. see a-kd pek s. the fore-arm. 

pen-ji '■'■pengji" s. Briedelia retusa Wtt. 
B. 868. 

pen -re kun s. a tree bearing yellow 
flower, spec, of Michelia M. excelsa Wtt. 
M. 535 ace. Hooker 1, 312 Magnolia. 

pern kydp vb. to be anxious, to be in 
a flurry, to be in a bustle. 

pem kom see pe-kom s. a kind of short 
cloak or shawl. 

*pem-do T. dpe and mdo s. extremity 
of roof, part which projects beyond wall, 
the eaves i. q. U som. 

pem-bar s. a match, a wick of candle 
or lamp. 

*pem-bo T. spen-pa s. the planet Saturn, 
za pem-bo 1. id., 2. Saturday. 

pem-hlap s. the interior (empty) space 
between walls or rafter and roof of house. 

pel 1. incorr. for pydl to be tired also 
pyel J. 2. to wrap up. — a-pel, a-pyel 
adj. wrapped up. 

-po for -bo q. v. T. article -po, -pa. 

*po 1. T. spo(^-ba') vb. n. and t. to move, 
to remove, to flit, to go to another place, 
to alter, to change, to exchange, to re- 
new, lyan po to change one's place; rum- 
sd pdn-cen i.-sd kur dyep-diin-ka lom-bo- 
re po-lun hd-yu td-gum kdn non the angel 
of God which went before the camp of 
J. removed and went behind them Ex. 
— po kyor vb. t. to alter. — po-len s. (po 
alter, len to take) a turn, order, con- 

secutive mutation, po-len-nun dyok zuk 
to work by turns; kd-sii, po-len gum it 
is my turn; po-len po-len by turns, con- 

po 2. s. cfr. T. spa, sba the large 
bamboo ace. Wtt. D. 281. Dendrocalamus 
Hamiltonii Hooker 1, 153, also applied 
as the generic name for bamboo M. 121. 

Comp. po gdn bu (bamboo bursting) 
s. a long period of hot weather Tbr.; 
po gdn ndp s. a spec, of bug that lives 
in dry bamboo; po gdn fo s. blue-throated 
Cyornis. — po-tun i. q. pd-tun a bowl. — 
po tun-kran see tun-kran. — po-fon s. 
l.the rhizoma of bamboo, 2. applied 
to a flute (of b. etc.) closed at the end 
next mouth-hole po-ton pd-lit. — po tyam 
s. a clump, a plantation of po (bamboo). 

— po don s. 1. a young shoot of b., 
2. a bamboo-waterholder, see mdn zo. 

— po-bdn "bamboo-foundation" K pr. 
W. 71, po-bdn po-mi bo or po-mi po-bdn- 
bo, po ban (bon) dor a spec, of Agaricus 
(edible). — po but s. the silicious earth, 
found in bamboo, tabasheer Skt. vams'a- 
locana; it was sometimes mixed with the 
yeast in the fermentation of ci. — po blik 
s. a bamboo torch. — po mik s. the joints 
of bamboo, po mik po bdn-bo s. a Lepcha 
"a liver among bamboos Tbr." — po ruk 
a shoot of bamboo larger than po don; 
po ruk hun b. -shoots when having under- 
gone a putrefactive fermentation after- 
wards eaten. — po-lit i. q. pd-lit s. flute 
made of po. 

po tya s. a kind of female necklace. 

po-mon ka-lut (!) ace. W. "-pomong 
kaum-ut'" i. q. pd-ydn ka-lut Pomato- 
rhinus ferruginosus R. 211. 

po-tsun yom-ldp $el ace. W. "potsung 
yom-lop shel" s. Grampsorhynchus rufulus 
R. 212. 

po rop s. name of evil spirit, po rop- 
niin zdk to be affected by do. to have 
carcinoma applied now to a phagedenic 
syphilitic sore. 

*po-Se, T. spo-M s. amber. Hooker 2, 194 
N. — po-se t'am-blydk s. a spec, of butterfly. 

pok— pot 

pop— *-pd 


pok 1. vb. t. to throw down, to cast 
down, to dethrone, to abolish, to fling 
aside, to prostrate, to reject, to dissolve, 
to abolish, to discord, pd-no pok to de- 
throne king, hryim pok to abolish laws. 
2. vb. n. to be cast down, dejected; 
astonished; to be desperated, kun pok- 
non the tree is cast down; tuk-tyol cil 
pok to be prostrate; sdk pok-non to be 
down-hearted, depressed in mind, td-se- 
sd tsur si-sen pok-n6n on beholding the 
radiance of P. they were astonished P.; 
(fdt-ka) pok-non-ne (he) fell (to the 
ground) J. 

pyok cans, of pok vb. t. to cause to be 
cast down; vb. n. to be disturbed, to be 
in confusion, to be bewildered, un pyok- 
lun vyok to cause the water to shake by 
stirring it up; un fat Idn mi tydn pyok- 
non water, earth, stone and fi^re were in 
one universal chaos, fydn di-ba hd-yu 
ro-lun pyok-non when the enemy came, 
they being afraid fell into confusion. — 
pyok - Idt s. disorder, confusion, dis- 
organization, anarchy, chaos. 

pok, a-pok adj. blunt-headed (as knife) 
ban pok, op p. nyak. 

(pok), pok pok or pok-ld biting in pieces, 
pok pok tsuk vb. to bite off, pok pok tsuk 
fa to bite off and eat, not to break or 
cut and eat. — pak-kd pok-kd or puk-kd 
pak-kd broken, in pieces, puk-kd pok-kd 
dek vb. to break in pieces or divisions, 
piik pok t'a vb. to break with teeth and eat. 

pon see pdn, pun. 

poii 1. vb. n. to become very dry so 
as to crumble to pieces, man poh-non 
the meat has become quiet dry, to be- 
come hard from being kept and becoming- 
bad, said of yam. 

pon 2. s. a fort, a stockade, a barricade, 
pon fyan vb. to fix a barricade. 

*pon 3. T. ban-ba s. 1. a storehouse, 
a repository for grain etc., a magazine; 
2. T. pan lap M. 

*pon-bo T. bon-bu s. a donkey, an ass, 
also applied to a blockhead. 

pot vb. t. to imbue with, to infuse, to 

take anything with hands, to fling with 
fingers, to dash on externally so as to 
have influence on (as water dashed into 
face), to have effect on, to be affected 
by; to absorb, to soak in, to infuse, vom 
pot vb. to salt, to impregnate with salt; 
as water, meat; c6 pot vb. to infuse tea; 
un a-mlem-ka pot vb. to dash water into 
face (as of fainting person), pit pot to 
be affected by wind in stomach, pit pot- 
bo s. one affected by do.; a-so pof-ndn 
to be imbued with evil spirit. 

pop vb. n. to shrink up (as from cold, 
fear etc.), pop -Id non vb. to go along 
shrunk up, said also when going after 
game; so-zdn sd kan-niin pap to shrink 
up thro' cold and anxiety; dor-bi pop a 
spec, of Agaricus, that sprout up in the 
cold shrunk and shrivelled. — pd-pop-ld 
shrunk up, pd-pop-ld non. 

por I. i. q. pdr vb. to break off by 
twisting, bi por to b. off the heads of 
vegetables by seizing and twisting off. 

por 2. vb. n. to become mouldy, to 
mould, zo por-non the rice has become 
mouldy. — a-por adj. mouldy (as rice, 
meat, cloth), I'u a-por mouldy bread. 

(por 3.) por por or por-o^d por-rd grow- 
ing up well and uniformly as plants, or 
animals, plumage of birds: a-myel por 
por Un. See also par. 

*pol 1. T. bol s. the instep or upper 
part of foot, pol-ld ak vb. to pluck up 
by roots, pol-ld non to swagger along, 
i. 0. pdl-ld (see pal') pol-ld til vb. n. to 
fall off legs, to fall down; pol-ld hroh 
to rise up on own's feet, in L. "to rise 
up suddenly"; i. o. pdl-ld unbecoming 
in manner or appearance, incongruous, 
pol-ld non vb. to rise suddenly, to go 
away in a short hasty manner without 
saying a word, hik pol-ld an ugly fowl 
(without a tail). 

*pol 2. T. 'bol-po (to be smooth, to be 
soft, to be yielding) Lepchas use it in 
the sense of level as lyan pd-plu-ld pol 
vb. t. to level a rising ground. 

*-p(i 1. Tib. -JM, -po def. article, e. c. 


-pd— pdk 

pdk-yak— pdt, a-pdt 

tso-p6 paint, dye, colour; 2. i. q. -pa Tib. 
-pa verb, particl. is, art. 

-pd suff. expresses future, 1. c/o noh-po 
I shall go; 2. incorr. i. q. -pu and go- 
run e. c. ho ma-ndn-nd pd (or go-run) go- 
ndn-80 whether you .go or not, I shall go. 

pd (see also pe) 1. vb. n. to be ade- 
quate, to be proportionate to, to be fit, 
to be suitable, to be conformable; — 
a-po adj. suitable, fit; equal, exact, a-p6 
zon an equal; on-ka mlo a-po a-po hyat 
give unto a child a suitable load. — pd- 
Id, pd tet adv. becomingly, befittingly 
M. 75. c. c. -sd (gen.) a-do rin-sd po-ld 
nun-rid le behold I would it might be 
according to thy word G.; hu m hu a-tol 
hii li-sd a-hlep-ka nan-ho byom-lvn sok 
tsii-sd po-ld md-ro rel-ld-nun hu-do zom- 
sd po-ld tsii. kydp-lun luk kup lyo gat-so 
let him and his neighbour next unto his 
house take it according to the number 
of the souls; every man according to 
his eating shall make your count for the 
lamb Ex. — pd-p6-ld adv. proportionately. 
— p6l-ld i. q. pd-ld. 

pd 2. s. a bank, a ridge of earth fat- 
pd; a balustrade, palisade, tsuk-po po fern 
a wall built with steps or ridges. 

*pd 3. T. (spo-ba to change) bad soft 
iron, p6 piin-jen, ban-po. 

pdk see pdk. 

pdk 1., a-pok s. dough, zo td-i-pok. 

pdk 2. probably derived from the same 
source as T. dpog-pa vb. to weigh, to 
measure, to ponder physically or mental- 
ly, mdk pdk-lun dp vb. to take good aim 
at target and fire (to measure or calculate 
distance). See pu 6. 

pdk 3. vb. to pretend, to shame, to 
shade eyes as with hand, a-mik pok-lun 
ndk to shade eyes with h. in order to 

pdk 4. vb. to poke into, as stick, finger: 
kd-jdk pdk etc.,. to stick into, to dibble: 
pd-fum pdk, to stamp or kick out with 
foot, to insert, to kick out backwards 
and forwards, tun-fya pdk to kick out. 

pdk 5. s. (Hind, pdgrt) 1. a turban. 

2. a garland, wreath, pdk nyok vb. to tie 
on t. ; ju-pdk s. crown of thorns J. ; rip- 
pdk s. a coronet of flowers, rip-pdk lam 
to wreath ditto. 

pdk-yak 1. shrinking of nerves as from 
shame etc., modesty, shame, bashfulness; 
2. vb. to feel do. a-gyap tydn gdn pdk- 
yak-so; dytt Idt-ba, md-rd si gdn, pdk- 

pdn see pdn and tap-pdh. 

*pdn 1. T. spon vb. to renounce, to 
repudiate, to reject, to abnegate, to dis- 
own, a-kvp-m pdn-lun ryak my a vb. to 
swear to renounce one's child; dyit de 
lyan pdn to disown one's native country; 
td-do a-kup pdn to disown one's own 
children; md-rd do dydt.pdn to give up 
one's own inclinations. 

pdn 2. 8. grass, pdn ci s. hay, pdn pd- 
lek s. a grass-field, a grass-plot, pdn so- 
gi zdn like the dew on the grass, pdn- 
rip a flowering grass, pdn ndk s. a spec, 
of rush, pdn pa-rip a spec, of g., used 
as incense, pdn td-rel s. a species of 
cicada or grasshopper, pdn bon mdt s. 
a species of stone-grass. 

pdn 3., a-pdn s. a small piece (as of 
cloth etc.) a scrap, a crumb. 

pdn 4. vb. to dam up water, met. "ear 
to be dammed" to be deaf, a-nyor pdn. 

*pdn-Rep T. pan-Kebs s. an apron. 

"pdn-rfm T. ban-rim (a series of heaps) 
in L.: a series of heaps of food tor-mo 
at riim fat. 

*pdn Sufi ddn T. ban byun-ba and 'gran- 
pa to make a running, jump. 

pdt vb. to fructify, to bear fruit, to 
vegetate, to give advantage, to multiply. 
— to hang as soot etc., pHr-cin pot-bam. 

pdt, a-pdt s. 1. the fruit of trees, a-pdt 
fik fruit is formed, kun a-gyap nyi dok- 
kUn a-pdt md-nyin-ne there are many 
trees without fruit, kun-pdt-bo re ryel 
ryel mat md-nyin-ne every tree is not a 
fruit-tree; kun pdt the fruit of tree, kun 
pdt-bam the tree is bearing fruit; kdl-pdt 
a. a walnut; — 2. a ball siin-li pdt the 
weights for senking net; da-bryd pdt a 


ball for pelletbow; nyen pot s. the breasts 
of women, udder of cows, bon pot s. a 
mouthful; a-nyor pot the dew-lap, for kHr- 
tyu Tbr.; — 3. foetus, nyen pot being 
with child, said of unmarried wife; — 
4. fruit of labour etc., return, result, 
produce, effect, profit, advantage, pro- 
duct, a-p6t fop vb. to obtain the fruits 
of labour; — pot lyan s. the source of 
support, as father to child or labour to 
labourer etc. a-bo a-mo a-kvp-sd p6t lyan 
gum the parents are the child's source 
of support. M-sd ayok pot-bam he is 
obtaining the reward of his labour. 

fam-pot s. a fruit. 

p6t krim see sd-hor (a spec. Solanum). 

pdn 1. vb.n. to be chapped, to be jagged, 
to be gapped as blade of knife etc., to 
be serrated. 

pdn (see pan) 2. vb. n. to help, to 
assist, to benefit, to be of use, to be of 
advantage, to be useful, to avail, p6n-ld 
mat vb. 1. to benefit, to use, 2. to re- 
cover (as to recover from sickness), to 
be restored, md pon-non 1. the wound 
is healed, 2. the w. is improved, sak-lyak 
pdn to recover from anger; a-dom su p&n 
li te of what use is it speaking to you; 
sii-ld md-pon-ne it is of no use; a-do 
p6n-nun-sd tun-dok-ka in order to benefit 
you; pon md-nyin-num-bo adj. useless, 
profitless, irreparable, incurable; — suf- 
ficient, a-dul sal md-pon-ne not s. to wet 
one's lips; un not pon tet tan to drink s. 
to satisfy or quench thirst; md-ro-ka ayok 
ku-ba md-r6 kat li-ba: so yu nan vn kat- 
tun li-ba: a-tydt zon so Ml md-pon-ne 
while performing work, one remarked: 
it is raining; another said: so little rain 
is not sufficient to wet one; sak not pon 
tydt (dn to drink to one's hearts content; 
un not pon tet fan to drink sufficient to 
gnash thirst; — used in sense of right, 
claim, title, ho to ho kd-su-ka su pon-ld 
md-nyin-ne who are you, you have no 
authority over me; a-re kd-do-sd ho pdn 
md-nyin-ne this is mine, you have no 
claim to it; pdn-sd md-nyin-ne 1. it was 

pdp— *pyan-Sin 


to no purpose, it was iu vain; 2. there 
is no remedy; pon fo-wmi-sd a-lem cik 
to repay a kindness, to return tit for tat 
krin len cik; pon-^ydmybo adj. one ready 
to assist another, useful as person, thing, 
beneficial as medicine; — a-pon s. help, 
assistance, a-pon fop vb. to get assistance. 

pdp vb. t. 1. to open out, to separate 
as crowd, edges of wound etc., 2. to 
spread out cloth, dum pop to spread out 
one's clothes so as to receive anything. 

pdr 1. vb.n. to smell offensively, ap- 
plied to the smell of armpits etc. also 
of babies when unwashed. 

*pdr 2. T.par printing, casting, mould- 
ing, also the type or mould itself; the 
thing cast or moulded; pdr kyop (T. par 
rgyab-pa) or por bUk vb. to print, to 
stamp as on paper; jer pdr kydp vb. to 
cast gold, CO pdr buk to print a book. 

pdr 3. s. a sheet of paper, pdr Idk vb. 
to make paper: co-gu pdr Idk to cast 
mould as bullets, etc. 

pdr 4. (cow po pdr see pdr 2.) s. a 
ceremony in funeral rites, see cdn. 

pdr-boii (?) ''porbong" ace. Wtt. L. 498 
Livistona Jenkinsiana. 

pdl vb. to slip down (as earth), to flow 
over (as water), un pdl-ld pdl-ld yu (water) 
to go flowing over (as stones or rocks), 
a-sdm pdl vb. to die Tbr. 

pdl s. a supposed invisible fence made 
round by mun to protect from evil spirits, 
a magic circle T. mtsams-gcod; pdl sun 
s. id.; pdl sun rdfi or gor vb. to guard 
houses by pdl from mun\ pdl smm gor bu 
■iian vb. house to be thus surrounded. — 
tiik-pdl s. a railing, a fence, a wall as 
round fields, a hedge, tiik-pdl pdl-fo vb. 
to fence, to hedge; tiik-pdl pio bo tsdk to 
fence round with stakes. 

pdl-la see pd-ld under pd. 

pya s. faintness, insensibility, pyd-ld li 
vb. to feel faint, pyd zon noh id.; pyd-ld 
mat vb. to faint, to become insensible; 
pyd nun ndn id. 

*pyan-Sin and pydn-sin 1. T. hyan-Un s. 
(a board of writing on, a wooden address) 


pyat— pya 


in L. : the piece of wood in centre of 
pellet-tow for laying hold of pellet, da- 
iry 6 py6n-Un the clasp of pellet-bow; 
2. i. q. jdn-sin T. sbyon(-pa) and sin q.v. 

pyat, pydt-td pydt-td not quite reaching, 
inadequate, scarcity, pydt-td pydt-td mat 
tsam md-fop-ne except a slight catch of 
it, I did not get it; pydt-td pydt-td mat 
vb. to fee deficient (a little); pydt pydt 
zo short commons, half rations. 

pyan, pydn-nd pydn-nd scattered over, 
besprinkled, p.-nd p.-nd fik to to be 
scattered over, fo pydn-nd pydn-nd di 
non birds came in great numbers, zo 
ryum, dum-ka pydn-nd pydn-nd fik nan 
the particles of rice hang thickly over 
your clothes. 

pyap see pyap there, yonder. 

py4m, pydm pydm giddy, lightheaded, 
pydm pydm li vb. to feel giddy. 

pyar vb. n. not quite to reach to, not 
quite to attain to, to fall short of, to 
be somewhat deficient in; to be divided, 
apart, Um pydr "ends apart" "tail apart" 
s. fish-tail; to be half drunk Tbr., Up 
pydr-ld nan "the leaves do not quite meet 
each other" Tbr.: the man is muddled 
with. — pydr-ld yo to be halfdrunk. — 
pydr-bo somewhat deficient in, muddled. 

pyar dem. pr. 1. there, that there i. q. 
pe-re, 2. incorr. for pir, pyir. 

pyal 1. vb. n. to be tired, to be weary, 
to be fatigued, to be worn out, exhausted, 
pyal non tired etc., o-re-nun mat-lun ay. 
lom-lUn pydl non-niin-sd un ram-ka fi 
nan J. therefore, being wearied with his 
journey, sat on the well J. 

pyal vb. t. to wrap up, to enclose in a 
covering, to enfold; — pydl-ld adv. com- 
pletely, altogether. 

pyal or pyel expletive to kyum. 

*pya T. bya s. bird, pya ju rin fo i. q. 
te ndn ju rin fo the yellow-billed blue 
magpie Urocissa flavirostris. M. — ace. W. 
hlo pyaju rin tyep Q^peitrintiep^^) Columba 
leuconota R. 208. 

pya, pya-ld adv. at the extremity, edge, 
bordering, nyot dan pya-ld da the field 

lies at the extremity of the low range 
of hill. — sd-pya-ld i. q. pya-ld at the 
extremity, outer end, borders, side-wise. 

pyak vb. n. to be ripe as beer ci pyak- 
n&n the b. is ripe; 2. pyak run see jum- 
run. — a-pyak adj. ripe (as spirit, chi), 
s. spirit, essence? 

pyan 1. vb. n. to be lost, 2. vb. t. to 
mislay, to lose, pyan-non lost, missing, 
pyan lon-bo s. a beggar. 

pyap, pyap-pa dem. pr. there (far away 
at the horizon, or as far as one can see). 

pyi see under pi. 

pyft see pit. 

pyit 1. vb. to glance by or off as a 
bullet, to pass by without meeting to- 
gether, go hum md-tsum-ne kd-nyi pyit- 
non I did not meet him, we (two) missed 
(passed by each other), sd-dydr mi 6p- 
ba dyu-re mdk-rem pyit when firing (for 
the bullet) to glance off the target. 

(pyit) 2., ta-pyit or tuk-pyft s. a fire-fly, 
gen. Lampyridae; tHk-pyit miin-un om- 
bam (the fireflies) shine phosphorescently; 
prov. : tuk-pyit-niin so-rin-ka dm md-Kion- 
ne the fireflies cannot shine in the sun- 
shine: a little man cannot become great, 
cannot perform impossibilities; — tiik-pyit 
bu s. a glow-worm; — tiik-pyit kun a 
species of Cassia, C. fistula (?), t.-p. k. 
nydk C. obvolata?; — tiik-pyit rik s. a 
species of creeper, Paederia foetida; the 
fruit used by Nepalese to blacken the 
teeth, to kill the parasites in teeth; tvk- 
pyit rik pot s. the fruit of Paederia, used 
to stain the teeth black, under the idea 
that it preserves them. 

pyin see pin under pi 1. 

*pyin T. spyin s. glue. 

pyin T. spyin vb. t. to distribute, to 

pyir, pyil see pir, pil and under pi 1. 

pyun vb. t. to accumulate, to heap to- 
gether, to mix together as men and ani- 
mals or different articles, vb. n. to be 
commingled, pyiin to vb. to heap together. 
— a-pyiin s. a stock, store, heap of any- 
thing, numbers. 

pyup— pyok 

pyoft— pydp 


pyup vb. t. to clinch hands, mak-ha 
a-kd pyiip vb. to clinch hands while 
dying; tarn a-kd-nun pyup vb. to grasp 
anything in hand. 

pyiir (P. Mscpt.), incorr. for pyir, pir 
see pi 1. 

pyur vb. n. to be in great quantities 
or numbers: pyur-rd pyur-rd in crowds, 
heaps, quantities, vyan-bu p.-rd p.-rd da 
nyi the maggots to be in great numbers. 

pyul Tb. t. to stir about, to agitate any- 
thing with hands, to whisk, to whip, nyen 
makpyul (as cream) to bubble up; gyam- 
tso-sd num-hon pyul the waves of the sea 
to be agitated. 

pye, pe s. fodder for cattle, pye-ka non 
gone to graze i. q. z6t non; pye a-som 
dried fodder; pye no s. a manger, a 

*pye-wo T. brel-ba s. work, business, 
occupation, used in sense of flurry, agi- 
tation; pye- wo kyop i. q. pern kydp i. q. 
pye-wo mat to make harried preparations. 

pyek vb. 1. to adhere to, to stick to; 
2. kd pyek or kd pek s. the forearm, for 

pyet vb. t. to rub sharply with fingers, 
to rub sharply against, to strike fire, as 
with steel mi pyet; to knock against or. 
together, to struggle with in speach or 
person, to try, to attempt, to endeavour, 
to vie, to emulate, to strive with, md- 
ro-sd pyet to struggle with another, used 
also in the sense of "to attempt" as 
grdp pyet yan md-Kun-ne I have tried, 
but cannot do it; go nd rum-sd a-pyet- 
pdn kd-sH ndm^sd Id pyet JcH with great 
wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister 
and I have prevailed G. go gyap pyet 
go-run md-KHn-ne tho' I have tried hard 
I can't succeed; rin pyet to bandy words, 
to argue, to dispute; pyet-td pydt-td li to 
altercate. — a-pyet s. wrestling, struggling. 

pyel see pydl. 

pyo vb. t. to understand, to know, pat 
rin pyo vb. to understand the Tibetan 

pyok cans, of pok q. v. 

pyon vb. n. to be coming to head (grain), 
— pyon, a-pyon s. a head of corn zo pyon, 
a small skein of unspun cotton fe' pyo7i; 
a-pyon kd-kydk a-ryum lim-bo kun kat-ka 
lin hron seven ears of corn came up 
upon one stalk rank and good Ex. 

pyom vb. n. to be skinned, as bark of 
tree or skin of animal by a blow ; to rise 
in blisters; see plyom. 

*py(5 T. spra^-ba) s. 1. tinder, made from 
the interior of the sd-mon kun, sd-dydm, 
tHk-blo etc.; pyo-ka mi pyet vb. to kindle 
tinder by striking fire from flint, pyo 
hlom vb. to dry the tinder; — 2. match- 
paper, pyo mi tsdt kdn to set match 

pydn i. q. pyan or pydn. 

pydn 1. s. the breadth of anything, 
a-fww sd pyon re the length and br., 
pyon kdn breadth-wise. 

"pydn 2. T. pi-wan s. a violin, pyon 
nok-set s. or pydn nok sd-li s. the bow 
of v., the fiddle-stick; pyon gi-kii or p. 
zer s. the peg of v.; pyon kut a guitar- 
string; pyon top vb. to play on p. 

"pydn pyet s. aco. M. fr. T. grans p'yed 
L. equality, pyon pyet tak vb. to be a 
match, to be equal, to be a companion 

*pydn Ion-bo T. spran slon-po s. "a col- 
lector of alms", a beggar. 

pydn vb. 1. to diminish, to decrease, 
to be left undone, unfinished as work or 
food, Id-vo pyon (moon) to wane, pyon- 
non to be diminished, to be decreased, 
mi pyon-non the fire has subsided; — 
2. to be imperfect, incomplete, dyok pyon- 
non the work 1. has decreased, 2. is un- 
finished; mlo pyon a defective article 
(as a cracked glass). — pyon-ld adv. 
decreasingly, collapsingly, defectively. — 
a-pyon adj. defective, halfdone, unfinished; 
waning (moon), a-pyon a-ndk blackish, 

pydp vb. n. to be noisy (with voice), 
to talk incessantly, to jabber, to wrangle, 
pydp-(^ydm')-bo s. a jabberer; — pydp-ldt 
s. garrulity; — a-pydp adj. chattering, 



pydl— prat 

prat— pru 

talking idly, a-pyop rin mat vb. to chatter; 
a-pyop ham-bo s. a chatter-box. 

pydl vb. t. 1. to make a mark or im- 
press fyol fo, ton pydl s. a foot-print, 2. to 
lop (as tree) not to prune, to trim, kun 
pydl to lop ti'ee. — a-pyol s. 1. mark of 
footstep, a-bo-sd a-pyol- ka a-kup kydp 
bam (a son) to walk in the steps of his 
father. 2. the clipping, trimming of a 
hedge. — a-pyol a-nok s. ink? M. 

pra 1. s. materials, the articles for 
performing anything, li-sd pro, s. the 
materials for building house; tuk-pol-sd 
prd materials for making a fence. See fo 2. 

pra 2. cfr. T. 'pral advly. abreast, along- 
side of, prd-ld 16m vb. to walk abreast, 
in unison, prd-ld cin vb. to think in 

prak s. the edge of precipice, prdk 
kun no an old rotten tree on the point 
of falling, as if on the edge of precipice ; 
an old man Tbr. ; prdk-ka m,d-din-nun 
do not stand on the edge of a precipice. 

pran altogether, simultaneous, at once, 
M. 75, prdn-ld dp vb. to fire simultane- 
ously; prdn-ld dyok zuk rb. to work 

prah see pron. 

pram see pram (short). 

prSm s. (old Lepcha, now obsolete) 
weeping, pram mat vb. to weep, pram 
mat-Id sok hrydp to weep and cry. 

pra vb. n. to lie double as cloth, as 
net, to be in folds, dum pra; — a-pra 
s. cloth when worn double. 

prak 1. advly. quite, entirely, tightly, 
firmly, prak-ld dam vb. to tie tightly; 
prak-ld non vb. to be entirely gone; prak- 
ld tsam to take fast hold of (an entire 
hold); prak-ld dek to break asunder. 

prak 2.: prak-kd prak-kd onom. noise 
of footsteps (see prap) or of breaking. 
— pruk prak breaking by bending back- 
wards and forwards (as a piece of tin) 
pruk prak dek the noise of ditto. 

prat advly. cfr. T. pred, 'pred across, 
un kyon prat-ld ndn vb. to go across 
river, dum prat-ld hydn to hang up cloth 

across; kun l&m prat-ld kdk da the tree 
is lying across. 

prat see prut. 

prap i. q. prak (sound of footsteps). 

prap-du or tuk-prap-du or tuk-prap mun 
s. n. of evil spirit, t-p. m. zdk vb. to 
suffer under infiuence of do., gout or 
rheumatic gout (tuk-) prap-du. 

pram (also pram) vb. to be short of 
stature sun-gryon pram s. a small spec, 
of spider; kun-du pram s. a short spec, 
of Solanum; pram zo s. a spec, of rice 
i. q. mun pap; — pram pram or pd-pram- 
bo or pum-pram-bo adj. short, s. a spec, 
of woodlouse, pd-{pum)-pram-ld advly.; 
— a-pram i. q. kun-du pram. 

prfn, prin prin throbbing, palpitating 
(pain) prin prin ddk. 

prit (see prut, prat), prit-bo adj. separate, 
dispersed, prit-ld adv. scattered, dispersed 
in every direction, prit-ld pld vb. n. to 
come out in every direction, prit-ld sdn 
vb. n. to be scattered in every direction; 
prit-ld bu vb. n. to be cracked all about. 

prft s. an axe, a hatchet prit hyen sd- 
tsuk tat the handle came off and the sun 
is set: a saying expressing: it is time to 
leave off work, prit fut s. the handle of 
axe, prit fut hyen (the h.) to come off, 
prit Ion eye of h., prit-sd kyok vb. t. or 
prit-sd cek vb. t. to hew with axe; prit 
kyok zon li vb. to speak straight-forwardly. 

prfm-fo s. several specc. of the warbler: 
blackbreasted wren-warbler Suya atro- 
gularis Je. 2, 184, dan prim-fo brown 
wren-warbler Suya crinigera Je. 2, 183. 

prun vb. t. to pull forcibly so as to 
break, prUn-Mn dek to snap, to rend 

*pru 1. T. 'brug{-pa) s. Bhutan people, 
the north, pru kdn id., pru lok the people 
of Bru, pru-mo s. a Butiah, cfr. a-rat. 

(pru 2.), pru guk s. dust, ashes, o-re m. 
lyan om-ka pru-guk-ka lydk-sdn m. lyan 
om-ka num-Um-nyo sd tam-cdn md-zH-ka 
pldm-bo frdn nydm nun-so it shall be- 
come small dust in all the land of B, 
and shall be a boil breaking forth with 

pru pru — prok 

prol— prdn 


blains upon man and upon beast, through- 
out all the land of B. Ex. 

pru pru s. the call to fowls, hik md- 
ba pru pru li when calling to fowl say 
pru pru. 

pru kun-Sel see kun-sel {'pru 1.?). 

pruk vb. to join hands together, to 
place hands basonshaped as when re- 
ceiving water a-kd pruk; — a-pruk s. 
(hands) joined together basonshaped. 

prut advly. prut-td prat-td in divisions, 
by parts; prut-td prat-td sok to vb. t. to 
unite together by pieces. 

prum see num-prum. 

pre-je i. q. bre-je. 

prek 1. vb. t. to track, to trace, 2. to 
wrap up (as bundle), to enclose in (as 
bundle). — a-prek adj. folded (as leaf or 
paper), rumpled. See prdk. 

prek 2. onom. prek-ld adv. sounding as 
slap td-gryu-ka prek-ld buk or (lyup) vb. 
to give a sounding slap on cheek. 

pren vb. n. to swell, to be inflated, as 
stomach, td-bdk pren-nd pren-nd (n&n). — 
pun-pren-ld starting out, pun-pren-ld ndk 
vb. to look with starting eyes; pun-pren- 
ld blydn vb. to fill to bursting point. 

prep vb. to climb (as tree). 

pro vb. t. to make a noise (with voice), 
to cry out aloud, lik pro vb. to make a 
noisy sound with voice, pro hut vb. to 
shout, to cry out aloud, j6k pro noise, 
brawling, squabbling. — prom ger. from 
pro (to cry out) noise, noisy, go prom 
md-Kun-ne I cannot speak loud, p^om 
ydm-bo a noisy person. — a-prom s. a 
noise. — prot vb. t. to shout out, prot 
nyon vb. to cause to cry out, prot-ld lik 
to shout out (to a person as in anger). 

pro, a-pro s. a rib, bik pro a cow's rib, 
a-pro gal non the rib is broken; a-pro- 
ka cat s. the pleurisy. 

prok vb. n. to burst, to be cracked, 
met.: sak prok vb. 1. to burst out into 
laughter. 2. to be bursting with inward 
laughter sd-gdn sak prok bam. — prok-ld 
cracked, burst, prok-kd no vb. to be 
bursting ripe; prok-kd cot-td bu to be 

cracked in every direction; prok-Qd) bu 
cracked, burst. 

prol (see krol) 1. vb. to fall into hole 
(foot) dyan prol-lun brom; — 2. to lay 
down as beam of house tuk-prvl prol; — 
3. horizontally, across, see also rol; ■ — 
tiik-prol s. transverse (first) beams of 

pr6k 1. incorr. for prok, prdk. 

prdk 2. vb. t. to cover, to envelop, to 
wrap up covering over top with the 
edges as a bundle; opp. dam, q. v. e. c. 
mak-non-bo a-dyan a-kd dum-sd dam-Id 
a-mlem-ka to-ro prok-ld pld he that was 
dead came forth, bound hand and foot 
with graveclothes : and his face was bound 
about with a napkin J.; c. c. -sd dum-sd 
prdk (they) wound (it) in (linen) clothes 
J.; dum prok 1. vb. to wrap up cloth, 
2. s. a bundle of cloth; ci prok s. a vessel 
made of leaves for carrying the ferment- 
ed grains; — met. sak-dak-niin prdk vb. n. . 
to be wrapped in grief; num-nim prok 
vb. n. to be plunged in debt; dyok-niin 
p'ok to be over head and ears in work. 

— prok to i. q. prok. — pun-prok s. ex- 
pletive to a-sop; a-sop pun-prok muscular 
integuments, sinews. 

prdk 3., onom. prok-kd prok-kd the 
sound of felling and burning jungle 
prok-kd prok-kd grik. 

prdn 1. s. 1. a spec, of bamboo Hooker 
I, 158, 313, Arundinaria Hookeriana Wtt. 
A. 1528 pron ndk Arundinaria falcata 
ibd. 1523. 2. a spec, of creeper; pron 
rik M. Comp. pron ca-rik s. Holboellia 
latifolia '■'pronchadik" Wtt. H. 304. — 
pron cot-rik s. Polygonum runcinatum. M. 

— pron bi s. a spec, of ground-creeper 
(eaten). — pron muk s. a plant. M. — 
prdn zam (kun) s. Macropanax imdulatura 
Wtt. M. 30; Pittosporum floribundum 
(Senecio nepalensis) Wtt. P. 912. — 
pron-sd mydr fo s. litly. "the bird that 
lurks in the ^r.-bamboo" n. of several 
specc. of bushwarblers : the blackeared 
warbler Abrornis schisticeps; the red- 
headed tit Aegithaliscus erythrocephalus ; 


prdn— prydt 

prydm— plan 

the chestnut-headed hill-tit Minla castani- 
ceps M. Je 2,255. 

prdii 2. 1. vb. to be large, applied to 
fire nni pron. 2. adjly. many ju prdn 
quantities of thorn, thicket of thorn. 

prdn-yut s. a liar, romancer Tbr. 

prdt see under pro, 

prdi 1. vb. to stop, said of rain so prol; 

pr6l 2. s. a-prol 1. interval or space of 
time, a-prol a-prol by degrees, a-prdl 
a-prol ayok mat to do work at intervals, 
by degrees; nam kat-sd a-prol mat zuk 
nam rel-ld md-zuk-ne a-prol a-prol zuk-so 
make the best of every second; 2. a. 
division or section in book, in work, in 
food etc. CO a-prol P., 3 an installment 
of money. 

prya and pryo vb. t. to celebrate in song, 
to sing of, a-go-sd vdm prya vb. to sing 
a song of love, mun fydn ha prya dun 
when the mun-fydn recites, he does so in 
verse, prya-bo s. a poet; — vb. n. to be 
honorary, prya-bo or pryo-bo adj. honorary 
a-fyen pryo-bo an honorary (poetical) title; 
— a-prya a^dwm adj. honorary, poetical, 
fanciful, a-prya a-dum num-nu distant 
relationship. — prydm vb. n. to be in tune 
(as song) to be in harmony, to be sweet 
(in sound); — a-pryom s. the time as of 
a song the tone of anything. 

pryit i. q. prit. 

pryut redupl. put-pryiit-ld squeezing 
out, put-pryut-ld dyep vb. to press out as 
matter out of boil. 

prye, pryek see pre, prek. 

pryo i. q. prya. 

prydk 1. vb. t. to cut down (jungle) 
pd-zok prydk, to penetrate right thro' (as 
sword) pd-yuk-nun md-zu pryok-ld non, 
to run one right thro' the body with a 
sword. See prydt. 

prydk 2. s. work, labour; vb. to work, 
to labour, 

prydii vb. t. 1. to publish, to make 
public, to promulgate, 2. (old L.) to make 

prydt vb. n. to go right thro', dyu pryot- 
ndn the bullet has gone right thro'; pryot- 

Id adoly from one end to another, un- 
broken, continually; cin prydt-ld cm vh. 
to think incessantly, pryot-la fyo or ko vb. 
to understand well (thoroughly). See 

prydm 1. see prya, pryo. 

prydm 2. vb. t. to find out, to discover, 
to elucidate as problem, riddle; a-pryom 
s. the solution of problem or riddle. 

pla 1., pla-m, caus. plyd, plyd-m vb. n. 
to issue, to come forth, td-se-fin-re U-nun 
pld-sen td-se yu num-tsur-mit Id ryak-lun 
gydn-ban hryop-yam-o Padmasambhava 
left his palace but his wife 'Od- c'an-ma 
followed and recalling him burst out into 
tears P. to proceed, to come into 
existence, to happen, to befall, to ensue, 
to penetrate, ko pld-non-ne the order has 
gone, forth M. 8 ; — pldm ger., pldm dydt 
vb. to comeforthEx; — luh-kd sd-nyiim-ka 
dyesu-nun g.-ka pldm sak di-bdn f.-sd 
tsum—lun hum li the day following Jesus 
would go forth into G. and findeth Ph. 
and saith unto him J. pldm-bo p. going 
forth etc. J.-Caus. pldm kon vb. to drive 
away J. ; — plyd caus. of pld vb. to cause 
to issue plyd dydn or plyd nyon vb. t. to 
cast out; M. J. plyd Ion vb. t. to bring- 
forth Ex; plyd hdt nyon vb. t. to drive 
out Ex; plydm kon let it issue M. — 
a-pldm s. the source; a-pldm lyan s. the 
outlet, the original place from whence 
any one or any thing proceeds. 

pla 2. redupl. pd-pld see under plu. 

plak (see Malt) vb. n. to be round etc. 
caus. plydk; a-pldk s. 1. a ball, a piece 
of anything, a lump; 2. a gust of wind, 
the swift flight of clouds, a stream as of 
men. — caus. plydk vb. 1. to make round 
as a ball 2. to come or go in flights or 
streams, as clouds, animals etc., dyu plydk- 
liin nun to be in constant squabble i. q. 
dyu kyom-lun nun. — fat plydk see fat; 
mon plydk s. a pill. — reduplic. pd-plydk- 
Id round, globular. — Comp. fam-plydk 
s. a ball for playing. 

plan, a-plan s. I. the place over a thing, 
the top T. bla, sten; 


plan — plen 


pldn-re, U-pldn-re the house-top, — II 
adv. above, upon, over, on, i. q. a-pldn-ka 
1. id. (c. gen.) pldn-ka, on-pldn-ka on horse- 
back, tsuk-lat kdn rip a-dum-sd a-pldn-ka 
san-gye dor-ji sam-po ju-yam-o, lum kdn 
rip pd-qyor-bo-sd a-pldn-ka rUm rin-cen 
jun den ju-yam-o, tsuk-kydr kdn rip a-hyir- 
bo-sd a-pldn-ka san-gye na-wo fa -yi ju- 
yam-o, pat kon-nUn rip fun-fin-bo-m a-pldn- 
ka san-gye ta-yin riip-po ju-yam-o, hu-yu 
fd-li-bo-sd a-pldn-ka a-cuk-ka rip fun-fin bo- 
sd a-plan-ka san-gye na-pd non-zdt ju- 
yam-o in the eastern region on a white 
(lotus)-fiower was seated Buddha Vajra- 
satva (T. rdo-rje sems-dpu), inthe southern 
region on a yellow flower the god Ratna- 
sambhava (T. rin-cen 'byun), in the 
western region on a red flower Buddha 
Amitabha (T. snan-ba mfd-yes), in the 
region of Tibet on a blue flower Buddha 
Amoghasiddha (T. don-yod sgrub-pd); 
higher than the four mentioned and amidst 
of all on a blue flower appeared Buddha 
Vairocana (T. mam-par snan-mdsad). P. 
— 2. regarding, concerning, with refe- 
rence to, on, md-ro-sd a-pldn-ka rin li to 
make reflections on another; 3. moreover, 
besides, byi-wun-sd a-pldn-ka besides 
giving, fydn-dyu-bo kat kat sot-sd a-pldii- 
ka td-ayu gun s6t fat-tun besides killing 
the actual enemy they kill also the 
females; a-pldn-ka ka vb. to add to what 
was before. — 4. exceeding, more than 
hu pldn-ka zuk to excel, to surpass him; 
5. in the midst of, a-z6m a-tdn-sd 
a-pldn-ka bam to live in the midst of 
plenty, upon, mi-zdr-mo-pdn-nvn go j. 
dyum-ba ydn yd-sdn-ka go f.-sd Am m.ak- 
pun om-sd a-pldn-ka a-bryan nyi-so I will 
be honoured upon Ph. and upon all his 
host; that I am the lord Ex. — III. in s. 
of independence, a-pldn li sUm-bo md- 
nyin-ne to be independent, to be one's 
own master. — {a-)pldn-bo s. a superior, 
a higher one M. — pldn-nyim-bo s. id., 
in opp. to myin-nyim-bo. 

plan 1. vb. n. to fall over as precipice 
etc., sd-g&r zHt I6m-ba pldn when walking 

near a precipice to fall down; — sd-pldn 
falling over and down, un sd-gon-ka sd- 
pldn the water flows over the cliff. 

plan 2. vb. n. to wind cotton on a stick 
lengthwise, ki pldn. 

plan 3. vb. t. to break young sproats. 

pldn vb. n. to be short as garment, 
redupl. pd-pldn-bo adj. short as garment. 

pldm see under pld. 

plak vb. t. to crack fingers, a-kd plak. 

plap, red. pd-plap-ld blunt (as knife). 

pli, pil-m vb. to deny, to persist in 
denying, go-nixn hii zuk yan li yan-ld hu 
pli-nan I accused him of doing it but 
he denied it; to refuse, ho-ni/n hum pli- 
liin md-lyot-nd gdn if thou refuse to let 
him go Ex. plim-ld persistingly, (mw'i) 
plim-ld nd bam; (evil spirit) to hurt con- 
tinually; plim cik vb. to deny. — plim and 
a-plim s. contradiction, adj. refused, a-pliin 
mat^h. 1. to contradict 2. to refuse, a-plim 
rin li contradictory language a-plim ayok 
mat vb. to write in opposition: pi-liin 
ay ok mat. 

plin i. q. plen q. v., sd-plin-ld adv. 

pifn vb. n. to be too thick (cloth), pijn- 
plin-bo adj. scant, insufficient to cover 
body (cloth). 

plu, pd-plu-ld adv. prominent, rising 
higher than surrounding parts, pd-plu-ld 
nan to be prominent above surrounding 

plup vb. t. to plaster, to cover over, to 
rise one above another; — pd-plup-ld 
adv. swelling as eyes, prominentas hillock, 
pd-plup-ld nan to have a swelling article 
or performance. See plu. 

plut i. q. flut vb. n. to escape from 
clutches, to slip from hand, as animal 
or thing to slip or slide down, as a load 
on a downward shelf or thing off roof 
of house etc., — plyut cans, of plut to 
cause to escape. 

plen vb. t. n. to cut or turn out of a 
straight direction kun cet-ba plen-non 
when cutting wood to do so crookedly. 
— a-plen adj. not straight, uneven, a-plen 



pidm— plyen 

bi vb. to split uneyenly. — sd-plen s. 
deviation from a straight line, crooked, 
lom-ba sd-plen mat to make crooked 
steps; — sd-plen-ld advly. sd-plen-ld da 
vl). to be crooked, sd-plen-ld nan nyi to 
go in crooked manner. 

plok onom. sound made by breaking 
of yam or pd-ruk, plok-ld grik. 

plon, piin-plon-ld adv. scraped (skin). 

plop i. q. plop. 

pl6k 1. vb. n. to be slain, to be mur- 
dered, plok-non; plok zdk vb. to be 
wounded to death. 

pl5k 2. 1. s. a log of wood set up to 
mark out field preparatory to cutting 
and burning it, pldk tsdk fo vb. to set up 
plok; — 2. adj. fixed (work) kd plok. 

pldk 3. vb. to be stubborn, to be perverse, 
to be obstinate, to refuse (permission); 
to refuse to have carnal connection, 
applied to wife or husband. 

pidn 1. vb. t. to cross, to pass through, 
plon-non id. T., I.-kup-pdn a-s6n-ka td- 
lyd dd cuk-ka plon-non- so the children 
of I. shall go on dry ground through the 
midst of the sea. Ex.; — 2. adj. straight 
from top to bottom, straight throughout, 
pl6n-ld bu vb. to crack straightly from 
top to bottom, pl6n-ld cit to split s. fr. 
top to b. — pUn plon-nd adv. throughout; 
from top to bottom G.; pun-pl6n-ld adv. 
split, divided. See plyok. 

pIdn vb. n. to be constantly forgetful, 
to fail in doing, to forget, to have become 
unaccustomed, dyoh mat-bo-nun md-cet-nd 
mat-td-o ayok pl6n-so the workman who 
except he incessantly works will forget 
his work; & mat-bo-nun md-yen-nd ma- 
td-o CO plon-so the scholar unless he in- 
cessantly or assiduously attents to his 
book will forget it; a-kd pl6n-n6n to have 
hand out, to have forgotten the way to 
do a thing. 

pidp vb. n. to be covered with, to be 
bespattered, to be tainted with, to be 
plastered with, num plop to be covered 
with oil, fdt plop to be bespattered with 
mud, met. Id-yo plop to be tainted with 

sin. — a-pl6p s. the splinters (as of wood 
when cutting); the dropping; tsdm a-pldp 
a. the hairs that fall when combing, muk 
a-pldp a. a weed. 

pidm, redupl. pun-(^or pum)-pl6m-bo adj. 
broadfaced, pum-pl6m-ld adv. long, a-mlem 

plyak see pldk. 

plyan i. q. nyak; a-plydn s. a point of 
knife, of pin etc. ban plydn a. the point 
of knife. 

plydn vb. n. to go at random, to be 
carried away, as a helpless thing by the 
wind, applied to inanimate article, also 
to a miserable helpless person, M plydn- 
non he or it is carried irresistable away. 

(plyak,) plyak byi vb. to give birth, td-gri 
kiip kat plyak byi vb. gave birth to a 
male child P. 

plyan, plyan-nd plyan-nd advly. 1. trou- 
blesome, worrying 2. thoughtless. 

plyap vb. t. to pat as when making 
cakes or plastering wall etc.; plyap bo 
i. q. bu da Tbr; td-gryu plyap to pat 

plyam, reduplic. piim-plyam-ld advly. in 
proud flesh as from sore, p.-pl.-ld di vb. 
to rise in proud flesh. 

plyu, plyu-ld adv. strongly, rapidly, 
plyu-ld lin vb. n. to grow strongly as 
plants, un plyu or plyu-ld non water to 
flow rapidly or strongly, redupl. pa-plyu-ld 
advb. forcibly, rapidly, strongly, 

plyun vb. n. to float as person or thing 
on water. 

plyut 1. see plut. 

plyut 2. vb. n. to be blistered, to be 

plyet vb. n. to break with a cracking 
noise or rather the noise itself plyet- td 
plyet-td grik the cracking sound of break- 
ing as when walking thro'jungle, plyet-ld 
grik s. the cracking sound of wood (break- 
ing), plyet-ld gal vb. to break with c. 

plyen, a-plyen s. the lesser quarter, 
plyen kdn the 1. side, a-plyen tydt man ma- 
tsu-ne write only about a quarter. 

plyb— plydm 

|Ja— |ian 


plyo vb. n to have dread of evil spirits, 
TMM plyo to haye mortal fear of spirits; 
i. q. mu-zun. — tuk-plyo 1. s. ignorant, 
foolish person, 2. n. of small fish, 3. a 
plant t. p. muk. 

plyot Tb. t. to plunder, md-ro-sd gi-co 
plyot to plunder a person's property. 

plyom vb, t. to skin, to knock off skin, 
as skin or bark of tree. See plom. 

plydk vb. 1. to shave as wood; 2. caus. 
of pldn, p.-nun pd-yuk Ion o-re rem dot- 
bdn yuk-mun-sd vyet-rem fyet-lun hu nyor 
gyom plydk dydn then P. having a sword 
drew it, and smote the high priest's 

servant, and cut off his right ear J. — 
tuk-plyok a kind of curved sword, t.-p. 
pd-yuk s. a sort of short curved sword. 

plydt, |jZyo'«-Za adv. throughout fdk-la, 
redupl. pd-plyot-ld altogether, thoroughly, 

plydn 1. vb. to graze M. 

plydn 2. vb. to miss, to go on one side 
(as arrow), to run off on one side as a 
ball or carriage of road; reduplic. piin- 
plyon-ld ot pun- plydn- Id missing, flying 

plydm, puk-plyom-ld abv. clumpy shaped, 
see pUm. 

[ia the fourteenth letter of the L. alpha- 
bet, T. 5J^ it is pronounced as the English 
p aspirate. 

|)a vb. to express words also breath, 
to utter, hu a-tet ddk pd md-Kun-ne he 
is so ill, he cannot speak; tuk-dup-ld 
nyon pd md-Kun-7ie (I) feel quite suffo- 
cated, I cannot breathe. 

|)a-go rfp s. n. of flower M. 

*|ia-ran 1. pu-ron s. pigeon, dove J. G. 

(fiak), ()ak-ka adv. completely, altogether, 
absolutely, utterly, pdk-kd byi vb. to give 
all; pdk-kd md-t'6r-ne to be utterly unable 
to escape; pdk-kd non completely gone; 
pdk-kd a-lo gdn a-yu a-re mat-td if it 
must be so now, do this G. 

[iat fr. T. pad?, pdt-tdpdt-td 1. friable, 
brittle, 2 broken, rotten, in pieces. 

|jar rfp s. n. of flower M. 

|Sa vb. to toss up and keep from falling, 

*[)a T. s. father, *pa ma father and 
mother, parents, pa pan zdn paternal, 
belonging to the f., pa min ace. M. "pater- 
nal name" but cfr. T. min-po "brother" 
brother, o-ha a-do mo-sd pa min la-ban- 
sd td-ayu-kup-sdn-sd non-nun a-yu lyo-o 
take thee a wife from thence of the 
daughters of L. thy mother's brother; G. 

|ia go s. a spec, of phagedenic ulcer M. 

|ja-du sun-krf s. 1. a spec, of Arum 2. 
Tussilago petasites. 

*|ja-pa T. pags-pa Skt. drya. 

|ia-lak kuh s. n. of tree M. 

|ia-lu tsu-lu s. a spec, of incense M. 

[iak 1. s. a part or portion, pak sam-ka 
pak nydt ryu-bam pak hat lok-non out of 
three parts two are good and one injured ; 
man pak ryu pak jdn part of the meat 
is good, part bad ; un o-mer kat e-fa pak 
kd-ti mat gdn pak kat-sd dok now an 
omer is the tenth part of an ephah Ex. 

*|iak s. T. pag a pig L. mon, *p'ak-zu 
T. pag-ze s. a hog's bristle, applied by 
Lepchas to a small brush made of hog's 
bristle, fo pak-zu a tooth-br., diim p.-zu 
a brush for clothes. 

|iak ruk bf (muk^ s. name of plant, 
Amaranthus spinosus. 

fjan 1. vb. t. to long for, to desire 
greatly, to lust after, to be covetous of, 
to grudge, to begrudge; hu-sd nyi-wun 
re go-Id md-pan-nd sum-o thou shalt not 
covet . . . any thing that is thy neighbour's 
Ex. a-do td-gri kup a-do go-bo rem md- 
pan-nd ren because thou hast not with- 
held thy son, thy only son G. — k&m 


|ian— *|iam 

*|iar— *|{u 

fdn-bo an avaricious person, cfr. T. 
pan-ba, pons-pa. — 2. 5. a desirable thing, 
a beautiful charming object or person, 
a-re sdn pan md pan rum-mit these lovely 
goddesses; used in sense of goods, go 
a-do pan md-gat-nd I do not desire your 

|jan 2. 5. untwisted thread from the 
spindle, ki pan unspun thread. 

*t5an 3. T. pan s. height, summit. 

|jan-se kuft name of tree ace. Wtt. D. 428 
"phamsikol" Dillenia indica. 

fiat vb. to break open, to burst open, 
to divide, to separate, fe-fsio pat to break 
open seal, vyen pat (door) to burst open; 
see p6t and pot. 

fSan 1. s. a trap, a sort of spring-trap 
made by the Mechi, pan sak to set p.; 
md-ro-sd pan s. a man-trap. 

*|ian 2 T. pan s. use, advantage, good, 
utility; — * pan-to T. pan- dogs vb. n. to 
be useful, to be of advantage, pan md- 
to-ne to be profitless, pan- to md-nyin- 
num-bo adj. useless, in vain, fruitless; — 
pan-to s. 1. used in sense of claim, right, 
a-re fat kd-su-sd nyi ho su pan-to md- 
nyin-ne this is my ground, you have no 
claim to it; 2. s. fellowship, go hd-sd su 
pan-to nyi-po what f. or connection have 
I with thee? — *pan-ydn T. pan-yon s. 
profit, advantage; blessing. — See pon. 

(Ian-do s. a wide-toothed comb, p.-do- 
nim krdt vb. to comb with do. 

[Jap 1. vb. t. to arrange, to set in order, 
to put in order, to explain, to interpret, 
etc. see pap; sak pap to have mind ad- 
justed, see par. 

[)ap 2. vb. t. i. q. pap to castrate, p'ap- 
tdm-bo castrated, to prune trees, to 

|Jap 3. vb. t. to beat quickly as drum 
(tun-dar), cymbals (bdk-ce) etc. 

*(jam T. pam(^-pa) vb. 1. to be van- 
quished, to be overcome, 2. to be de- 
pressed, to be subdued, pam-non to be 
vanquished, mdk-pun pam-ndn the army 
is vanquished; md-pam-nd gdn tdn-sd rin 
suk nd-ld td l6n-sd-o if you would not be 

overcome, ever speak the truth; pam-ld 
in s. of "deprecation," gun-nd len pam- 
ld mat (bam") making himself le^g than 
all. a-pam adj. vanquished, conquered. 

*|jar (T. par-ba to be elevated) vb. t. 
to enlarge, to make wider, nyot par vb. 
enlarge the field, par-Id (fwvb. to dig wider; 
met. sak par "mind expanded" adjly. 
pleased; sdm par (to be) exhilarated. 

*|ial-pd T. p'al-pa adj. common, vulgar, 

|$f see under pyi. 

*|)i-gyu (T. pyi and sgyu?) s. deceit, 
hypocrisy, baseness, duplicity, artifice, 
I-kup p'i-gyu md-nyin-num-bo kat an 
Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile, 
pi-gyu mat vb. to deceive, to be hypo- 
critical, to impose on; pi-gyu mat-bo s. 
a hypocrite, a deceiver. 

*|ji-rfl T. po-ba-ri s. black pepper. 

*tSi-lin T. p'i-lin, pi-glin n. pr. Europe, 
p'i-lin-ma s. 1. an European, p'i-lin fydn 
pld gdn pur-dyot a-pur-niin pld re z6n 
mok md-yd-ne if hostile Europeans enter 
one country they (as the white ants) will 
burrow on eternally, 2. snuff, pi-lin pd- 
tek or pi-lin pum s. a snuff-box, pi-lin 
nyok vb. to rub snuff between hands, 
pi-lin nyom vb. to smell do, pi-lin fdn 
vb. to snuff, to chew tobacco M. 143; 
pi-li7i f. sok to abstain from snuffing. 

|iik, p'ikpik convulsive, spasmodic motion 
or trembling, p'ik pik tyu vb. to have do. 

{5fk vb. t. to cleanse the body of patient 
or corpse from evil by the sprinkling of 
water or sacrifice of food etc. by priest, 
to purify from effects of evil spirits. — 
a-pik s. the ablution by sprinkling water 
over the body with leaves after the 
ceremony of propitiating a demon. 

|iin see pyen. 

(Sit see pyit 1. to suffice 2. frugality. 

|)in-dak all, the whole, altogether pin- 
dak-kd lok-ndn altogether destroyed. 

*|iu T. pul vb. t. to offer, Mk-bH-rem 
tsam-lun hu-do td-gri kiip Idm-ka a-pitt 
pijb (he) took the ram and offered him 
up for a burnt offering in the stead of 


[iu pak— *tiu-fya 

[lu yuk— |Jo, a-|io 


his son G. to present, to give, applied 
by the Lepcha's as a respectful term: 
pd-no-ka pu. 

*|JU pak T. brag pug s. rock-cavern, j5m- 
pak-ka nan T. brag pug-tu (byon-nas) bzugs 
(-so) see Benfey, Pantschatantra 2. 556 P. 
*|Ju-bo T. pur-pa s. a peg, pin, nail 
M. 82 and pur-bu a post, a stake, pu-bo 
tsdk vb. to fix stake; li pu-bo s. a post 
of house; kur-sd pu-bo s. a tentpeg. 

|iu-luk i. q. nyen yiim s. clotted milk. 

*t)U-lun T. pu-dun, pu-run s. the sleeves 
of coat, ta-go pu-lun the sleeves of jacket. 

*|jut T. pud first fruits of the season 
or the first of anything, as when shaught- 
iug an animal, part first laid aside as 
offering to the deity; rum-ka zo ci put 
pu vb. to offer the first fruits of the 
season to R. — a-p'iit 1. adj. early (as 
fruits), 2. s. a portion offered to god: 
fok-piit first fruits, annates, nim a-yu-do- 
nun bo -ban kd-yu zon kup-nun mdl pat 
io-wun-sd fok put fat lyot bo md kd-yu-la 
a-re-nun a-ddk a-ndt md-nyin-nd mat-td 
a-sdp a-min pyuk-bro-ld mat-kon-nd ydn 
•md lu-lun fat md a prayer of this de- 
scription is repeated by the Lepcha's on 
offering to god their first fruits; — co 
c6m-pldn-ka a-p'iit fat-byi (he) offered 
burnt offerings on the altar G. — fam-put 
s. first fruits of season. 

(iun, pun pun i. q. diin diin drizzle, so 
pun pun yu vb. to drizzle (rain). 

*|jup T. 'bigs(-pa) vb. t. to bore M. 

|Sur, piir pur cfr. T. 'pur-ba, 'pir-ba 
(to fiy) fluttering (wings), flapping, fo p. 
p. lam a bird to fly flabbing its wings. 

|jur-rfp i. q. tuk-nyil rip s. name of plant. 

*|iu 1. T. pug(-pa) see also pu-pak s. 
a hole, a cavern, a cave; a forlorn, a 
deserted place; *pu-ne T. pug and gnas 
s. id., *pu-tso 'IS pug and 'tsogs ace. M. 
i. q. L. tur-zok. 

*tJu 2. T. pugs s. 1. end, termination, 
2. the future, pu-ka nak-kd look to the 
end, look to the consequences, pu-ka 
gyum-md take care of the consequences. 

*|JU-fya T. pugs-ta ace. Jaschke fr. the 

Pers. &;:jsa,j adj. lasting, durable. pu(-fyd) 
pu^-fyd) fup vb to be lasting, pu-fyd fup- 
sdn mlo su-ld md-nyin-ne there is nothing, 
that will last for ever; pu md-fyd-ne to 
be temporary, to be transient. 

[iu yuk T. pu^s) pret. of 'bud-pa and 
yug s. a storm, a hurricane. 

*(JUn T. pun fr. 'pun-ba s. damage, in- 
jury, hurt, loss. 

*|iun-bo T. pun-po (a mass, a heap) s. 
a corpse, the body of a man, see L. fun. 
*|iun-su T. pun-srid s. causing injury, 
mischief-making, discord, disunion, alie- 
nation, illwill; pun-su-bo s. a mischief- 
maker, pun-su zuk vb. to make mischief, 
to cause dispute; pun-su mun the demon 
of discord. 

|)ur s. mineral -water, pur fsa cu hot 
mineral springs. 

*tiur-bo s. T. pur-bu, pur-pa (see also 
pii-bo).t'he planet Jupiter, Thursday. 

*{je vb. T. podQ-pa) or T. perl to be 
vigorous, to be capable of, to be effective. 
[Je-da (Nepalese) bherd incorr. used for 
luk a sheep. 

|jen redupl. pj/w-pew-^awith a sharp sound, 
p.-p.-ld op to go off with a sharp sound. 
|ien see pyen. 
|ien-tok see pyen-tok. 
[Set see pydt. 

|5et-sa le an exclamation of wonder, 

fjel, pel-Id pel-Id dangling to and fro', 
pun-ku gal-lun p.-ld p'.-ld va the broken 
wing hangs dangling to and fro. 

[So, a-jio 1. s. a time, a-po re re zdn 
occasionally, now and then, a-po-sd a-po 
time by time, a-po sd-dyak sd-fet how 
often, po kat one, once, (a-')po nydt two, 
twice; hu-do mo td-bdk-ka a-po nydt lot 
von-lun gyek Uii-sdn d can (he) enter the 
second time into his mother's womb, and 
be born? J.; po nydt-sd adjly. double, 
tin par po nydt-sd kom a-yu-do kd-ka 
bit -no and take double money in yom- 
hand G. fan po kat one draught of drink, 
(a-)po {a-^po at times, sometimes; po 
rel-ld adv. each time, See t'yim, dyom. 




|J(Jh — *fSyi 

*|So 2. s. T. po a male, po Mp a son; 
po gye damages for adultery to injured 
husband; po gyo (T. rgyas-pa) an able 
young man, a fully developped man; po 
ice kiip an only son; po fyd s. "resource 
for the sons," a heirloom, ci-sd po fyd 
a valuable heirloom ; po men s. an herma- 
phrodite (male), mc'inen female; po fsen 
s. relations on the male side; p'o don s. 
a present offered to great man, a con- 
ciliating offering. 

*tJO nyd T. po nya s. an envoy, an 
ambassador, a messenger. 

(So bop s. the fat between the skin and 
flesh of animals, subcutaneous fat. 

*|J0 tdp T. po btab{-pa) vb. t. to re- 
move and cast away, to release shade 
from body of dead person: po top hi 
nam-se dot id. 

*f5o ril T. po ril s. black pepper. 
*|So-rdn T. ^o-6raw s. a palace, a prince's 
court, a residence pd-no p'o-rdn. 

*fSok T. p'ogs s. pay, wages, salary, 
allowance, (of money or food); — *p'ok 
dok T. p. bdag(-pa) s. retribution, re- 
taliation, vindication, vengeance, indig- 
nation, resentment, pok dok sor vb. to 
excite vengeance; rum-ka pok dok sor 
to excite the indignation of god (as by 
neglect of ceremonial offerings), a-lut-sd 
p. d. indignation. 

|iok dun s. the colon, gut, pok dun dak 
s. the cholic. 

fiotn, 1. pun -pom- Id crashing (sound), 
pun-p'om-ld klo vb. to fall with crashing 

*|Som 2. T.yow(-po) s. an ornamental fix- 
ture, a decoration, an adornment, pom 
zuk-fom-bo adj. decorated, gilded, beau- 
tified; jer kdm nor -bu- nun ce pom zuk- 
tdm-bo bedecked with gold silver and 

*|Jor T. por s. a cup, pa por s. a cup 
or vessel for holding incense. 

|Sol, pol pol adjly. brittle, frangible, 
applied to earth, {fat) p. p. Ml (earth) 
to crumble to pieces. See also pydl. 
[idk see p'dk. 

pok-kd for pdk-kd. 

|idn see p'dn, pan, pon. 

|)dt vb. to burst out, to split open, to 
fall off, as plaster of wall, to break thro' 
as fence, sd-ayak o-re-ka td-ram a-tim-sd 
un-ram-pd'h p6t the same day were all 
the fountains of the great deep broken 
up G. ; lok-rem hd-yu ndk-sd/i-ka aye-ho-va 
lyan-ka pot fi-lun hd-yu a-gyap md-ya-nd 
sdn-ka tsok-kd-o charge the people, lest 
they break through unto the lord, to 
gaze, and many of them perish Ex; — 
p6t-n6n adj. exploded, burst. — pot-ldt 
s. explosion, eruption, outburst, convulsion, 

[idl vb. n. to overflow (as water), ka-yol 
p6l tet blydn to fill a cup to overflowing, 
un-kyon a-kin-ka p6l a river to overflow 
its banks. 

[Syak s. a species of cricket ki pydk-bo. 

[jyak see pyok or pyuk. 

(iyat, pydt pydt in small pieces, in small 
quantities, pydt pydt dyok mat vb. to do 
work by portions. 

|jya 1, pya-ld adv. in a short time, ere 
long, presently M. 69. 

|jya 2. vb. t. to break in two, to divide, 
to break asunder, to tear apart, to beat 
in two, to detach, to disjoin, to disconnect, 
pd-tin pya to break a stick; met. dyen 
zon 16m pya-non the friendship is broken, 
sak-cin pya to disconnect one's thoughts. 
— ^2/a-fo'?ns. alienation, discord, separation, 
disunion, co pya-lom schism. 

|iyap, pyap pyap 1. idle talk, jabber, 
chatter, p.-p\-bo s. a gabbler, p.-p. mat 
vb. to chatter, to gabble. — 2. the sound 
of beating. 

|iyam, reduplic. pum-pyam-ld pum- 
pyom-ld swollen, a-mlem pum-p.-ld a 
swollen face. 

*fiyf 1. T. spyi general, universal, para- 
mount, *p'yi-pdn T. spyi-dpon s. a chief, 
lord, paramount, p'yi.\-bo T. spyi-pa s. a. 
chief, head man. 

"■fiyi 2. T. pyi(-bd) vb. n. to be late, 
to be behind hand, p'yi-M, pi-Id adv. late, 
too late. 

"liyf— jiyert 

*|jyen-bo — *|)y6k 


*pyf 3 or [)f T. pyi-sa (excrement, or- 
dure), see also fi; pi mat vb. to ease 
nature Tbr. i. q. dyit lot or jit lot; — pyi 
pyi-sd sit mat to cleanse body of pollution, 
applied to the exorcism of evil spirits. 

— pyi-bo s. adj. filth, dirt; unclean Tbr, 
fjyi-bo md-zo-niin it is bad, do not eat it. 

*fiyi 4. T. 'pyi(-ba) to wipe, to brush, 
vb. t. to wipe off, to blot out, to scrub, 
to scour e. c. ban pyi, to disperse, to 
separate, to obliterate. 

*tSyi-md T. pye-ma (flour) s. the flour 
etc.- offerings on altar. M. 

*{Jyi-ru T. byi-ru s. coral, pyi-rii lyak 
s. a coral-necklace; pyi-rii, kun s. species 
of tree; pyi-ru fam-blyok s. a species of 
butterfly, red admiral, Papilio atalanta; 
pyi-rii muk s. a plant, spec, of Hydro- 
cotyles; pyi-ru rik s. a spec, of creeper; 
pyi-rii a-klyen s. a piece of coral. 

fjyit 1. adj. enough, sufficient; 2. vb. to 
reach, to be sufficient, to be able; 3. adjly. 
provident, economical, pyit-ld mat. to 
economize, to be frugal of, a-lom-ka 
pyit-ld mat-td-o save it for another time. 

— pyit-bo 1. an economical, provident 
person, 2. savings. 

*lSyuk 1. T. pyug to be wealthy; pyuk-la 
bro-ld mat-td-o may wealth and happiness 
be yours. — *'pyuk-bo T. pyug-po s. a 
rich man. 

*fiyuk T. pyugs s. a drove or herd of 

*|jyu T. p'rul(-ba) vb. n. to be born, s. 
pjocreation; pyu-non hatched, generated, 
begotten, bik pyu bH the cow is pregnant, 
generally applied by Lepcha' s to hatching 
of eggs. 

*tiyu-mo T. pru-ma s. the womb, pyu-mo 
CO T. pru-ma cags to beget. 

*t)ye T. /'V^rf> 'byed vb. t. to separate, 
to divide, to sever, pye-non separated etc. 

*|jye-ro T. p'ye-rogs along with, in com- 
pany of, s. an adjunct, a companion; 
part, portion, section, segment, a fraction. 

pyen vb. n. to become matted, as hair, 
to become stiff, to stick together, a-tsom 
pyen-bo matted hair. 

*|iyen-bo s. T. 'pren-ba s. a rosary, a 
chaplet,|5^e/j-6o /i'd/ivb. to countbeads of ro- 
sary ; j5?/&;i-6o tuk-tok-ka hydn vb.t. to hang 
rosary on neck; pyen-bo bo-de s. a rosary- 
bead (seed) oi bo-de, pyen-bo ra^-sd another 
seed-bead; pyen zHn s. the chief bead of 
r.; pyen-cet s. the divisions of a rosary. 

[iyen tok s. a small basket for holding ci. 

*t)yet T. pyed half, pyet ca adv. amidst, 
tdm-bo pyet ca non-niin-sd dyesu tiil-ld 
hla-gon-ka noh-liiri hlap-byi-bavi about 
the midst of the feast Jesus went up 
into the temple and taught. J. — pyet mat 
vb. to halve, ^pyet ts'o T. pyed ts'os half 
cooked. — tuk-pyet adj. little, half, tHk- 
pyet. tiik-pyet adv. by degrees, by dublets, 
tHk-pyet tiik-pyet ay ok mat vb. to do work 
by little and little. 

*|iyer see pyor T. fyyar{^ba) vb. t. to 
spread, to diffuse, to disseminate, a-sut 
rin pyer to propagate news, to promulgate, 
to proclaim; vb. n. ddk pyer (disease) to 
spread, to infect, ddk pyer-bo infectuous 

*|iyo 1. T. byas fr. 'byed-pa to speak, 
to make, to do, rin U iian pyo-niin man 
nun-non did not interfere with their 
conversation, but remained silent. 

pyo 2. vb. to mix, to mingle with, to 
accord with, to mix with, to agree with, 
to be in partnership; to accord with; 
— pyo -bo s. 1 a mixture, a mingling, 
anything harmonious or in accordance 
with, 2. a partner, a coadjutor. 

liyon or pyoA pyon loitering, idling, 
dawdling, p. p. mat vb. to loiter, to be 
unemployed; p. p. mat-bo a loiterer, an 

[jyonn see under pyam. 

*fiy6 T. pra{-ba) adj. slight, slender, 
thin, slim; vb. t. to thin; pyo krok very 
slim and slender, 7«a-p^d-«Mwdonotthinit. 

*|)y(5-mO T. pyag-ma s. a broom, pyo- 
mo-niin pyok vb. t. to sweep with broom. 

*|jydk 1. see 'ca, cok T. pyag s. the hand, 
p'yok tsa T. pyag'tsal-ba vb. to make a 
very low reverence, td-dyO, vyet nyOm, 
sd hd-nyi kup-sdn a-zHt-ka fi-liin pyok tsa 



fa— fa-tfm fo 

the handmaidens came near, they and 
their children, and they bowed them- 
selves G. 

*|jydk 2. T. pyag{-pa) vb. t. 1. to sweep, 
li pyok to sweep a house, 2. to clear away, 
to eyacuate, to wash away, nydt so-blyak- 
nun pdk-kd pyok-non the crop by the 
heavy rain has been completely washed 
away; pyok to vb. to prepare lodging, 
go-nun li sd lum-ddn-pdn kor-ka bam-lyan 
pyok fo I have prepared the house and 
room for the camels Gr.; — 3. to take a 
way, md-ro lut jryok-kd t. away the filthy 
fellow; — 4. to confiscate property of 
person without heirs, tem-bo-nun pyok 
confiscated by government; — 5. to spoil, 
pyok dydn id. li kyon-rem pyok-bdn they 
spoiled the city G.; li-ka sd-re nyi-wun 
giin~nd pyok bu-non they spoiled even all 
that was in the house G. c. c.-ka,riim-nun 
lyan var-rd var-rd-sd li kyon-pdn-ka pyok 
dydn-ba when God destroyed the cities 
of the plain G. 

*|iydn T. pran, 'pran (a narrow path) 
in L. s. a difficulty, strait, py6n-ka ti 
vb. to come into a strait, to fall into 

[iydt, pydt-ld or py6t-td pyot-td (Jyot-td 
fydt-td in small quantities) in small pieces 
or quantities grains by grains, py6t-td 
pyot-td dek lira vb. n. to be torn to sheets. 
See pya. 

|jydn-na |iyan-na i. q. pyol pyol. 

*|jydr T. pyar(-ba) vb. to display, to 
unfold, to rise up, to flourish, to brandish, 
to fly, to be scattered, as by wind, c. 
c.-ka e. c. siiA-mut-ka py6r(-liin kl6n) to give 
to the winds, to annihilate ; fydn-ka p'yor 
nyon to scatter enemies; dak pyor-non 
illness to be dispelled. 

|Sydl, pyol pyol crumbling, falling to 
pieces, p. p. glo non to fall to pieces. 
See pol. 

' fa the fifteenth letter of the L. alpha- 
bet: English f. 

fa- prefix: 1. reduplication before 
roots beginning with / or v, see also 
fiik-, fun-, e. c. fd-vyor-ld s. v. vyor, fd- 
flok-ld s. V. flok; see vat, vap, vi, vor, vya, 
etc. fin, fon, fyek, fru; — 2. prefix forming 
numerals see fd-li, fd-no; — 3. prefix 
forming nouns in s. of male gender, e. c. 
fd-lyen s. youth (see lyen in opp. nUm- 
lyen), fd-gron tin n. pr. (in opp. nd-gron- 
nyo), see nd-, num- 4. i. q. fo prefixed to 
a number of words signifying names of 
birds c. c. fd-mn-fo, fd-d6n-fo etc. 

fa 1. vb. to laugh at, to joke, to jest 
with, to humbug, ho fd-bam-mun-d are 
you jesting? — fd-bo s. a jester; a wit, 
a joke. — nun-fd adj. ridicule, burlesque. 

fa, 2. a-fa s. harvest. 

fa-kf fo i. q. fd-ki fo. 

fa-gron (tin) s. the god of procreation, 
{nd-zon nyo his wife). 

fa-iio T. Ina num. five, fd-no-bo{-re) the 
fifth; fd-no tap: kd-ti fd-no tap: kd-kat- 
sd fd-no fifteen. 

fa-ciii fo s. n. of a bird. Accentor 
strophiatus M.; see also Je 2,232. 

fa-cim fo s. name of bird, spec, of tit. M. 

fa-jf fo s. stripe-throated flower-pecker 
(one or two specc.) Yuhina gularis etc., 
Je 2,261. 

fa-jfr fo s. a spec, of Himalayan siskin. 

fa-jum fo i. q. tm-jdm fo, td-jum q.v. 

fa-nyen fo i. q. fd-lin fo. 

fa-tfm fo s. 1. green -breasted ground- 
thrush spec. Pitta M. Je 504 ace. W. 

fa-t'ak fo— fa-lfn fo 

fa-lok— fat 


Pitta cuculata E. 220, 2. also some ima- 
ginary bird mentioned in P., the Tibetan 
text has pug-ron (pigeon). See fdt-tim. 

fa-t'ak fo i. q. kd-fdk fo q. v. 

fa-t'yan-bo s. deceiver: Ex. 27,12 go-nun 
hu mik-ka fd-fydn-bo nun-lun kd-do pldn- 
ka mun-lom md-go-ne yan-ld a-rik fit- 
kdn-so I shall seem to him as a deceirer; 
and I shall bring a curse upon me and 
not a blessing. 

fa-du fo s. a parroquet, fd-du fo lon-bo s. 
"a leader of ditto" the name of a goddess. 

fa-ddn fo s. a large species of pheasant 
(lives near the snowy range) Impey- 
pheasant, Lophophanes impeyanus R. 208, 
Je 3,510; fd-don fo kop s. 1. the plume 
of ditto 2. name of plant i. q. pa-tse hi. 

fa-dyu s. all the tribe of any small 
birds i. q. fo-dyu, fo-di. 

fa-nd-fo s. un fd-nd fo a spec, of heron, 
Butorides javanica ace. W. un f'd-o nang 
fo R. 209. 

fa-nok kyok s. a spec, of bird, Zoothera 
monticola, E. 218. 

fa bii s. 1. the guinea-worm; fd hu hu 
to be afflicted with g. w. 2. see fo-bu. 

fa-tnak fo s. a large species of dove, 
bronze -backed imperial pigeon, Carpo- 
phaga insignis M. Je 3,457 see fo-mok. 

fa-ydii fo s. the grey-winged blackbird 
Morula boulboul M. Je 525; f.-y. fo fyak 
dum Morula castanea. 

fa-rf fo s. species of parrot (yellow- 
beaked) M. 

fa-ryuk fo s. spec, of parrot, /. ry. fo 
sim mat (rice) to be approaching ripeness 
(becoming red in allusion of the colour 
of the bird's tail.) 

fa-ryiil fo s. slaty-headed scimetar- 
babbler Pomatorhinus schisticeps or 
mountain -wren Suya criniger; see fd- 
hryum-fo. ■ 

fa-|lf num. T. bzi four; fd-li-ho re the 
fourth; fd-li tap (for kd-ti fd-li tap: kd 
kat-sd fd-li) fourteen. 

fa-lfn fo 1. improper: fd-nyen fo s. 
scarlet grosbeak, Haematospiza sipahi M. 
Je 2,394. 2. spec, rose-finch. • 

fa-lok s. spec, of Gryllus, fd- lok tuk- 

fa-hu fo i. q. fd-wu-fo. 

fa-hryuk fo s. i. q. fd-ryuk fo q. v. 

fa-hryum fo (see kd-hryum-fo) s. applied 
to one or two specc. of babbler (or thrush 
species) Pomatorhinus schisticeps (ery- 
throgenys) etc. R. 211, Je 2,30. 

fa-va expletive to sd-vd see vd, vd 3. 

fa-vdii fo s, hair-crested drongo Chibia 
hottentota M. Je 430. W. in R. 214. 

fa-5un fo s. n. of a treedove, Macropygia 
tusalia M. Je 3,473. 

fa-wu f s. the green pigeon, see kd-ivu fo. 

fa-iir fo i. q. kd-vr fo. 

fak, fdk-bo adj. transparent, translucent, 
adv. fdk-ld; co-gu fdk-ld t. paper; redupl. 
fuk-fdk-bo adj, fuk-fdk-ld adv. transparent 
white, fuk-fdk-ld du vb. n. to be trans- 
parent white. See fin. 

fak 1. vb. t. to scrape up with finger 
as pot or plate, Id-de fdk-lun zo. 

fak 2. (see po-k) throughout, completely, 
fdk-kd or fuk-kd fdk-kd throughout, alto- 
gether, wholly, plainly; fdk-ld id., sd-nyi 
fdk-ld throughout the day; fdk-kd li vb. 
to speak plainly; fdk-ld pld to come 
through, to penetrate; fuk-kd fdk-kd right 
thro,' fuk-kd fdk-kd dp vb. to fire right 

fak-ram see fok-ram. 

fat vb. n. to break or become detached 
as skin, flesh, bone, (a-hrdt) fat to break 
(bone), to become detached as articles 
with grooves, joints; to be broken or 
interrupted, as sleep, meditation; to be 
dissolved as friendship dyen-zon fat, con- 
nexion, marriage, hri fdt-non to be dissol- 
ved; — to be dislocated not broken; to be 
broken as wind, to discontinue, to perish; 
met. vb. t. c. sok q. v. to break off as 
habits, ci sok fat to b. off the habit of 
drinking spirits. 

fat s. earth M. 101, fat lek id. (let M. 136 
incorr.); also fat, T. sa — see lyan, 1. ele- 
mentary substance (opp.w?5,) soil, ground, 
dry land, fdt ryu gdn tarn ryu if the soil 
be good, the produce will be good. — 



(fat,)— fal 

fat md-Kyd-ne there is no earth, no bottom 
said of deep water. — fat krek dry earth; 

— fdt cit rich, fertile soil; — fdt c6k rich 
earth without stone; — fdt nydr hron to 
be soft and come up easily as after the 
rain. — fdt ddn burnt earth, a brick; — 
fdt nok black earth as good soil or bog- 
earth, mud; fdt nok uii water of bogs; — 
fdt dum any white earth; chalk; — fdt 
bu bad soil; — fdt bol (ryu) rich good 
soil virgin soil; — fdt fyiim applied to a 
good appearance of a field after the crop 
is come, as before cut at harvest. — fdt-ka 
fyop-re nam mat i. q. fdt ryop-re zdn see 
fyof and ryof. — fdt-ka a-yum nyi the 
earth is adhesive. — fdt-tun a-sum blon-ld 
pld the steam comes out of earth in 
puffs. — fdt lap vb. to bury. — fdt sd- 
c/ram-ka md-non-nd tet till death. — fdt- 
sd rip s. ground-flowers, opp. to kun rip 
tree flowers. — fdt sd-dyak Friday. — 
fdt-sd gen. : adjly : earthen, fdt zuk-fom-bo 
earthen. — the earth, the universum 
i. q. siik-dum q. v., fdt td-lyan earth and 
heaven, the universum; — td-lyan pup fdt 
den tin to cover the earth and heaven. — 
fdt-sd hyir the tiger Tbr. — territory, 
land fdt zor land subdivided as by 
streams. — 

Compounds: fdt-gi s. the insect the 
soldier; — fat-grot s. gravel, stony ground; 

— fdt-jdn dor s. a species of mushroom, 
edible; — fdt-ji s. 1. sand, 2. a spec. 
num-dak, fdt-ji t'am-blyok s. a species of 
butterfly, fdt-ji rip s. specc. of Japonica, 
Gardenia; — fdt-tim ace. W. „the earthly 
headed" a bird Pelargopsis gurial and 
Pitta cuculata R. 205, 220 ; — fdt tun-biim 
s. a species of grubworm; — fdt-den (T.- 
gdan a dwelling place) s. the world; — 
fdt-n6kkydk fas. "the earthlyblack "kyak" 
plain-backed" mountain-thrush Oriocincla 
moUissima, 0. dauma R. 218 and several 
other specc. see fd-nokkyok; — fdtpo s. 
a ridge of earth; — fdt plydk s. a lump 
of earth, a clod; — fdt-yum s. clay, sticky 
earth ; — fdt-yor fo name of bird spec, of 
stone-chat; — fat-rut s. a. land. slip. — 

fdt-lim s. earth that has been dug up and 
put aside. — fdt lom-bo s. a traveller on 
foot. — fdt-lyan s. good, rich earth. — 
fdt suk,-vyer s. mud, mire. — fdt dyok s. 

(fat,) tuk-fat s. the proper food or what 
is good for animals, grazing ground, etc. 
kd-ju-sd tuk-fdt man gum the dog's food 
is meat, bik-sd tuk-fdt p6n gum the cow's 
food is grass. 

fin 1. vb. t. to disjoint, to dislocate 
fdn-non disjointed; to break off at joints, 
see fdt, pan. 

fan 2 (see pari) vb. n. to be inconscious, 
fdn-nd fdn-nd i. q. pdn-nd pdn-nd ex- 
presses a heedless or absent state of mind; 
fdn(;-na) fdn{-nd) 16m to go along leisurely 
or carelessly; fdn-lun klo to fall in a state 
of inconsciousness. 

fan vb. t. 1. to kindle fire, to burn in 
fire, to incinerate, 2. to scorch, to heat 
(as iron), to cauterize, to torrefy, to bake 
in ashes; to consume inwardly (with malice) 
to backbite; to censure or accuse one in- 
justly, to bear false witness, to defame, 
to scandalize. — fdn-ldt s. defamation, 
calumny; f. I. md-U-nun do not speak 
scandal, do not traduce. ^ — a-^ans. burning, 
a-fdn gyit s. those among the Lepchas 
who burn their dead. M. 

fam, a-fam s, an occasional treat, a luxury 
(casual), a-zom a-fdm Ex.; fdm tsUm to 
meet with a treat. 

fdr 1., far, a-f^r s. a sheet, a lamina, 
stratum, layer, flake, pellicle, thin slice 
dum-fdr single cloth, sheet of cloth, co 
gu /"a?' paper-sheet, far <fa-6o lying in sheets. 

fdr 2, fdr-ra far-ra light zephyrs, aura, 
f.-rd f.-rd di vb. to come in gentle bree- 
zes; f.-rd f.-rd U vb. to feel a coolness 
as if a breeze was blowing on one's person. 

far 1. s. rust, verdigris pun-jen fdr etc.; 
2. vb. n. to be rusty, fdr-non rusted, oxi- 
dated, fdr fa-non rust-eaten; met. stale 
e. c. ri/l fdr stale news. 

fal vb. n. to fall off as leaves, horns, 
nails of fingers, hair, sd-vin-niin a-ron fdl 
the stag sheds it's horns; 2. vb. t. to break 


fan— fap 


off, as tubers of ginger hin fdl. — td-fdl 
s. falling off, dropping off, dom td-fdl s. 
leprosy in which the fingers and toes fall 
off in opp. to sd-lan q. cfr. 

fal-la reduplic. of fyel, fijdl q. v. 

fa, 1. vb. t. to dig, to dig up, huh fa to 
dig for yams; — 2. to swim un fa, fa-liin 
pld to swim out; fa fa swimming; — 3. 
vb. n. to issue out, to burst forth fa fa 
bursting forth applied to grain, to issue 
out, to discharge as pus, matter from 
boils, hymn fa-non the swelling has 
burst; — 4. (to taste insipid) redupl. fa 
fa li\ fam-ho part, and fd-fa-ld adv. in- 
sipid UQ-re klyom) fd-fa-ld the vegetables 
are insipid. 

fa 2. appliedto young shoots when cook- 
ed, pd-ruk fa a young shoot cooked. — 
fa, a-fa s. earning of reapers, present of 
grain to reapers dyek-hun-sd fa. — td-fa 
s. 1. rice or maize parched dry and broken, 
td-fa dyan vb. to pound ditto. 2. a spec, 
of fern td-fa tun-krok. 

fak vb. t. to put over fire, to dry as 
meat, fish man, no fak, grain zo fak, to 
preserve ci by keeping it in smoke ci fak; 
to fumigate, to shed odour around with 
incense pa fak. 

fak- redupl. of fok q. v. 

fari vb. t. to cut wood into lengths, to 
hew, kun fan to cut w. into logs, vb. n. 
to break or fall into pieces as tree; — 
advly. right thro', transparent a-6m fan- 
ka U to see light shining thro', un fan 
can to made across several bars of a river 
litly. to cut bars in a river as of a winding 
stream. — td-fan, a-fan 1. a piece, a bar; 
a log of wood: kuii td-fan; piin-jen td-fan 
a bar of iron; 2. the length of anything 
(yam, fish, cucumber, sausage, bamboo, 
3. a bent or compass of river. , 

fat 1. vb. t. to offer, to sacrifice, a-put 
riim-ka fat make your first fruits; 2. s. 
the offering oblation, an offering unto god, 
sacrifice, thanks-giving, rum fat a cere- 
monial service, where offerings are made; 
a-fat or a-fat a-lyot s. an offering. 

fat 2. vb. t. T. byed (-pa) to finish, to 

complete, vb. aux. postp. of the perf. of 
trans, (and cans.) verbs, fat-ha id., fat-so 
postp. of fut. exact., fat-pu postp. of con- 
junct, praeteriti see M. Gr. 45/6 e. c. a-re- 
nun yo-nun a-yuvi a-lom diin fat there- 
fore said I unto you J. ; tit-fat-yam-o perf. 
of cans, of ti (to arrive) (he) has caused 
to arrive, in opp. to fi-non-ne-yam-o (he) 
arrived, (he) has arrived; i. s. of „com- 
plete" or „ finished" e. c. as z6 zo-fat-a 
have you completely finished eating? dyok 
zuk-lel-fat, the work is completely finished ; 
go li fat I have spoken; den ri-lun yd 
fat (we) believe and are sure J.; implies 
also to reject, forsake, abandon, to eject, 
e. c. kd-yum md-fat-tun-o do not forsake 
us; fat md-h'vn-ne not to be able, to get 
rid of (as disgrace); (no) tso fat (fish) to 
spawn; jer-pdn gun-nd td-se-ni/n giin-nd 
fat fat all the gold Padmasambhava took 
and flung away, cast to the winds; un fat 
(„to eject water") s. the confines of water, 
united with tvr-hi tur-sok q. v. ; — vb. n. 
to recover, a-re uk sd-fa-ki fat md-Uvn-ne 
can never recover from this shame; — 
vb. n. to be lost, to lose, kd-su kd-kyvp 
fat-non I have lost my ring; su Id md- 
fat-nd-sdn-ka a-hlok a-pan-pdn gyom-md 
gather up the fragments that remain, that 
nothing be lost. — a-fat adj. lost a-fat 
a-hram a-kup s. a foundling. 

fan 1. see fdn. 

fan2.vb.t. to mimic, to imitate, to copy, 
to ape, to simulate; — fan-ydm-ho s. a 
mimic; — fan Idt s. imitation, mimicry, 
mockery, simulation, parody; — a-fan s. 
imitation, mimicry. 

(fan 3,) nun-fan or num-fan or num-fan 
num-len s. vituperation reproach; aversion, 
repugnance, anthipathy, rancour, enmity, 
fam-rin fam-hon li gdn num-fan num-len 
fop-so if you threaten to prosecute him, 
you will inspire aversion. 

fap 1. fap-pdfap-pd 1. good, mealy, said 
of huk mealy yams ; 2. also fap-pd fop-pd 
noise of eating, fo zo fap-pd fap-pd fyek 
the bird munching corn ejects the husk, 
kd-l6k zo fap-pd fap-pd fyek the rat id. 




td-fap s. the mouth Tbr. td-fap tot vb. 
to grin, to laugh Tbr. 

(fap 2.) td-fap s. mildew in grain, zo td- 
fap; td-fap bik s. an insect, species of 

fam 1. vb. to eat hastily, to gobble, fam- 
bo s. a gobbler; tur-fam-mo s. Tbr. rice. 
— fyam, fyam fyam quickly, nimble- 
fingered, chiefly applied when eating zo\ 
fyam fyam zdm-bo a. a sharp practicioner 
.at eating. 

fam 2, fam-bo i. q. fd-fa-ld see fa. -^ 

fam kun s. name of tree, the spec, of 
Phoenix, fam pdt the fruit (edible) cf. 
f. k.; — fam-let kun s. a spec, of Phoenix 
M. ace. Wtt. M. 22. S. 1911 phamlet Ma- 
chilus odoratissimus ace. L. 470 Litsaea 
elongata; — „fam-si-kol" ace. Wtt. E.409. 
Eugenia formosa. 

far 1. i. q. far. 

far far i. q. for for. 

far 1., a-far s. price, value of labour 
portion of produce given to assistent; — 
fam far the price of a thing; ay ok far 
the value of work (wages); a-far sd-tet 
go what did you pay? a-far sak-cin-nun 
md-fak-ne invaluable ; a-far bi vb. to give 
portion to assistent; hik-sd a-far-nun the 
price obtained by selling fowls. 

far, /a-Zar- adj. concave, see under a-jwZem. 

fal i. q. fdl q. v. 

ff 1. vb. n. to be scratched as from nail, 
pin etc., ju-nun fi-non to be scratched by 
thorns; 2. s. old fragment, rag, remnant, 
a-fi id. ; td-lu fi a remnant of a mat. 

ff 2. s. a species fish. 

ff 3. s. 1. direction; adv. i. q. fi-ka to- 
wards, a-fi in this direction, o-fi in that 
d., fe-fi thither, there ; fi sUn-mut in the 
direction the windblows, hence s. a favour- 
able breeze, prosperous wind P.; so yut 
fi the direction the rain is falling; ndn- 
so fi the direction in which one has to 
go; hd sd findn fi in whatever direction 
thou mayst go. — 2. time, season, sd-tet 
fi how long a time, ayek fi harvest-time ; 
so myan fi zuk-so I shall do it during the 
approach of the raining weather. 

ff 4 (ger. fi-m, caus. fi-t, fyi-i) to be 
stinking, formidable, terrible, poisonous, 
noxious, fatal, mortal, e. c. o-re pd-rok fi 
bam that bamboo-shoot is poisonous; fi 
ri-ndm see fim ri-ndm; awe-inspiring, 
frightful, aweful, fi ndm to feel present- 
ment of death, to stand agast, to be seized 
with a nervous creeping or horror betok- 
ening the death of some friend vid-ro 
mak-so-ba fi fi n&m when a man is going 
to die he feels a presentment. — s. the 
breath or spirit of death, fi-nun tuk vb. 
to be overshadowed by the spirit of death; 
fi mun s. the breath of death, the demon 
of death see ji fi; — in s. of darkness 
so fi dark; — fi fi adjly, horrific, fi-bo id., 
(fi-'^fi-ld-bo id., fi-fi-ld-sd sd-gor an appal- 
ing precipice; fi-fi li vb. to be inspired 
with dread or awe, to feel presentment 
of death. 

fim, a-fim adj. stinking, poisonous, 
deadly, terrible, formidable, so un fim rat 
ndn the terror of the storm has subsided; 
fim ri-nom s. an oppressive smell, a no- 
xious exhalation, a mephitic vapour, a 

fit vb. t. or caus. to eject anything bad, 
pit fit to eject a peditum on another per- 
son; to deposit eggs applied to pd-ron; 
to spit as cat a-lyii fit; — vb. n. to be 
infected by smell a-ri fit; met. to be il- 
legitimate (child), krok-bo-niin fit to the 
illegitimate offspring of a great man; a- 
kvp fit an illegitimate child, base-born, 
bastard; also of gold or silver in s. of 
plating, gilding, spurious, false jer fit, 
kdm fit.-fit-bo adj. false, spurious etc. 

ffk 1. vb. t. to tear as cloth Mm fik, 
paper, also as boar with tusk mon-tsii, vik- 
niin fik to split, to lacerate, to cry with 
a sharp hissing sound, to make a tearing 
noise, as cat when angry, to spit sd-ci fik 
the thar utters his cry ; a-lyii fik the cat 

fik 2, fik-ld adv. : close but not to touch, 
lightly brushingly, dyu fik-ld di or non 
the bullet whisked by; a-i-i fik-ld ndm 
a light pleasant smell i. q. a-n ddl-ld ndm. 

ffk — fuA-num 

fum — (fut) ta-fut 


ffk s. time, season i. q. fi 2. 

ffn cfr. T. mtin vb. n. to be clear as 
water or sky; — a-fin 1. adj. clear, trans- 
parent, a-fin nan to become clear ; 2. blue. 
— fin-nci fin-nd 1. clear, lucid, 2. blue, 
3. fair, beautiful, comely (as woman). — 
redupl. fun-fin-bo adj., fun-fin-la adv. blue. 

ffn-fo ("/?'»«" its call) s. the red-eared 
bay- woodpecker Venilia pyrrhotis, M. 
Je. 291, ace. W. fi-ing Blythipicus pyrrh- 
otis; fin-fo mydt (the woodpecker) to 
cry persistently by which cry monkeys 
are said to be attracted. 

fft see fi. 

fft or fyit, fyit-td fyit-td switching (noise) 
fyit-td fyit-td biik to switch. 

fft or fyit s. a contrivance for catching 
fish no-fyit; fyit fo s. the ribs (teeth) of 
the fyit-trap. 

ffm see fi. 

ffl 1. for fydl q. v.; 2. see tHk-fil. 

fiik- reduplic. of fak, fuk, fyek etc. fitk- 
fuk-ld ovfd-fuk-ld dirty, bad complexioned. 

furi- reduplic. of fin, van, van etc. 

fun, a-fuii s. a corpse; also fUn fiin, 
a-fun lap vb. to bury a corpse, a-fUn 
luk vb. to exhumate, a- fiin luk tek vb. 
to rebury, a-fUn tHk-fil s. a species of ant. 
a-fUn fan vb. to burn a corpse; a-fu,ri ran 
vb. to sit on watch over a corpse; a-fUn 
zuk vb. to put on the shroud; a-fUn tek vb. 
to perform funeral ceremonies; a-fUn tek- 
la s. sepeliundi modus J. fiin zdn da nyi 
to lie like a corpse; fiin so-bo s. funeral 
bearers P.; fiin so-sd lyan s. hurrying 
ground, cemetery; fiin prok s. a shroud, 
fiin prok-kd ka-den or fiin prdk-sd dum id. P. 

fut, a-fut s. a handle,, the shaft of spear; 
a- fat nyim-bo having a handle, having 
foundation, purchase, power; a-fut md- 
nyin-niim-bo false, unfounded; ban fUt s. 
a knife-handle; — tHk-fiit s. 1. a handle 
as of knife etc., 2. a small pestle. 

fun vb. n. to be isolated i. q. td q. v. 

fun- redupl. of van etc. q. v. 

fun-num s. an enemy (Old Lepcha) now: 
fUn-jiim s. an enemy (seejiim), fUn-niim 

fum- redupl. of vyam q. v., fUm-vyam-ld 

fum i. q. fdm q. v. 

fur 1. vb. to hasten one's self; to be 
assiduous, to be sedulous, to stick to a 
work, to be indefatigable. — fUr-bo adj. 
persistent, s. a person obstinately resolv- 
ed on a thing. — fUr-rd fUr-rd 1. zea- 
lously 2. quickly as bird's flying fUr-rd 
fUr-rd ayok zuk vb. to work persistently. 

— fvr-ldt s. 1. alacrity, zeal, energy, 2. 
assiduity, industry, laboriousness, drudg- 
ery, indefatigability. — td-fUr s. diligence, 
adj. plodding, mi td-fUr one who sticks 
beside the fire, nyot td-fixr one who sticks 
to his work in the field. 

fur 2. fd-fHr-ld flattering as thin dress 
by wind. 

ful i. q. fdl vb. n. to fall off itself as 
fruit, horns, button etc. 

(ful) ta-ful s. a tube, a piece of bamboo 
for blowing the fire with or for passing 
a string thro' and leading a dog to pre- 
vent its biting. 

ful- redupl. see fiil-ld fyel-la i. q. fdl-ld 
fyel-ld see under fyel, fydl. 

fu 1., fu-m early morning son fum, fu-ld 
adv. early, soon, in a few days, shortly 
applied to the past, as well as future; 
nam fu-ld-ka in a few years; td-so fu-ld 
fi (he) arrived short time ago; fu-ld di-so 
will come soon. 

fu 2. vb. t. to cut the roots of deep- 
growing plants as arum-spec, to prevent 
the bulb growing low, buk-fu see riik-sil. 

— fum, a-fum s. the root or bulb of 
potatoes near the surface, a cut root to 
prevent deep growing, buk fum a yam 
so cut. 

fu 3. adj. ferruginous, reddish (as water 
tinctured with iron) un fu muddy brown, 
fu a-ri a f. taste. 

(fut), reduplic. fUt-td fut-td adv. with 
briskness, f.-td f.-td dyok mat vb. to 
stimulate, urge on work. 

(fut) ta-fut 1. s. seminal discharge with 
odour, 2. the gland of musk-deer, hog, 
etc.; t.-f. ri-nom the smell as of goat, 



fun— fo 


pig etc.; sd-hur ta-fut ri-nom the smell 
of the musk-bag of the musk-deer. 

fun vb. t. to make propitiatory vows 
to evil spirit, to deprecate malignity mun 
fun; — t'am-fun s. things promised in 
case of recovery of patient etc. 

fup, a-fwp s. inner skin of grain, inner 
crust, sheath, pellicle, mon fup the husk 
of millet, kun-tson fup the skin over 
grains of maize; kol fup the skin over 
kernel of walnut; nyor fup the epidermis 
of ear. — td-fup s. id. zo td-fup s. the 
inner husk of grain. 

fum see fu. 

fo 1. a bird M. 137. fo yu id. T. bya, 
fo kyok vb. to pick (birds); fo tyuk vb. 
(bird) to hop; fo tyer vb. (b.) to swoop; 
fo dydr lam vb. to learn to fly as young 
bird from mother, fo dydr no/'i to fly 
with difficulty as young b. or wounded 
bird; fo tsdt vb. to alight as birds; — fo 
hlyon vb. to couple birds. 

Comp. fo-kvf s. a young bird; fo-kup 
tam-blydk s. a large dark and yellow 
butterfly; fo-kup dor s. a spec, of mush- 
room. — fo-kdp s. the feathers of wing 
a quill. — fo-gon s. . the spur as of cock 
etc. — fo jum fo dyok rik i. q. tun num 
fo dyok rik s. a plant. — fo jok a partially 
fledged bird; — fo td-gryu s. the crop, 
the craw; — fo tak i. q. fo tok see tok; 

— fo tap s. a snare for catching birds; 

— fo ti s. a birds egg; — fo tim-fo s. 
see fd-tim-fo; — fo tyul s. flock of birds; 

— fo let a bird's settle ; — fo di s. small 
birds, all specc. of small birds ; — fo d&p 
s. a flight or flock of birds; ^ fo dyii. 
i. q. fo di; — fo jmn-ku s. the wing, fo 
pun-ku top vb. to flap wings; — fo pun- 
ci s. the claw or talon; — fo pek s. a 
contrivance for catching birds, fo pek sak 
vb. to set f.-p.; — fo-bon s. a beak of 
bird; — fo-bom s. a matured female b. 
M. 27; — fo ma-lo s. a noose for catching 
birds; — fo mik s. "eye of bird" sores 
that break out on hands and feet of man, 
ichthyosis fo mik pld vb. to appear 
(ichthyosis); — fo myal s. the feathers 

of b., the plumage, fo myal ot vb. to 
moult; — fo tsdm s. a congregation of 
birds; fo tsdm kUn s. a tree or place 
where birds congregate, fo tsdm lyan id.; 

— fo-tsuk s. a snare for catching birds ; 
fo tson s. the crest; — fo yon fo i. q. fd 
yon fo; — fo ryul fo i. q. fd-r.; — fo lik 
s. 1. the call or song of b. 2. a snare 
for b. ; — fo lydn a tame bird ; — fo lyen 
a young fully fledged b. ; — fo lydn a 
young b. able to fly a little but not far; 

— fo von s. the roost i. c. Mt nan, fo von 
nan vb. to roost; — fo von fo s. see fd- 
von fo; — fo vydr s. a snare for birds; 

— fo sa s. a path of birds; — fo sop s. 
bird's skin, — fo sap s. the nest, fo sap 
mat-tun-ka ti vb. to be in great distress, 
to fall into difficulty Tbr. — fo a-ldm a 
b. which can fly. — see no-fo, fd-. 

fo 2, a-fo s. 1. a tooth of man, a-fo 
a-dum a human being, a-fo-ka md-ri 
blydn to have dirty teeth; — fo kral s. 
a toothpick, fo kral pd-tin s. id. ; fo krdl- 
sd krdl vb. to pick teeth with /. kr.; — 
fo krom projecting teeth; — fo A>-d^ jagged 
or wide-apart teeth; — (a-) fo gom s. the 
back teeth ; — (a-) fo grit Id or ta vb. 
to grind the teeth from anger, pain or 
in sleep; — a-fo gli s. the roots of teeth; 

— a-fo jan vb. to be lock-jawed; fo jan 
ddk lockjaw; — fo jin-nd jin-nd mat vb. 
to grin, to show teeth; fo sUn-jen-ld ex- 
posed teeth; — fo nyit decayed teeth; — 
a-fo nyit-tun ta vb. to have decayed 
teeth; — fo nyel s. teeth and gum; — fo 
ban s. the roots of teeth; — fo bu s. a 
"tooth-worm" canker in teeth, rotten 
teeth, (a-) fo bu ddk s. tooth-ache, fo bu- 
nun ta hollow tooth; fo bu td-lam s. a 
gum -boil; fo bii rik s. a creeper (root 
used for filling and soothing pain of 
hollow tooth); — fo zdl s. the foreteeth, 
incisors; — {a-)fo z6m vb. to clinch teeth 
together, to bite the lips; — fo tsop two 
teeth united; — /b lun s. wisdom-teeth; 

— a-fo hyek vb. to show the teeth, to 
grin in anger or otherwise; — fo hryap 
hollowed tooth; — fo vik s. 1. a tusk 

fo— fok 

fok— fdn mun 


2. an eyetooth; — a-fo sol a tooth to grow 
behind another, fo sol s. irregular teeth, 
one growing before the other; — fo uyit 
s. tartar in teeth; — a-fo ctyuk vb. to 
change the teeth as children. — See fom 
vb. to masticate. — 2. taste, flavour, fo 
yd vb. to know flavour, to have a taste 
for anything or to desire for anything, 
fo-ydm-bo s. a taster, an epicure; — 3. a 
tooth of saw etc., edge of knife, ban fo, 
teeth of comb hrit fo; the muller in 
grinding, the upper as weights on yet q. v., 
liin cak fo the muller, the part of the 
3/et-trap (for fish) that holds down the prd 
(the stones of it). 

fo 3. vb. n. to rave, to speak nonsense, 
to be delirious, du ddk-lunfo to be delirious 
in ieyer;jdn-bo zda fo to rave like a mad 
man ; mik-krap-ka fo kydn to talk in sleep ; 
in comp. c. sak: sak fo to be depressed 
in spirits. 

fo bu s. 1. see under fo 2.; 2. name of in- 
sect that infects the leaves of Eugenia 
jambolana, hence sometimes applied to 
the tree itself, see tuk-gldh: fo bu kun 
Wtt. E. 419. 

fo mok (fo see fo and fd-) ace. W. E. 
208 s. n. of a bird, Carpophaga insignis. 

fo vdn ace. W. R. 214 „fo vong" s. n. 
of a bird Chibia hottentota. See fd-von. 

fo hryum ace. W. R. 211 ,,'phor-rhyum'''' 
s. n. of birds Pomatorhinus schisticeps 
and Pomatorhinus erythrogenys. 

fo lin ace. W. R. 219. n. of a bird, Hae- 
matospiza sipahi and Propasser edwardsi. 
See fd-lin. 

fok 1. vb. t. to scoop out, to hollow out, 
to excavate earth; td-bdk fok to disem- 
bowel; vb. n. to be excoriated or denuded 
W. 64., tun-gar fok-non the basket has 
become broken in holes, worn out; — 
s. a-fok a thing hollowed out, a shell, a 
crust, a-ti fok s. eggshell; ro-ba fok s. 
tortoise-shell, see kol-pot fok etc. ; anything 
old, worn out, empty, husky suk-nyom fok 
a withered leaf, a mere trifle, a nothing, 
a leaf, scoria, scum, debris fvn-jcn fok 
scoria, dross; fok-lut „ denuded peak" n. 

pr. of a mountain, Phallut W. 64. — pun- 
fok and piir- fok applied to things that have 
become sealed from age as td-fyep pun- 
fok an old worn out (gourd-) ladle. 

fok, 2 fuk-kd fok-kd adv. soft, yielding; 
slushing, also fak-kd fok-kd grik the 
slushing sound of water. 

fori vb. t. to cut thro' in numbers as 
jungle etc. to clear the way, to cut down 
(as jungle, crops) ban-nun muk fon bil non 
to go cutting one's way thro' jungle; pd- 
zok fan to cut down and clear away jungle; 
fydn fon to cut down and disperse enemy. 
fop see miit pd-am fop. 
for 1. to ease a weighed down head of 
grain etc. by cutting the leaves, zo nyot 
bol non nyak for the rice-fleld has been 
beaten down, prune or reap the ears. 

for 2, for baii to deprecate the evil effects 
of mun at different periods of life (cere- 
mony performed at different seasons by 
miin). — a-for., a-for a-ban s. oppression 
by evil spirits. 

fdk a-fdk s. 1. a step as of ladder, stairs 
steps, kun (Idri) fok wooden (stone) steps 
notch in wood etc. to admit of anything 
resting on it, fok-lun hron vb. to ascend 
steps. 2. adj. indented as head, rugged as 
road, a-fyak fok an indented head. — 
fuk-fok-ld adv. hollowed, concave. 

fdk 2. s. place where game is aboundant 
or a stream where fish is abundant, fdk 
ram name of a place near the source of 
the run-nyo which was noted for its game 
and fishing; fok ram a-dyut poison (for 
arrows) of Fokram M. 

(fdn 1.) ta-fdn s. a trough Ex. td-fon f6l 
vb. to scoop a trough. 

fdn 2. vb. 1. to be green, 2. adj. abbrev. 
of fun-fdn green, fon hlyan a green twig on 
tree; fon-bo adj. green. — a-foh. adj. green 
(colour), fresh (smile). — fun- fon-bo adj. 
fun-fon-ld adv. green. — tarn fori s. any- 
thing green, vegetables. — pd-foh bu or 
pur-foti bii s. name of green snake. 

fdn mun s. n. pr. of evil spirit, an en- 
courager of infidelity, adultery; a-yii Ion 
gun a-vo zdk-xo u-ro loi'i guii a-yu-foii mun- 


fdt— fyat a-fyat 

fyan— fyak 

nun zak-so if the wife commit adultery, 
the husband will be struck by /. m., if 
the husband, the wife etc. 

fdt 1. s. a spec, of leech, fdt-hii id. Hirudo. 

fdt 2. vb. t. to unroll, uncoil, hat fdt to 
open a packet as string, cloth, paper, co 
fdt to open a book, 2. vb. n. to open (as 
flower) rip fdt to blossom; 3. vb. t. to dis- 
close, to reveal, to divulge, to lay open, 
rin ma f. to d. a secret. 

fdt 3. vb. t. to take a mouthful, to chuck 
into mouth; — tarn fdt s. a slight refresh- 
ment, a repast, a luncheon, fam fdt lyd 
to take refreshment. 

fdn 1. vb. t. to pull out, to spread out 
as cotton, U fdn vb. to pull cotton to 
pieces, as in cleansing, to render soft. 

fdn 2. s. a piece of cloth to cover the 

fdm 1. (see fo 2.) vb. t. to masticate, to 
chew; fdm-ndn-bo chewed masticated; a- 
fdm adj. chewed. 

fdm 2. bad, short see U-fdm (cotton). 

fdm 3. s. a contrivance for killing bears 
and other large climbing animals, sd-na 
f^m a bear-trap. 

fdr, a-fdr s. exudation, discharge, 2. 
sperma genitale viri aut mulieris; hin fdr 
s. the exudation from a tree, the sap, gum ; 
fdr ri ndvi vb. to have a fusty smell. — 

fdr fdr vb. n. 1. to spread, to eat in, 
applied to a phagedenic discharge as 
cancer, leprosy, fdr-rd fdr-rd advbly., dom 
ddk-nun a-mdk-ka fdr-rd fdr-rd ta^bii-ndn 
the leprosy breaks out fiercely at inter- 
vals. — 2. adjly. sharp, penetrating (as 
sharp knife), consuming (as fire), tdk-tsu 
fdr fdr let sh. p. as a pickaxe, p^it fdr 
fdr let sh. p. as a hatchet. 

fdl 1. vb. t. to scoop out, to hollow, to 
mine, to burrow. 

fdl 2. for fdl (to shed) q. v. 

fdl 3 a-fdl s. the smell or taste of blood 
fdl ri ndm, man fdl raw meat, also applied 
sometimes to the smell of iron. 

fyak see fydk. 

fyat a-fyat s. a father-in-law, fydt-nyo 
a mother-in-law. 

fyan see fyen. 

fySn, fyan-nd fydn-nd i. q. fdn-nd fdn- 
nd q. V. 

fydr fydr-rd fydr-rd straight, upright, on 
pldn-ka fydr-rd fydr-rd ndn to sit upright on 
horseback ; fydr-rd fydr-rd fyan to sink di- 
rectly and deeply into earth, fydr-rd fydr- 
rd ndn to go very straight as an arrow or 
bird, fydr-rd fydr-rd Idm to walk upright. 

fyar, fydr-rd fydr-rd quivering as arrow 
etc. when just shot into a target etc., 
f.-rd f.-rd nan to quiver. 

fyar see fyer. 

fyal vb. n. to be finished, ended, com- 
pleted, to be matured, fydl-ld fyel-ld fydl 
to be completely finished, td-ayu a-kvp 
fydl-ndn the woman has arrived at the 
turn of life when child-bearing ceases; 
md-zu fydl fullgrown; td-lu fydl 1. s. the 
finishing of matting i. e. the border-ending 
2. vb. to finish do. — fdl-ld fydl-ld ended, 
complete, finished, termination, conclusion, 
lit. broken off, f.-ld f.-ld gyek the woman 
has left off childbearing. 

fya 1. in a little while, soon fya tydt 
or fya-ld tydt for a little while, fya-ld in 
a little while, presently, 2. distantly re- 
lated, slight (relationship) a-gyit fya i. q. 
a-gyit kam ft. 

fya 2, a-fya s. the root (of a tree) etc., 
kun fya, a-fya grydm roots spread out; 
a-fya md ok dydn to root up; a-fya tsdk 
or a-fya tsdk lei to take root; fya dot vb. 
to dig for deep "buk." — a-fya-mo i. q. 
pum-mo q. v. 

fyak 1. applied to ground which has 
been used for cultivation and allowed to 
run to jungle: to restore into richness 
and again become ready for cultivation: 
to be ripe for cultivation, fyak ndn ground 
ready for cultivation from lying fallow; 
2. ripe di see s. r. ci; vb. to become 
ripe see pyak. — a- fyak adj. fit for culti- 
vation, said of land in jungle. 

fyak fyak-kd long and straight, kun 
fyak-kd fyak-kd a tree very high and 
straight, pd-tik fyak-kd fyak-kd a stick 
long straight and tapering. 

fyaft— fyuk 

(fyuk)— fyen 


fyan vb. 1. to put on a cover as of 
dish etc., tar-bok fyan to cover a dish, 
a-fyan fyan to put on cover, fyan toTn-bo 
covered; 2. to settle, to bring to a final 
settlement, to terminate, to shut up. — 
.a-fyan s. the cover (of dish, box etc.) 
a-fyan a-mut s. the cover and dish, a-fyan 
a-ldp s. the cover and saucer. — t'yak-fyan 
the top of skull. — tur-fyan adj. tranquil, 
peaceful, undisturbed, quiet, happy, serene, 
lyah tur-fyan an undisturbed place where 
there is no cultivation, bam lyan tur-fyan 
an abode of peace and plenty. 

fyam 1. a-fyam s. a hump (as in neck 
of ox), bik fyam a bullock's hump; lurn- 
dun on fyam a camel's hump. 

fyam 2. see fam. 

fyi, fyik, fyit see under fi, fik, fit (fi) etc. 

fyu s. a vessel for cooking, fyii tdl vb. 
to take pot off fire; fyii. tydk a small 
vessel; fyu dul s. the rim of a vessel, 
fyii lion a cracked or broken vessel, fyu 
kiip s. a pipkin, mun a-flik-niin a-fyak-re 
tiin-lin fyu zon-ka tuk-tok pd-hip zon gum-o 
there are some preta's which have heads 
like a very large earthen pot and necks 
like unto the marwa-pipe P. — a-fyii in 
comp. fyii s. the cell in honey-comb vot 
fyii cells of honey; any depression tHk- 
nydm fyii the hollow on each side of 
nose; a-fyii zok md-RHn-ne denotes that 
a person cannot manage something. — 
fyH-nyim-bo adj. cellular, having cavities. 

fyuk, fdk-ka fyOk-ka see under fyuk. 

fyut incorr. for fyi% fit see fi. 

fyup vb. t. to join together, as boards, 
to connect together an-to fyiip to join 
boards together, dyok fyiip-non the work 
is completed. 

fyum 1. see fim under fi. 

fyuitl 2.: pHr-fyiim and sd-fyikn s. a 
gentle breeze, a zephyr, sd-fyiim ddl-ld 
yo-sen when you feet the fanning of 

fyuk 1. vb. n. to whirl as arrow, ball, 
fyuk- Id di vb. to come whizzing aloug, 
fyuk fyuk whirling round, fyuk fyuk mat 
vb. to whirl; — redupl. fuk-ku fyuk-kd 

or fak-kd fyuk-kd di to come whizzingly 
as bullet. — tiik-fyuk or tun- fyuk 1. s. 
any whirling thing, a whirling rattle as 
child's plaything. 

(fyuk) 2 tHk-fyuk or tUn-fyuk 2. a scoop, 
a shovel-scoop, tHk-fyuk-sd ok vb. to take 
up with sc, fam-blydk t.-fyuk s. a butter- 

fyun, a-fyun s. 1. the shaft, the column 
as of arrow, pillar etc. tson fyun, ka-wo 
fyun. 2. n. of a small kind of bamboo 
Hooker I. 332 po fyun used in making 
arrows, combs etc. — fyun gri u. of a 
house near Pemiongchi, named from the 
abundance of the fyun bamboo growing 
there, built by one of the kings of Sikhim ; 
fyun gri kd-jdn a spec, of the kd-jdn. — 

fyur vb. t. to enclose as leaf for holding- 
water, lop fyur a cup formed of a leaf, 
see hyur. 

fyul vb. t. to take off as things hanging 
on hook, ban fyul to unfasten ban from 
belt; tiin-gryam fyul to unhook hanging 
bird's cage; to take off necklace: lyak fyul, 
jer fyul; go fyul to take off saddle; to 
lift up and take off, to stir up rice zo fyul 
etc. so as to cause what was at bottom 
to be at top; met. to stir up, to revise 
forgotten subjects rin fyul, to resuscitate 
old grievances or wrongs etc., to incite 
to revenge; to be agitated: fyul fyul s. a 
thorough stirring agitation, disturbance, 
commotion, turbulence, perturbation, lyan 
td-lyan fyul fyul ya non the earth and 
heavens to be swallowed up in one uni- 
versal convulsion. — fyul dak s. convulsive 

fyek vb. t. to husk, to shell as birds, 
when eating grain kd-lok fyek zo (rat) to 
husk and eat. — fHk-fyek-ld hollowed out, 
worn by friction, fiik-fyek-ld nun vb. to 
become so. — td-fyek s. the husk of grain, 

fyen 1. fyen bu s. a spec, of hornet. 

fyeii 2. a-fyen s. the smell of fermented 
liquor, chi, fyen-sd ri-nom; hu-sd a-som 
so-ba ci fyen ri nom when he exhales his 
breath there is a smell of spirit. — niim- 


fyet— fyer 

fyer— fydt 

fyen-mo or num-fyen-mo num dyu i. q. ci 
Tbr.; nicm- fyen-mo a contrivance for 
catching fish. 

fyet 1. vb. t. to cut in a chopping manner 
as with axe or sword, 16m fyet to cut a 
way thro' jungle, kuh fyetio hew a tree, ban- 
sd fyet to strike with ban. — 2. s. a cut 
fyet fo-wun-sd a-li the mark of wound, ban 
klop, fyet bu-sd tyot vb. to bear the scar 
of a wound. 

(fyet 2) pum-fyet, pun-fyet s. 1. com- 
pressed form, li pun-fyet a narrow, com- 
pressed house, a h. with two sloping roofs; 
2. s. tongs, pincers p. mi pun-fyet fire- 
pliers; piin-fyet sd-ayak s. Saturday. 

*fyet 3. T. iyed? (to cause, to make), 
mun-t'an fyet to keep countenance ; pa krak 
fyet to make compensation. 

fyen and fyan s. an enemy, a foeman, 
a rival, jum z6n fyen rivals, fyen-ka (din) 
non vb. to go against the enemy, fyen- 
ka tsvt vb. to fall into hands of enemy, 
fyen-nun tuk vat vb. to be surrounded and 
overpowered by e. ; fyen-nun plyot vb. to 
be plundered by e.; fyen kuk vb. to call 
to arms, T. lins' debs-pa P.; fyen dyu vb. 
to fight with enemy, to go to war, fyen 
dyut s. war, battle; fyen mat vb. to war 
against, to take up arms; — fyen mun .s. 
an enemy, a foe, a ruffian, a villain, a 
scoundrel, fyen-mun 16m s. a dangerous 
road, fyen-mun I6m re zdn-ka fi to fall into 
a harrassing difficulty. — fyen I6m s. hostil- 
ity, enmity, fyen I6m mat vb. to declare 
hostilities; — a warrior, a soldier, fyen 
pun s. an army, fyen hlyam vb. to muster 
together troops, fyen rik or fyen vik rik 
id. — war, hostility, enmity fyen-sd hrim 
1. q. mak hrim. — tiik-mo fyen s. a robber, 
a bandit, murderer J. 

(fyep) ta-fyep s. a spec, of gourd Cucur- 
bita lagenaria, smaller than pu,m-zo, used 
as ladle, hence a ladle kun td-fyep a 
wooden ladle. 

fyer 1. vb. t. 1. (cans, of fdl?) to shed, 
to pluck, as feathers, to cause to fall off 
as members of body, n. to fall off. fyer 
dydn vb. id.; tiik-nyom piih-ku fyer dydn 

the legs of the grasshopper fall off; dom- 
ddk-bo a-kd a-dyan fyer dydn the hands 
and feet of the leper fall off; — fyer byi 
to pull off. 2. to pare nails pun-ci fyer. 

fyer 2. vb. t. to fix as pin into cloth or 
to join cloth together dum ydt-niin fyer. 

fyel 1. see fydl 2. s. a-fyel the finishing 
of a basket or mat; a fringe. 

fyok see fyuk. 

fyon, a-fyon adj. one's own, special, pe- 
culiar, bo-(mo-') fyon father's (mother's) 

fyop (see fyup, hyop) alongside to fyop- 
liin fo vb. to place alongside of. 

fyol see fyul. 

fydk vb. n. to be transverse, to be across 
one over another, as roads, and applied 
also to bullets, arrows etc., to be athwart, 
fy6k-lun da to lie one across another (as 
fallen trees), to pass transversely across 
(as roads), dyu fyok-liin di bullet to come 
in numberless transverse flights; — fuk- 
fyok-kd 1. crosswise, transverse, 2. slo- 
venly, /. f.-ld zuk to work slovenly. — 
a-fy6k adj. crossed, a-fy6k kun s. a cross 
J. — kd-fy6k s. 1 . crossed arras, 2. a spe- 
cies of fern. — pd-fyok, pur-fy6k and piil- 
fyok crosslegged, pur-fyok-ka nan to sit 
crosslegged, as ascetics. 

fydn 1. vb. n. to be over the surface, 
to be superficial, to skim, to pass over 
the surface, nyen fy6n to skim milk, nyen 
fy6n-t6m-bo skim-milk; fy6n dydn vb. to 
skim and fiing away, Tbr. : to kill, to de- 
stroy. — fy6n-nun-re s. the skimmings, the 
skum. — 2. s.the surface; hence the whole, 
theuniverse, the people, adjly. thepeople's, 
appertaining to the family-side, bo fyon 
s. the family appertaining to the father, 
mo fyon the ditto on mother's, side, fyon 
fy6n vb. to screen, to save, to protect, 
said by ban tin M. 

fydt (see froi) vb.t. to sprinkle, to scatter, 
to diffuse, to disseminate, un (-sa) fyot 
to sprinkle water, vi (sd) fy6t sprinkling 
of blood, fy6t hry6n sprinkled; met. a-ydm 
se-rap fy6t to disseminate knowledge and 
wisdom; vb. u. to fly out and fall about 

fydn — fra 

fra— fratn 


as blood from wound, to fly forth, to ex- 
plode, to detonate. — fyot-td fypt-td i. q. 
frot-td frot-td 1. falling out by grains as 
rice, flour from bag with hole, sprinkling, 
scattering 2. bursting forth, exploding etc. 
fydl^td fyot-td glo or lun the falling out 
by grains. 

fydn, 1. fyon-nd fy6n-nd in great num- 
bers, in succession, successively; fyon-nd come in great numbers, in 
succession; kun fyon-nd fyon-nd cek vb. to 
cut down trees one after another, fiin-nd 
fydn-nd or fun- fydn-ld i. q. fyon-nd fyon-nd. 

(fydn 2.) tuk-fydn adj. horizontal in opp. 
to run-gan (q. t.), parallel with, means 
also straight, flat, level, td-dyu-sdn dum 
tuk-fydn lyan dydm, td-gri run-gan lyan 
dydm females dress with the flowered 
lines of their dress worn horizontally, 
males dress with the lines worn vertically; 
lorn tuk-fyon 1 . a parallel road, 2. a hori- 
zontal road; rin tuk-fydn 1. straight-for- 
ward language, 2. an analogous subject. 

fydp i. q. fydt; fdt fydp-re nam mat vb. 
to resemble the sprinkling of earth. 

fydtn vb. to devour, to gobble food with 
mouth and nose, as pigs, dogs etc. fyom- 
lun zo vb. to eat greedily, to devour food 
or fydm-md fyom-md zo, applied also sar- 
casticly to persons eating greedily; fyom- 
lun zdm-bo 1. an animal that devours its 
food; 2. a glutton. See fam, fyam. 

fydr 1. s. a mark or stick set up to 
warn people that there is a wild-beast- 
trap: tsu fydr tsdk vb. to set up a sign 
for ditto; also to warn people that small- 
pox is in a village: ddk fydr, also when 
ground has been taken for cultivation: 
nydt, fydr; lyan fydr a landmark, lyan fydr 
tsdk vb. to set up a landmark. 

fydr 2. s. the blubber, no fydr. 

fydl 1., fydl-ld fydlAd swarming, alive 
with, sak vyan fydl-ld fydl-ld si swarming 
with lice and maggots. 

(fydl 2.) tuk-fydl s. a burnt dead coal see 

fra 1. see fdl vb. to fall off (in leprosy), 
dom-nun frd. 

fra 2. vb. t. 1., to assign, to portion out, 
to distribute, to portion out, to allot, ciyok 
do do frd byi vb. to portion out to each 
his work, rin frd-liin kldn vb. to send 
news in every direction. — 2. to dock 
bulbous root of yam to prevent its 
growing deep. 

frak, frdk-kd or frdk-kd frdk-kd mixing, 
confusedly, frdk-kd frdk-kd tso vb. to 
bubble and boil up, frdk-kd frdk-kd li 
vb. to speak all at once, many at a time ; 
frdk-kd frdk-kd tyii, vb. to flutter as heart 
from fear; frdk-kd frdk-kd dp vb. to fire 

fran, frdn nydm see fren. 

fram 1., a-frdm s. n. of an ornament, 
a necklace worn by females. 

fr^m 2. vb. n. to be anxious with fear, 
to be in dread, to tremble, mak-sdn fram 
ham to be anxious lest he should die ; — 
frdm-ldt s. apprehension, anxiety, fear, 
trepidation, timidity, agitation. — a-frdm 
s. id., a-frdm md-nyin-ne without anxiety. 

fra vb. t. 1. to catch at, to seize at, to 
snap at, kd-ju fra-lun tsuk (a dog) to 
snap at, fra tsam vb. to catch; — 2. to 
remember, to call to mind, to bring to 

frak, frUk-kd frak-kd drop by drop. 

fran 1. vb. n. 1. to become firm, chiefly 
appliedto children when acquiring strength 
to walk a-kiip fran; fran-ld adv. firmly, 
fran-ld Idm vb. to walk firmly, firm on 
legs; 2. to obtain force, vigour, energy, 
elasticity, fran kd vb. to brace nerves, to 
fortify, to invigorate; to try, to submit to 
trial, to prove strength, to twang bowstring 
to see if sufficiently tight, sd-li fran to 
test strength of bow. 

fran 2., fran-nd i. q. fan-nd, sd-dm fran- 
nd si vb. to see light thro' anything i. q. 
sd-dm fan-nd si. 

fran see under niim, niim-fran-bo a. 
eldest son, also eldest brother. 

fram vb. t. to jump and seize as fish, 
fram hrdn to jump up to seize anything, 
as fishes no-pdn fram hrdii the fishes 


fram— frok 

frok— frdt 

fram 2. redupl. fmm fram eruption on 
body, ma-zu frum fram pld to have 
eruption on body. 

fral vb. n. to be very dry and brittle, 
fral-lun gal vb. to break thro' dryness; 
zo fral non the rice is much broken from 
drying etc. 

*frf T. bre s. a measure for corn of 
about 8 td-pu's; frifik-bo i. q. sd-ryokThr.: 
a tigercat, litly. the one who had to pay 
its measure of (food-) corn to the tiger 
(Old L. legend); — fri a-hon kd-ta li vb. 
to be all agreeable to the measure, to 
agree, to be of one accord or sentiment. 
tun- fri 1. i. q. fri 2. tun-fri bik s. one of 
the wasp-spec. 

frik contr. fr. fd-ryiik q. v. 

frii-fru coming with spasmodic, convul- 
sive or intermittent drops or streams, 
issuing at intervals (constantly) mik grun 
frO, fru lor vb. to have a running of rheum 
from eyes; jit fru fru lor vb. to make 
water (ejaculation) with convulsive jerks 
as when in pain; m frii fru zok vb. to 
bleed with compulsive or intermittent 

fru fru swelled as bud, bursting with 
fullness (as ear of corn) zo fru fru bam. 

frun, frum, frul see fro-. 

frek s. an eruption on feet, frek-bu s. 
a small worm, which is said to produce 
itching eruption on the feet, frek-bu jak 
s. the disease produced by f.-bii,. 

fret fret-td, fret-td i. q. pyet-td pyet-td q. v. 

fren and frdn s. a boil, an ulcer, fren 
mydn non the boil has suppurated, has 
become ripe; fren-sd tuk-sicp a. the pus; 
fren-sd tuk-sUp pld (the pus) to burst out 
frdn-ny&m id. q. fren e. c. tsii-bo-pdn M. 
dun-ka din md-nu-ne lu go yo gdn frdn 
nyom re tsu-bo-sdn sd mi-zdr-mo gun-nd- 
sd md-zii-ka pld the magicians could not 
stand before M. because of the boils; for 
the boil was upon the magicians and upon 
all the Egyptians Ex. 

frok 1., frok frok fluttering, palpitating, 
frok frok tyO. vb. to flutter as heart from 
pain, to palpitate. 

frok 2, frdk-kd frok-kd adv. gradually, 
one after . another, frdk-kd frok-kd lat vb. 
to shoot out as young ears of corn. 

fron s. inflammation fron dak., a-bu fron 
ddk i. of the lungs; {mo) fron non (sore) 
vb. to inflame. 

fron vb. t. to cut thro' horizontally. 

from 1. adjly. united in numbers; 2. vb. 
t. to set upon, to assail in numbers, used 
in an unpleasant sense, to crowd upon, 
to set upon, to take by storm, to board, 
to make an irruption, to lay seize, to 
beleaguer, to be superior in numbers or 
power; Kam-lu mat ba from, to overpower 
in a litigation; from ndk to crowd (round) 
to see. 

frol vb. t. to cut thro' many bamboos 
with one stroke opp. kid q. v. 

frdk, pd-frok-ld, fd-frdk-ld, fHk-frok-ld 
thin lines or layers of division, li fd-frok- 
Id cap vb. to thatch house by layers. 

frdk-bu, s. a spec, of grub. 

frdn, frdn vb. to count, to number, to 
calculate, a- fron fron {-bam) vb. to count 
up numbers; tsu (kyop) frdn vb. to calcul- 
ate accounts, a-bdn-niin tal-ld frdn vb. to 
count upwards as from 1 to 10, a-ydk- 
nwn, mil-Id fron to count backwards as 
from 10 to 1 ; — to tell, to relate, to show, 
to report, to describe, to register, to 
delineate, to sketch, fo frdn to make 
records, to register, man fron to describe 
dream; — fron-bo s. a calculator, a regi- 
strar, a recorder, a narrator, a commen- 
tator. — fron past of frdn; frdn-ld mat vb. 
to point out, to typify; — nam frdn fo 
„one that indicates the seasons" s. a bird 
of passage. — a-frdn s. a number, fixed, 
stated calculation, appointed time, sd-dyak 
a-frdn-ka on a stated day; kd-yu-sd a- 
frdn-ka according to our calculation; a- 
frdn cd (nyd) an even (odd) number. — 
frdn kdn: a-fyak frdn kdn s. a census. — 
fam frdn s. a number, numeral fi.gures, 
calculations, accounts, indication. 

frdt vb. to dribble, to fall drop by drop, 
i. q. sdt krdt q. v. ; frut-td frdt-td or frdt- 
td frdt-td dropping, in drops, (so) frdt-td 

frdn— fif, fif-m 

flik— flen 


frot-td yu (rain) to fall in large drops; 
fr6t-td frdt-td tap vb. to dribble as water 
held in hand; frot-td frot-td zok or liin 
Tb. to fall in drops. — suk-frot dribbling, 
dropping. — tuk-frot or tun-frdt s. a few 
heavy drops here and there, a sprinkling 
of a few spots as in small-pox; so tuk- 
frot yii a few heavy drops of rain to fall; 
rum du ddk-kd tuk-kd tak-kd tun-frot pld 
a few single spots only to make their 
appearance in small-pox. 

frdn see fron. 

frdm see frdm: li frdm s. a watch-tower, 
a watch-house. 

frydk vb. 1. to pass right thro' as bullet, 
arrow tson fry6k-ld pld; 2. to be disen- 
gaged, to be at leisure, to be free from 
business. — frydk-kun s. leisure ; fryok-bo 
s. one unimployed. — ho a-lo mat nan- 
Mn fryok-sdn-d have you nothing else to 
do than to sit here. 

frydk, a-frydk s. spare, surplus. 

fla- reduplic. of roots beginning with hi, 
fld-hlet slippery. 

fla vb. to describe the symptoms of 
illness,' see dii, to moan, to groan duk fid 
to be in difficulty. 

fldk vb. t. to scrape, gnaw or cut flesh 
of bones. 

fl^k vb. t. to sow every side of a hill 
flak zo, nyot flak. 

fidk, fWi-kd, fldk-kd applied to the moving 
of fish under a stone, when a hand is 
put under to catch them. 

(fla): flut-td fla-td bad, said oi pd-li (1). 

flak vb. t. to cut off branches or leaves 
of tree, — vb. n. to be blown off by 

flat vb. t. to wash the head. See flet. 

flat vb. n. to be very hot, flat-td, flat-td 
very hot, so-6l flat-td flat-td to perspire 
greatly, flat-td flat-td gal to be rotten. 

fif 1, fIf-m vb. n. to be in vigour, go M 
fU gdn ayok zuk-h if I am able, I will 
do it. — a-flim a. power, might; adj. potent, 
a-myam a-flim mat to be in vigour. 

fIf 2, fIf-m vb. t. to divide, to separate 
as persons or things also affections of 

the heart, td-lyd dd-sd un-pdn fli-n6n the 
waters were divided Ex.; (Jm-nun) luk- 
kup-pdn fli-lun (he) did separate the lambs 
Gr. sam mat fli to divide into three; a-lut 
fli to alienate. — flim s. separation, ^p*^" 
fli-ld adv. separately. 

flik (see fli 2.) 1. (apart, aside) sd-flik-ld 
adv. apart kum-blik sd-flik-ld fo vb. to 
place apart, aside. — 2. cracked, split as 
wood, bamboo, rook. — a-flik adj. some 
(persons or things) a-flik — a-fliktheone — 
the other T. gcig — gcig; a-flik-nun un-no- 
lim un tdn-sdnnondyet-sen-ldmak-so-yam-o 
another satva's tantalized through thirst, 
whenever they attempt to drink water, 
must expire from being burnt in an abyss 
of fire P. 

flin, flin vb. to turn aside as face; also 
to shy as a horse ; — sd-flin s. separation, 
adj. apart, sd-flin-ld mat vb. to separate, 
to place apart, sd-flin-ld mat md-td-ne not 
to be able to separate as friends. 

flit vb. n. to slip down, to slide down 
as from tree. See flut. 

(flu) sd-fla sd-fld adv. here and there. 

fluk vb. t. to shave trees etc., to smooth 

down wood roughly; — fuk-fliik-kd shaved 

down; needy, bare; blunt as knife; md- 

rd fak-fliik-ho s. a very poor man. 

flut vb. t. to let fall flvtt glyet; flUt-td 
flut-td hlet to be very slippery. 

flun vb. t. to slide down a tree kuh 
flun yu. 

flu vb. 1. to get free sd-fdn-nijtn flu to to 
get free from tiger. 2. adj. highbranching. 
flut vb. n. to slip from, flwt com dydt 
vb. t. to let slip, to let go kun flut-lUn 
glo to fall from tree, on-niin flut glo to 
fall from horse. — cans, flyut to let slip, 
to cause to slip away. 

(flut) flat-td flut-td advly. fidgetting, flat- 
td flut-td non to go fidgetting about. 

flek-1. vb. I. to overcome, 2. to lose, a- 
flek a-hlam s. a defeat. 

fiek 2. a-fkk s. 1. pulse or split peas. 

2. anything broken into small pieces. 

3. a splinter of rock. 

flen vb. t. to stretch out leg or hand. 




ba— ba, b^, bd-t 

flet vb. t. to wash face; to be covered 
with blood. 

flot Tb. to cast off as clothes, snake 
skin etc. 

flot, fldt-td fbt-td not well cooked, work 
not well executed, language not well ex- 
pressed, a-zdm f. f.; Tin f. /, li sak-cin- 
ka sd-re hdn-bo re li; fldt-td flot-td-sd 
md-rd a restless flighty sort of person, 
dyok fldt-td flot-td zuk work hastily and 
superficially done. See flut. 

fidk vb.t. to hew square, to cut smoothly, 
kun pi flok to peel or bark a tree. 

fIdk vb. n. to be splintered as tree by 
lightening or to be cut in splinters or 
lengthways as tree after being cut down; 
to be grazed so that the blood comes, 
a-mlem fldk the face is grazed. 

fidn 1 vb. n. to be slightly grazed so 
that blood does not come. 

fIdn 2. a-fl6n adj. coarse (as flour), 
flun-flidn-nd coarse as flour, clumsy, rough 
as workmanship, slovenly. 

fidt vb. t. to braid or plait hair. — 
a-flat s. a braid of hair, a twist or epau- 
lette on shoulder; adj. bad (said of cane). 

fIdn vb. n. to be powdered? M. 

flya i. q. 'plyd q. v. 

flyan vb. t. to frighten, flydn nyon vb. 
t. to frighten away. 

fly4t and flydt 1. vb. t. to relax, to 
loosen as snare, trap or anything with a 
spring du flydt to close umbrella, to 

slacken as bow; vb. n. to open out as 
hedgehog, porcupine, flyot hrdn zdk to 
spring back as bush into one's face; — 
2. vb. n. to- turn aside, to turn in, go 
a-ldn flydt-liin tet-mo a-tim a-re ndk-so 
I will now turn aside, and see this great 
sight Ex. dy.-rfun hH ndk-sdn-ka flydt 
ydn si-wun-sd when the lord saw that he 
turned aside to see. Ex. — 3. vb. n. to 
be passed, said of time or things as on 
road, li flydt the house is passed; nam 
flydt the year is passed. — 4. vb. t. to 
put to flight enemy. 

flydn vb. t. to unhook i. e. to take off 
a thing hanging on hook, flydn bH non 
to take off hook and carry away. 

flyak vb. t. to strip or cut off leaves 
and twigs off a switch or branch while 
in the hand. 

flyan vb. n. to escape from, as from 
snare, siin-hi flyan. 

fiyun, flyan-nd flyun-nd reeling, stagger- 
ing, as a drunken man. 

fiyen vb. t. to share, to divide a portions 

flyoii vb. n. to fly away, to be published, 
to be spread as news. 

flyot vb. n. to run off, to slip see lyot. 

flydn 1. crooked? M. 

flydn 2. vb. t. flyon nyon to put to 
flight as enemy, birds, beasts etc. 

flydt see flydt. 

flydn vb. t. to take off (as saddle etc.), 
to cast skin (as snake). 


ba the sixteenth letter of the L. alpha- 
bet T. ^ (^); it is pronounced as the 
English B. 

ba a verbal particle, expresses the same 
as fu (doubt or uncertainty) as so yu hd 
md-yu-ne hd po md-yd-ne whether it will 
rain or not I do not know. 

*h& T. 'bol s. a carpet, a coverlet, bd- 
ka nan to sit on a carpet; bd nan or bd den 
s. a cushion, bd 'Sun a small carpet, a rug, 

bd lap vb. to spread carpet, bd rat vb. to 
take up carpet. 

ba, ba, bd-t to be abundant. — I. hd, 
bd 1. vb. n. to be abundant, numerous, 
bd bam it is abundant; to be good, mealy 
(said of potatoes) buk hd a good potatoe. 
— 2. s. magnification, commendation, ad- 
miration, respect, estimation, dignity, bd 
kyop vb. to respect, to .honour, ignorant 
L.'s understand this to mean more to 

b& kup— bak, ta-bak 

bak-ko— ban, a-ban 


shew respect by presenting gifts; bd mat 
vb. to magnify, to respect, to regard, to 
esteem, to honour, it is sometimes used 
met. for „ death" especially when speaking 
to children, thus : Child : kd-su a-mo sd-bi 
nyi where is my mother? Answ.: a-do a- 
m'o bd mat-ndti-ne your mother has become 
glorified (i. e. is dead). — reduplic. bd bd 
or bd bd s. abundance; bd bd si si s. ab- 
undance; plenty, copiousness, profusion, 
bd bd si si nyi there is abundance, zo dyek 
tu-tsdt-ka a-zdm bd bd si si nyi at harvest- 
time food is abundant. 

Der. bdm-bo, a-bdm adj. good, mealy 
(said of potatoes). — pd-bd much, abun- 
dant, pd-bd sd-si id., pd-bd-ld adv. abun- 
dantly, very much, pd-bd sd-U-ld zo (tan) 
to eat (drink) abundantly, to feast. 

TL.bdtl.\h. be produced, magnified, 
multiplied; to increase, to swell (as rice 
in boiling); bdt-bo, bdt-ydm-bo adj. pro- 
ductive, td-ayu a-kup (a-gyap) bat (-ydmi) 
-bo a fruitful woman, productive of many 
children; a-li a-gyap bdt-bo gum seed is 
very productive, multiplies itself greatly; 
bdt-yd it swells greatly or it increases 
greatly, du-niin bdt md-kdn-nehj sickness 
their increase is prevented; bdt bun-nd 
to multiply, to increase, a-do bdt bun-nd 
may you prosper; a-gyap bdt bun-non it 
is now increased unto a multitude Gr. — 
2. s. increase, magnificence, merit, worth, 
property, development. 

bd kup s. the diacritical mark forming 
the final letter p (°). 

ba-luk see bu-luk. 

bdk vb. t. to weed, sin bdk to weed a 

bak, ta-bak (cfr. Mikir pok, Ao Naga 
tapoK) s. stomach, belly, td-bdk a-U i. q. 
pUn-brdn-ld large belly, td-bdk kot non 
to have one's belly stuffed; td-bdk cat vb. 
to have severe stomach-ache; td-bdk du 
dak 1. s. dysentery 2.vb. to have dysentery: 
td-bdk hdr-rd hdr-rd nyofi to long for food; 
td-bdk sa 1. vb. to have looseness of 
bowels, 2. diarrhoea; td-bdk an vb. to 
swell as stomach of corpse; — appetite. 

td-bdk lyot vb. not to restrain one's appe- 
tite, to gormandize, td-bdk hryUm cdk vb. 
t. to keep a strict diet; — also in sense 
of mind md-ro td-bdk-ka sUn-hlyo vun ryu 
to be large-bellied, also -minded, md-rd 
td-bdk ryum dok-ld md-su-ne to be small 
bellied, also little-minded, td-bdk tim-bo 
large-minded, magnanimous ; — the womb 
see kyun nok (or nuk) kiip-for, a-mo td- 
bdk-ka bam-nyi-ba while yet in womb of 
mother; — signifies greatness t. b.-mo, 
un-dd ti-mo td-bdk-mo-sd a-pin (will go) 
across the vast ocean. 

bdk s6k „to dissect the stomach" to 
analyze, to scrutinize, to sift, to catechise, 
to resolve, to discriminate, a-ryum a-jdn 
bdk sok-lun fli to to discriminate and 
separate the good from the bad. 

Comp. bdk-ka, bdk-kd (T. dkar) adj. 
white-stomached (as the st. of black- 
haired pigs); — bdk-ku; td-bdk ku s. the 
navel; — td-bdk ddk s. stomach-ache; — 
bdk-dyol, td-bdk dyol adj. large bellied 
applied chiefly to children 6n bdk-dyol, 
s. the young of bees, wasps etc., before 
they get their stings: eaten by L.'s td- 
lyam b. dy.\ vot b. dy.; tik b. dy. 3. a spec, 
of cicada. — bdk-nat; td-bdk-nat s. wrink- 
les of belly, ruggedness of b. ; — td-bdk- 
mo s. 1. large-bellied; 2. greatness; 3. a 
large eater; — bdk-riik; td-bdk-riik i. q. 
td-dyol-ld potbellied; — bdk-lim\. (\. bdk- 
ku; — bdk-si i. q. bdk-dyol but older. — 

See co-bdk. 

bak-ko s. breathing thro' nose, drawing 
a long continued note in blowing musical 
instrument, b.-ko tsdk vb. to blow the i. 
as above. 

bak Ryum see bok-KyHm. 

bak-£e s. a cymbal; i. q. bHp-ce, bdk-ce 
(yol vb. to clash cymbals. 

bak-to s. a species of grain, see kiin-ra. 

bdn adj. to be striped, across marked, 
to be lined. — a-bdn s. a stripe or streak, 
a-bdh-bo adj. striped or streaked G. 

ban, a-ban s. the bottom of anything, 
the root, the base, the foundation e. c. 
kun ban s. the trunk and basis of tree ; 


ban, a-baii— bap 

bSp— ba 

ri'p ban s. the stem of flower; P.; — the 
beginning, the source, the spring, a-bdn- 
nun lu-liin reckoning from the beginning; 
Id-vo a-re a-yu kor-ka Id-vo-pdn-sd a-bdn 
nam-sd Id-vo han-bo re nun-so this month 
shall be unto you the beginning of months : 
it shall be the first m. of the year to you 
Ex.; a-hdn-ka in the beginning; su a-bdn 
go what is the cause; a-bdn tsdk or dyit 
to begin a work; — the preparations, 
requisites, necessaries, a-6a«a-«/aA;„ bottom 
and top", a-bdn a-ydk lot rik yb. to put 
things into order; a-bdn a-ydk fydl fat 
altogether in confusion; — the principal 
chief matter; see bri-bdn; a-bdn mat-bo 
the principal person in any undertaking; 
a-bdn dd or a-bdn-ka dd or a-bdn ndn 
vb. to appeal to government or anyone 
in authority against a guilty person. — 
Deriy. piin-bdn 1. fixed, permanent, 
settled, U p. b. a permanent (strong or 
long standing') house; pun-bdn-bam-bo 
1. permanent, resident, 2. short and squat. 

— fam-bdn s. or f. b. rem-bdn the produce 
of the earth, the fruits of the earth. 

ban, a-ban see bon, a-bon. 

bat yb. to insert, to penetrate; to in- 
sinuate into, to inject; bdt nyon yb. to 
place or stick anything into a hole, as 
finger into ring, key into keyhole etc.; 
tiik-bya bdt see tuk-bya; —bydt caus. of 
bdt to lay upon, to load; to place into, 
to cast into, to charge, to commission as 
with a message, to delegate, kup bydt to 
impregnate; kl6n bydt to send away charged 
with (commission); rin bydt to send or 
charge with message; kdk bydt to lay the 
responsibility upon, to render responsible ; 

— bydt to 1. to lay upon. 2. to charge with. 
bSt s. a bundle (as of clothes), a parcel, 

a pack, packet, package, bdt-ka tap vb. 
put it into the bundle. 

(bat) td-bdt s. a small repast for a jour- 
ney, t. b. bu to carry ditto. 

b4t yb. see under bd. 

b4n see fedm ban. 

■ban see -ban under -ba. 

bap see bap. 

bdp see tuk-bdp. 

bdp yb. t. to drink, to guzzle; to gobble; 

— bdp-bo s.a guzzler, gormandizer; cibdp- 
bo s. a wine-bibber. — bap-mo s. a monkey, 
prob. from bap as above „a gobbler". 

bam i. q. bam q. y. 

*b4m t'dk T. bal-tag s. a match for 
firing guns. 

bar yb. n. to increase (a little in hight), 
to spring up a little; to start (as thing 
out of its place) bdr-lun pld yb. to be an 
upstart opp. to a-gyit-nyim-bo s. a man 
of ancient family; a-kiip bdk tet ti yb. to 
be grown a little (as children) bdr tet pld 
vb. to be grown a little (as teeth of 
animals). — pd-bdr-ld full, brimful, li pd- 
bdr-ld blydn the house is filled, pd-bdr- 
ld Idk vb. to fill as vessel. 

bir vb. n. to be capacious, to be spa- 
cious; adj. wide, capable of holding much, 
li bdr a spacious house, nd^-var bdr-bo a 
capacious ship, ci bum bdr-bo a c. wine- 
vase; — a-bdr adj. having a large bore 
(as gun). 

bar-fdh s. the patricians, aristocracy, in 
contradiction to a-den q. cfr., a division 
of the Rong-people H. H. Risley, Tribes 
2, 8. M. Gr. XII. n. 

bal vb. to scrape, as fowls before nest- 
ling; hik bdl s. name of bird; bdl-fo s. 
ditto; bdl-lyan s. a place where fowls rest; 

— bdl bdl (rubbing) quickly or in a hasty 
manner b. b. nyok vb. to rub quickly 
between fingers b. b. hut vb. to scratch 
head in a hasty manner as when excited. 

ba 1. excl. stop!, hold!, hut! ba go ndk- 
so hold, let me see it. 

ba in comp. „ place", „ direction" 
„ where" „ there" see sd (sd-ba; sd-ba-ld); 
o; a; me; ta; co etc. see bi. — 1. postp. 
1. q. -ka among, gun-nd-ba a-flik mak 
among all some died; — 2. expresses also 
„time" as a-lo-ba these times, now-a- 
days; — expresses also „when" (past) 
t'am-cdn-pdn cim bam-ba md-tsdk-ne when 
the cattle were feeble, he put (them) not 
in; G., hum gyek-ba hit k. -ka bam-nyi 
he was at K, when se bare him G.; go 


"ba-guk— bat 


li-ka Kyd-ba hu md-bam-ne when I arrived 
at the house he was not at home; ho 
non-Mn-ba no-o whenever you wish to go, 
go, — correl. of sd-ba; is repeated emph- 
ly. after the vb., ho sd-ba nm-ba go Id 
ndn-so whenever you go I shall go also 
see sd-ba; — c. c. han-nun "before" e. c. 
lok-re-nun td-i nuh-fom-bo-rem md-luk-na- 
ba han-nun lyo-lun dum-sd prdk-lun hd-yu 
do tuk-pun-'pldn-ka ka bu non the people 
took their dough before it was leavened, 
their kneading -troughs being bound up 
in their clothes upon their shoulders Ex. 
— 3. by means of, thro', by reason 
of, generally with mat or nun mat; a-re 
rin li-ba hu a-lut-sd gdt-tun fop md by 
making this speach he obtained the de- 
sires of his heart; sd-lo mat-ba ryu-so by 
what means will it be good, what is 
best to be done; — 4. a verbal particle 
expresses a past indefinite in s. of 
the Skt. absolutive, T. cin or te as hu 
U-ba (when) he said; hu non-ba (when) 
he went; — c. c. so in s. of suffix of the 
fut. perf., hu fi—wun-sd go non-so-ba when 
he arrives I shall have gone. — 5. often 
used in songs, merely an expletion and 
redundant, used to fill up the measure 
as ha te ju-wun-sd on sitting down. 

Instr. ban and ban (contr. fr. ba-nun) 
affixed to verbs forms a past participle, 
e. c. M a-zdm zo-ban ndn having eaten 
food he went away; fi-ban U-ba having 
come he said; rum dar-mit fd-no-nun 
td-h tin-mum tsun-bii-bdn (or tsun-bu-lun) 
Idm-non-ne-yam-o the five dakini's lift 
Padma up and flew away P; s.-nun hum 
si-lun tsam-bdn hii dyep-ka da-lun hum 
hlok fat when Sh. saw her, he took her, 
and lay with her, and defiled 'her G.; 
a-yu do mum tok-ld mat-bdn dum lyet 
dydm-md-o be clean and change your 
garments. G.; dy. nap-mo-ka nyot-nun 
I6t-ba l.-nun hum pld-lun fut-bdn hum li 
I. came out of the field in the evening 
and L. went out to meet him, and said G. 

(ba), ba-la fully open ; rip ba-ld fot-non 
to open out or be fully blown (as a 

flower); open out (as a cloth), dum ba-ld 
kap vb. to spread the cloth fully out. 

*ba-guk s. fr.-T. sgyig? a pouch, kom ba- 
guk a purse. 

"^ba-gdk T. pag-gu or par-gok see co, 
CO ba-gok a cake of tea. 

ba-dam nun s. the hazel-tree G. 30,37. 

ba-do s. a scarf. 

ba-ddn see num-dak. 

ba-mo (mun) a female demon, an ogress, 
a witch, sH-mo ba-mo-sdn: gnomes and 

*ba-tS(5 T. sbas (sbed-pa), rtsa s. adj. 
a clandestine or impure root or origin; 
a bastard ; mongrel, baseborn, spurious, 

* ba-la -ha Skt. valdha, T. ba-la- ha s. 
name of Padmasambhava's horse, Pega- 
sus P. 

bak 1. s. the noise made by any heavy 
substance falling on the earth, bak-ld glo 
vb. to fall with a whack, bak-ld grik s. 
the sound of ditto. 

bak 2, a-bak adj. thick (log), kun-bak 
a thick log of wood. 

ban, ban vb. n. t. to diminish, to de- 
crease, to reduce, to subtract, to curtail 
(in quantity, size or quality to settle 
down in part, to collapse, to fall in (as 
earth which was previously level) to chop 
in small pieces, to attenuate, abridge, 
a-fron-ka ban-non there is a deficiency 
in the account; dyok-ka ban-niin md-nyin- 
ne there is no defect in the work. — 
a-ban s. 1. a half less than, 2. not full, 
small deficiency, a-han nydt one and a 
half i. c. one half less than two, a-ban 
md-fdp-ne give us not short weight, pd- 
dam a-ban a water-vessel not full. 

baii-ga-la s. a sort of large javelin, 
poisoned and used for killing elephants 
for the sake of ivory, ban-gd-la-sd pok 
vb. to throw the javelin. 

bat straight across, right across, bat-Id 
to vb. to put evenly across, kun bat-Id 
cit vb. to split tree evenly; kun 16m bat- 
Id pok vb. to fell a tree causing it to fall 
across a road. — pd-bat-ld i. q. bat-Id. 


(bat,)— ban 

ban, pun-ban-la— bap 

(bat,) pur-bat adj. viciously disposed. 

ban 1. postp. contr. fr. ba-nun see 
under ba. 

ban 2 see ban. 

ban 3. s. a knife (of any description), 
the Lepcha knife (worn at side), the 
L.'s always wore a long knife in open 
sheath at their side and it was their most 
important and valuable article, Hook. 1, 
130; H. H. Eisley, Tribes 2, 13; 2. a blade, 
3. the barb of arrow sun-ban; — ban md- 
nyin-nun-sd a-kd kyet the handle is useless 
without the blade; ban zo-ro-nun-nd-o (a 
curse) may you become food for the k.; 
ban kyon (non) a blunt k. ; ban k^'ot {n6n) 
to be notched (jagged); the edge; ban-sd 
tin vb. to dissever with knife, b.-sd tin 
rill cutting language, ban-sd tin-re zdn li 
to speak cuttingly ; ban fok vb. to make 
a ban; ban dot vb. to draw ban; ban dor 
vb. to have edge turned; ban nol (edge) 
to be turned; ban-nvm pok vb. to stab 
with k.; ban fdr-non- to become rusty; 
ban fyol vb. to unfasten b. from belt; ban 
ba, vb. to wear a b.; b. vya bi/. to wear 
b. dangling; b. sen bii to wear b. sticking 
in west, ban tset vb. to prick or pierce 
with knife, ban let ban to be sharp. ; ban 
lyap vb. to brandish b.; ban vyek vb. to 
sharpen ban by rubbing it against another; 
ban Ml ylo knife to slip down; ban sen 
vb. to stick knife into sheath, waistband 
etc. — 

Comp. ban ka s. the shoulder-belt of 
b., ban ka lei a small crooked species of 
ban, a small curved knife; — ban kin s. 
the back of b. — ban kHp s. a small ban, 
ban kHp sel to insert b. into its fob said 
of the young head of maize when first 
sprouting (from its fancied form to a fob 
for small k.) — ban kyup s. the binding 
at end of handle, next to the blade. — 
ban klop a piece cut out by k. — ban 
ktyop flat side of blade. — ban gin s. a 
leather strap or belt for ban, (the small 
strap attached to the sheat of b. — ban 
gli s. the part of ban which is fixed into 
handle. — ban nor s. a steel-knife, ban 

nor idk vb. to temper ban, ban nor Idt 
vb. to have temper of ban destroyed, ban 
nor zdn the ban is too highly tempered. 

— ban nyak s. point of k. — ban td-rek 
(a. curse) a worm of a knife, b. t.-r. nun- 
nd-d may you become a worm of a knife. — 
ban dam a. the iron which binds the handle 
of ban. — ban pdk a stump of knife as 
when blade broken. — ban pok s. 1. a 
kind of ban with square top, 2. a species 
of tun-krok; 8. a spec, of pulse tHk-byit 
q. cfr.) 4. a spec, of rice ban pok zo. — 
ban plydn s. the point of ban. — ban fiit 
s. the handle, ban fiit nyan vb. to become 
loose in handle, ban fiit nyur vb. to fix 
the blade into handle, ban fut hyen vb. 
the handle has come off, ban fut hryon 
(knife) to be loose in handle. — ban-fo 
the edge, ban fo ban kin the edge and 
back of knife, ban fo ban hin lorn s. a 
very narrow road (as on edge of pre- 
cipice). — ban blydn s. the flat side of 
ban. — ban ri s. the belt of ban. — ban 
rol s. edge of blade to be worn or rubbed 
away. — ban-Um s. a cut; a wound from 
knife, ban 16m mydl-ld fyet a deep cut, 
■ban lorn, si tdt zdk a shlight cut. — ban 
lyop s. the flat side of a k. — ban ham 
s. the blade (without handle). — ban hur 
s. a crooked b. (used only by women), 
ban hur a-hyam md-nyin-niin-sd nw foolish 
talk, nonsense, (the b. h. has no sheath). 

— ban hor s. the ring which attaches b. 
to belt. — ban hyam a. the sheath, vb. to 
sheathe b. — ban sil-ld sil-ld blunt k., 
ban sil-ld sil-ld ndk vb. to hack with h. 

— ban a-gun an unsheathed ban. 
sun-ban s. a barbed arrow, i. q. tson 

a-gydn-nyim-bo, — sun-ban kun n. pr. of 
a tree, tsdn-ban see tson. 

ban, pun-ban-la on every side, pUn-ban- 
Id tyot vb. to mince, un pUn-ban-ld kor 
to be surrounded on every side by water. 

ban f6 (corr. of aNepalese w.) s. apledge, 
security, ban fo tap vb. to give a pledge; 
ban fo bam vb. to lie in pledge. 

bap 1. vb. t. 1. to knock together" to 
.knock as heads a-fyak, bap head against 

bap— bam 

"bar, a-bar— bf 


anything, to run against anything, to come 
into collision, to chatter (teeth : a-fo hap) 
bap bap vyen to chatter with cold; 2. to 
encounter, to rival, tin bap adverse words. 

bap 2. s. a spec, of fern. 

*bap-lf s. T. 'bab (a descending) the 
descending from the top, hence: 1. the 
skull, the top, Matthew IV. 5. 2. a kind 
of ornamented cloth worn in front of dress. 

bam vb. ]. to remain, to dwell, to he 
at home, go hu U-ka ndn-ba hu md-bam- 
ne I went to his house but he was not 
at home, hii bam nyi he is at home, go 
bam-ld md-bam-ne I shall certainly not 
remain, b.-ka tul-ld din ndn-lun o-ba bam- 
md arise go up to B. and dwell there Gr.; 
bam-siim md-yo-nun don't think of re- 
maining; 2. to live, sd-ba bam-mnin-d 
where is he living (or) where can it be 
to mlem-ka ndk-lun bam-te to whom can 
I look to for support; — 3. to be fixed, 
stationary, permanent; to be certain, md- 
bam-ne not to remain; not to be per- 
manent; md-bam-nun-sd not remaining, 
unstable, impermanent, unenduring, trans- 
ient, bam-sdn md-nyin-ne it is not for a 
permanency;' it is not to remain; bam^sd 
md-nyin-niim-bo a temporary thing, not 
permanent; bam-ld adv. certainly; — 4. 
to he, to exist, bam ka let us be (live, 
remain, dwell etc.), su-ka bam-mun-go 
where can (he or it) be? — 5. vb. aux. 
forms a present durativum, see nan; go pi 
bam I am writing, hu mik-krap bam he 
is sleeping. 

bam-bo s. an inhabitant, a dweller, a 
(present) performer, a doer, lyan-sd bam- 
bo an i. of the place; bu-bam-bo s. a 
carrier; — bam used in s. of a female 
habitant: bam tok 1. vb. to grind a woman 
2. s. a lascivious w., bam-tydl s. a con- 
cubine, b. ty. mat vb. to live in concubin- 
age, to cohabit. 

II. s. residence, home Tbr i. q. li, a- 
bam s. a dwelling; — bam-lyan s. a dwell- 
ing-place, an abode, place of residence 
of man or beast, b. I. md-nyin-ne no place 
of abode. 

niim-bam, num-bam-nyo, bam-nyo ex- 
pletive to num-sim-nyo see under si. 

caus. byam to cause to place, byam fo 
vb. to deposit, to situate, to locate, to 
lodge, m.d-r6 lyan-kd byam to to colonize 
a country. 

*bar, a-bar T. bar s. the middle of any- 
thing, the half, a-bar-ka mak to die while 
still young; a-bar a-ndn-ka mak md-kon- 
nun let us not die in the prime of life; 
Id-vo bar-non the month is half gone, the 
moon is half; 16m bar-ka on the journey, 
lom bar the middle of road; bar tet blydn 
half full; nam bar-ka fi to have reached 
half the year; lyan bar-sd pd-no the king 
who rules the space between this and the 
world beyond. — tun-bar s. id. pd-tin tixn- 
bar the middle of stick; Ayok tiin-bar the 
middle of the work; Urn tiin-bar i., q. lom 
bar; md-zH tiin-bar the middle of the body, 
the waist; rin tun-bar li-ban non having 
said half he had to say, he went away. 

bal 1. vb. to repeat, to make repetition, 
to reduplicate, to recur, bal-li/n zuk vb. 
to remake, to do over again, bal-Un li 
vb. to repeat; bal-lUn lom vb. to peram- 
bulate, to walk to and fro, to make trips; 
lot bal to return, to repeat, I6t bal-ld mat 
to do over and over again; — baLbal or 
bal-ld repeatedly, often, over and over 
again; — pd-bal-ld continuously. — a-bal 
s. a trip, a going and coming back, bal- 
16m s. id. — bydl caus. 1. to cause to 
go and return, to make a trip; 2. to bend, 
to slope down; to hang, down slopingly, 
hence to be weak, infirm. 

bal 2 see kHm-bal. 

bal-la i. q. ba-ld fully open (flower) P. 

bf 1, a-bf s. a place, i. q. lyan the very 
place, darbi s. the sleeping pi. ; — din-bi 
s. the standing pi.; — lo-bi s. place of 
repository. — ton-bi s. place where feet 
are placed; — 2. advly. postp. nplace" 
„ direction", more def. than ba q. v. see 
a, 0, sd; correl. to sd-bi; h6 sd-bi non-bi, 
go Id n6n-so giim where you go,. there will 
I also go. — after verbs it expresses: 
wher-e i. q. sd-bi, h6 mak-bi go Id mak- 




so-gwn where you die, there will I die 
also. — 3. postp. after nouns i. q. -ka in, 
to, li-bi i. q. li-ka in or to the house, td- 
bdk-bi md-non-ne or td-hdk-ka md-non-ne 
it has not entered the stomach; a-lut-bi 
cin md-nyin-ne cannot conceiye. 

bf 2, bfn (to give) see under byi, byin. 
bf 3, a-bf s. a yegetable, an edible herb, 
see cdk-lt bi, kd-nol bi etc.; tam-bi id., 
U-nar vb. to cut vegetables into slices. 
— bijiik young and tender shoots or 
edible herbs or any such plant; bi fon 
s. greens; bi burn s. cabbage; bi hd s. 
simple vegetables; — sometimes used in 
sense of (a-')myet (q. v.) hik bi sot vb. to 
kill a fowl (for accompagnement to rice) 
for food. 

bf 4. s. a spec, of grass bi p6n. 

bf 5. s. edge, border, the border or 
edging of cloth, dum bi i. q. dum-kiii; 
tsom bi the end -twist of hair -tail; lyan 
bi the utmost limits of a place; expletive 
to cu: cu bi the snowy mountains. 

bf 6. vb. n. to run to seed, a plant to 
be large, coarse and stringy, bi bi-non 
to become old and uneatable, pd-rok 
bi-ndn the bamboo has become old 
and coarse (so as not to be able to be 

bf 7 s. complaint, accusation, imputation, 
impeachment, tell-tale, bi mat vb. to 
lodge a complaint, to accuse, bi tso vb. 
to investigate a complaint, bi ts6k-bo a. 
a defendant; bi so-bo s. an accuser, bi 
kydp-bo a. id.; bi so-bo-sd a-li zat-n6n-so 
the tongue of the tell-tale shall be split. 

bi bo s. whistling thro' fingers, bi bo 
mdt vb. to whistle thro' fingers. 

bf-ro s. the tomate-plant, Solanum lyco- 
persicum, bi-ro pot a loveapple. 

bi-r(5 s. a pipe a roll of tobacco, a cigar, 
cheroot, a tobacco tube for holding t. 
while smoking; any cylindrical or conical 
tube or holder; bi-rd fan to smoke. 

bf-lo (see ga() s. a fee, a tax on merchant, 

bfk 1. split open, burst open; vb. to 
divide, to sunder, disconnect. tHk-byit 

pi bik-ndn the peapods are split. — pd- 
bik adj. bursting forth, splitting out. 

bik 2. (fr. bik 1. to burst?) tam-bik a. 
an insect (creeping or flying), fam-bik 
pd-no a. king of insects: hornet see tik, 
1. tik-mi Vespa crabro. — hik s.. a spec, 
of small scorpion, diff. from dik-bo ra-dsa. 

— ritp-ci bik a. a spec, of beetle. 

bik 3. s. a cow, krm-bik a cow of the 
plains or Nepalese cow, nyo bik a L. 
cow, nam-fa bik a Gorkha cow, pd-gu 
bik a large spec, of cow, sd-tstck bik a 
wild cow, yok bik the yak; — bik md vb. 
to call cow; — Comp. bik kHp a. a calf; 

— bik kHr-tyu s. the dewlap of cow; — 
bik gu a. a full grown cow that has 
born young; bik gu nyen lat gdn bik kup 
nyen lat if the breed be good, the off- 
spring will be good; — bik ndk-bo a. a 
cowherd; — bik nyen a. a cow's udder; 
bik nyen- bo a quiet cow; bik nyen tser 
z6n-bo a good milker, bik nyen tser a-jen 
a bad milker; — bik tUt and bik tiin-gren 
a. a cow's hoof; — bik fun a. a cow's 
hide; — bik dor a. a spec, of mushroom 
(edible); — bik pO, a. a calf; — bik p6t or 
bik nyen p6t a. the teats of udder; — bik 
fyam a. the hump of cow or ox; — bik 
bit a. a bull; — bik hyon a. a cow's house; 

— bik bro-bo s. a cowherd; — bik mik a. 
a cow's eye, a bull's eye : spec, of Aga- 
ricus (not edible), it comes on a partially 
burnt tree that has been felled together 
with cim-pa pot; — bik mot a. a cow; — 
bik mlem angry looking; — bik rdn-bo a. 
a cowherd; — bik I6n a. a bull; Uk Ion 
cun a steer; bik Un bop a. an ox; — bik 
l6n-bo a. a cowherd; — Uk lyen a. a heifer; 

— bik san a. a barren cow; — bik dyit 
a. cowdung; bik dyit muk a. n. of plant, 
used as vegetable bik dyit bi; bik dyit 
dor a. spec, of Agaricus (edible). 

bin s. a ravine, a deep water, difficulty, 
trouble, danger, biH-ka tsut vb. to fall 
into difficulty. — pUn-bin-ld narrow, 
applied to door, river, or any hollow. whip, to beat, to scourge,.pM<-to 
s. switching, pHt-bit-ld lyUp vb. to switch. 

bfn— bu 

*bu 3. a-bu— bu4, bu-n, bu-n-bo 257 

bfn (see'bydn') vb. t. 1. to follow closely, 
to be attached to, to be in connection 
with, to be affixed, to be annexed, bin 
ryak to follow (as a dog); — bin-bo s. an 
assistant etc., myok bin-bo attendant of 
bridegroom, nydrn bin-bo bride-maid. — 
pim-bin-ld adv. closely, p.-b.-la ryak to 
follow closely. — 2. to stick in throat 
partially (as a mass of food not bone) 
to be almost choked, a-zdm sd-grek-ka bin 
food to nearly choke or a-nytim bin to 
smother the voice (food). 

bfm s. the sound of flute, flageolet, 
melody of ditto. — bim pd-yul (see tiik- 
fyer fo) s. n. of a bird, so called from 
its cry, the "brain-fever bird" of Euro- 
peans in India" Hierococcyx varius M., 
W. R. i!07; nUm-bim pd-yul ace. W. 
„nimbin-pi-yul^'' Hierococcyx sparveroides 
W., E. 207., Jc. 331. 

*bir T. 'ber s. a black composition, used 
for ornaments, bir-bo-U s. an earring formed 
from bir and so called, bir lyak s. a neck- 
lace of bir. 

-bu 1., a-ba see -mot M. Gr. 24, and 
Brandreth JAS. N. S. 10. 1878(11) 1. male 
sex of animals: hik-bu a cock; etc., — 
2 a coin, (fine gold). See also jer-bii, 

bu 2 T. 'bu s. a reptile, a worm; ca- 
terpillar, leech, kin bH s. cloth-worm; td- 
gri bu (Jen) Scolopendra genus; td-hryak 
bii (see hryak) Myriapoda-genus; tuk-sol 
bu, up-su/i bii species of intestinal worms; 
dar bii Calandra-genus; frek bii a supposed 
Acarus, causing itching in the feet; fo bit 
tooth- worm Caries; hyap bii weevil genus 
Curculio; — a snake pd-gret bii, pd-fdn 
bii pd-mdl bii etc. spec, of snakes ; bii tHk- 
tok ran to extend hood as cobra de ca- 
pello; bii zdn "like a snake": travelling 
withoutiaw or anything.— running stream, 
river see nyo-biX; miir-nyo-bii. See M. 
Gr. 139. 

Comp. ba kryu s. the slough of snake, 
exuviae, cast skin. — bUnam s.the serpent, 
year T. sbrul lo M. 141. — bii U s. n. of 
vegetable. Beta vulgaris. 

Deriv. fam-bH s. a reptile, any creep- 
ing creature, fam-bUfain-bik or fam-bH fam- 
cdn T. 'gro-ba, Skt. satva, creatures P. 

*bu, 3. a-bu T. dbu (see also u) s. the 
superior, the upper part of anything, the 
first beginning of an undertaking, bii nyot 
a first reclamation of land for cultivation, 
an embryo-cultivation, nam bii a new year, 
an epoch, an era; lUn-tok bu the upper 

bu 4, bu-n, bu-n-bo part,, (deriv. bUni) 
I 1. vb. to bear, to carry, to convey, a- 
kd-ka pd-tun bii your staff in yourhandEx.; 
— 2. to bear clothes, ornaments etc. sa- 
kon bit vb. to bear earrings; — 3. to be 
with child, to be pregnant: a-kiip-bii; 4. 
to possess and carry on person (as eye, 
ear, nose) to append to, a-nyor bu. vb. to 
possess ears; a-nyom fik bu leaves to 
commence to bud forth, a-p6t bii to bear 
fruit; a-bryan bii to be called, J. ydii 
bryan biin-bo by name J. — 5. met. to 
suffer, to endure biin Ihl to be able to 
endure; a-p6t bii vb. to bear the conse- 
quences; on-ci a-tet bii fat ik-da biin md- 
Mn-ne I endured so much oppression, I 
cannot bear it longer; dH bH vb. to suffer 
illness; dUk bH vb. to suffer trouble, to 
be in difficulty; — 6. to carry on any 
undertaking, to proceed with, to continue 
(a work), to pursue (a task etc.) a-lHt-ka 
tin-lvok bit or no bii. vb. to bear malice; 
a-iat-ka bit vb. to bear in the breast; 
to take* oath: ryak-bH; 

biin-bo s. a carrier, a-pot biin-bo bearing 
fruit, bit/i-siim-bo s. a thing for carrying, 
conveyance, vehicle, basket. 

II. ba s. a burden, a load, a weight; 
baggage, luggage, freight, cargo, lading, 
bii biin-bo s. a porter, a carrier of loads; 
kun-on bii a cart-load; nd-var-sd bii a 
ship-load, a cargo; bii-witn bU-ldt s. 1. a 
cargo, ins. of weight: adjly. hard, grievous, 
painful, sore, woeful, severe bH hrim 
grievous, severe punishment. 

a-bitn s. carrying, conveyance, vehicle, 
a-bUn pldn-ka non vb. to travel on any 
conveyance (as in a palkee). a-bUn-lyan 



bu— bu Idk 

buk— bul 

s.the p]ace for carrying on (as the back); a- 
btin sa-lom zuk-sdn-go how will you carry it. 

tam-biin s. a burden, a load, anything 

bum 1. said to infants: bum bum: go 
bum bu-so I will carry you, bUm bum mat 
or b.-b.-ka di we will go forth, let us go, 
let us carry you out; 2. vb. n. to bud 
forth, zo fd-fru-ld bum grain to bud forth 
fruitfully; — 3. s. an inchoation, an open- 
ing, abeginning, a-bum s. abud, pregnancy 
rip-bum 1. s. a bud of flowers. 2. vb. 
flowers to bud; bum nan vb. n. to be in 
bud; zo bum s. a budding-ear of corn; 
som bum s. the breath; a-mlem bum s. a 
chub-cheeked rosy face (rose-bud face); 
a-bum-ka mak vb. to die while pregnant. 

Comp. verbs (c. bu) bu ka vb. to lade 
as a bullock; — bu-kap vb. to cover over 
burden with anything so as to protect it 
from rain or snow; — bu fif vb. to bring 
to hand, to arrive with; — bu dan vb. 
to run with, to proceed with, to cause to 
proceed, on bu dan to speed on a horse, 
nd-var bii dan to navigate a boat; — bii 
da vb. to lie with, upon, to lay, nan bu 
da to press down, upon; — bu di vb. to 
bring, to fetch, to carry; — bu din vb. 
to take up, to raise up; — bu noh vb. 1. 
to proceed on, to continue, to carry on, 
to go along, to maintain, to retain, 2. 
to take away, to remove, to transpose, 
nd-var bu ndh continue the sailing of the 
boat, pi bu noh go on with the writing, 
biji no imp. 1. take away, 2. proceed, con- 
tinue; — bO, fyol vb. to unlade, to take 
off load; - bUyii vb. to bring down; — 
ba lam vb. to fly away with P; — &m lat 
vb. to bring from any deflnite distance; 
bu luk vb. to raise, to get up with, to 
rise, bii luk dan vb. to rise and run, to 
rush along; — bu lorn vb. to walk away 
with; bii hrdh vb. to bring up, to fetch 
up, bu ot vb. to unloose load. 

bu, 5 pur-bu i. q. pur-bat ill-tempered. 

bu Idks. excessive expenditure, bulokmat 
vb. to squander, to waste to lavish,to dis- 
sipate, b. I. mat-bo a prodigal, spendthrift. 

buk 1. vb. t. to beat, to strike, to hit, 
to knack, to thumb, to stripe, to pound, 
appl. also to clearing of jungle biik Mm, 
to give a beating in return; bUk-luh sot 
to beat to death; zo buk to pound graia 
por buk to print. — 2. s. a blow, a thump, 
a beating, buk-mat to strike, to beat. — 
bak-set s. see tih-s6. 

but 1. yeast, ferment; fermentation, a 
sort of malt made from rice used as a 
ferment for the spirit cl; Ku bUt md-fap- 
num-bo adj. unleavened bread Ex ; — 
biU-bo leaven, ferment, po biit s. the sa- 
licious particles that are carried up in 
the interior of bamboo with it's growth. 
— 2. granulation, pulverization, a-fo bvt- 
ndn the tooth is decayed. — 3. the insect 
that eats and causes the destruction, bUt- 
pd-lt/dn; co but-niin fa-non the book is 
wormeaten. — bUt-td biit-td finely pulver- 
ized, b. td b.-td dyam to be ground to au 
unpalatable powder. — 4. vb. n. to go to 
sleep as foot, as limb, when temporally 
benumbed a-fon bUt-non my foot is asleep. 

bun, 1. bun bun sprinkling as of rain, 
powder etc., see alsorfww diin;sob. b.yu, vb. 
to drizzle; td-i b. b.fyotvh. to spriukleflour. 

bun, 2 fam bun*mo or fam-bUn ter-mo 
(fr. bun 1.?) s. pudendum maris vel fe- 
minae Tbr. 

bun 3. see bii. 

bup-&e i. q. bdk-ce. 

bum 1. see kd-bum. bum pd-jd to sit 
with arms folded resting or hams, kd-j6m 
kd-ti kd-bUm folding hands and arms to- 
gether as in supplication. 

bum see under bH 4. 

bum a-bum s. hectic flash mkm, bum. 

'^bur-dun T. bar-gdun? 1. the passions, 
the feelings, desire, a-Mt-sd biir-diih s. 
the passions -of heart, a-lHt-sd bUr-diin- 
niin to keep in subjection the passions 
of the heart, a-l.-sd b. d. ton to give reins 
to the passions; — 2. affliction, bUr-dBn 
mat to drive out by fire, as fox out of 
hole, people out of house. 

bul 1. 8. dandriff, scurf of head a-fyak- 
ka bill pld, 2. vb. n. scurf to rise. 

bill— buk 



bul bid-Id hdl-ld diligent, speady, quick 
bul-ld hdl-ld dyok zuk vb. to work dili- 
gently, b.-ld h.-ld nO'O gram lot di go and 
return expeditiously. 

bul-fo s. species of dove, bronze-winged 
dove, Chalcophaps Indica. 

-bu for -bo the agentive, ddk-bo i. q. 
ddk-bo etc. 

bu 1. bu-m vb. n. 1. to burst, (as vessel 
pd-tek) to crack, to split, to spring, to 
crackle (as fire, jungle muk fan-ba when 
burning) applied to earth when bad 
(sandy) fat bu, 2. vb. to bellow, to roar 
(as cannon, thunder), to detonate, 3. adj. 
dry, cracked, bad (earth) fat bu, bad 
fissured earth, Idn bu rotten stone, tri- 
poli, kun bu-non for tree to crack. — pd- 
bu-ld bloated as countenance a-mlem pd- 
bu-ld. — bum bursting forth (noise); — 
bum 61 s. eructation, vb. to eructate, b. 
61 mat vb. to eructate; bum md-dl-lun 
do not belch. — Cans, byu to cause to 
burst to crack or spring, Idn byu to spring 
a mine, td-lu byu said of mats which 
crack while thrashing corn. 

bu 2, a-bu 1. s. the lungs, bu Jiak vb. 
to puff, to blow, to pant excessively; 
2. white of eye, mik-bu, m.-b. lyiip the 
white of eye to appear and disappear; 
to die Tbr." 

bu gdk T. Ibu- pron. by L.'s generally 
bo gok q. v. (foam). 

bu-jal-li pa-yuk or ban s. a kind of ban. 

bu sa-gan (for bu sd-gan) s. "a thick 
serpent" membrum virile Tbr. 

buk 1., a-buk s. the back, the wrong side 
of anything, the worse (in contradist. to 
mik), the reverse, the bad, dishonorable 
part of anything, the left, the sinister, 
the unclean, the refuse, pd-li buk the in- 
side, the soft useless part of split cane, 
md-ro-sd a-buk s. the refuse of man, rin 
buk 1. the wrong side of a question, 2. 
useless vain speech. 

buk 1 s. 1. yam Hooker I, 359, H. H. 
Eisley, Tribes 2, 12. applied to the genus 
Dioscorea, to all specc. of yam also to 
the potatoe on its introduction into Dor- 

jiling: pi-liii-mo btik Solauum tubei'osum. 
There are many species of buk: sd-on 
buk, sd-du buk, fo kiip buk; the following 
specc. are considered good: pd-dum, pd- 
glin, pd-run, pd-z6k, puk-pum, hik-byen, 
sd-pum; the f. are miev'mx: pd-ki, pd-zdt, 
buk-jen pd-nyar, pd-kvp, sd-li, kd-sok ka- 
a), tun-glu, mvn-g6r pd-ri, sun-gol; 2. 
Quercus lamellosa Wtt. Q. 52; — buk-mo 
s. the downward root of tuber, the tuber 
in contradistinction to buk-kup s. the 
horizontal, tubercular shoots from the b.- 
mo the radicle tuber; buk nyet s. the 
juncture of the stem-root, a tuber; buk 
td-i a-kom zuk vb. to mash potatoes; buk 
tuk-brok s. the potatoe apple which grows 
on potatoe-stalk, the seed -fruit of buk; 
buk fit 8. a small tubercule from the 
radical tuber; buk pap vb. to cut potatoes 
so as to make them shoot and spread; 
bukpum s. the epigeal or hypogeal fibrous 
roots of buk; buk fu vb. to divide the 
stem-root so that the tuber sprouts anew 
near buk pum, buk fum s. a tuber grown 
as above; buk miin-gor s. a kind of sweet 
potatoe also called buk klyam; buk mvt 
s. the potatoe-bulb, which is eaten with- 
out the buk rik: the stalk, a yam-tuber- 
bulb; buk tsdk vb. to erect a stake for 
the buk- creeper, buk tsdk pok tii to faint 
away, to fall insensible (a superstition 
that if the stake falls or is blown down 
the erector also suffers and falls insens- 
ible. The same is said with respect the 
kur-don and some other plants;) buk zol